keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Tractability

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535384/invertebrate-biomechanics
#1
S N Patek, A P Summers
Invertebrate biomechanics focuses on mechanical analyses of non-vertebrate animals, which at root is no different in aim and technique from vertebrate biomechanics, or for that matter the biomechanics of plants and fungi. But invertebrates are special - they are fabulously diverse in form, habitat, and ecology and manage this without the use of hard, internal skeletons. They are also numerous and, in many cases, tractable in an experimental and field setting. In this Primer, we will probe three axes of invertebrate diversity: worms (Phylum Annelida), spiders (Class Arachnida) and insects (Class Insecta); three habitats: subterranean, terrestrial and airborne; and three integrations with other fields: ecology, engineering and evolution...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535370/epithelial-patterning-morphogenesis-and-evolution-drosophila-eggshell-as-a-model
#2
REVIEW
Miriam Osterfield, Celeste A Berg, Stanislav Y Shvartsman
Understanding the mechanisms driving tissue and organ formation requires knowledge across scales. How do signaling pathways specify distinct tissue types? How does the patterning system control morphogenesis? How do these processes evolve? The Drosophila egg chamber, where EGF and BMP signaling intersect to specify unique cell types that construct epithelial tubes for specialized eggshell structures, has provided a tractable system to ask these questions. Work there has elucidated connections between scales of development, including across evolutionary scales, and fostered the development of quantitative modeling tools...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534773/sparsity-based-color-image-super-resolution-via-exploiting-cross-channel-constraints
#3
Hojjat Mousavi, Vishal Monga
Sparsity constrained single image super-resolution (SR) has been of much recent interest. A typical approach involves sparsely representing patches in a low-resolution (LR) input image via a dictionary of example LR patches, and then using the coefficients of this representation to generate the highresolution (HR) output via an analogous HR dictionary. However, most existing sparse representation methods for super resolution focus on the luminance channel information and do not capture interactions between color channels...
May 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534772/discriminative-transformation-for-multi-dimensional-temporal-sequences
#4
Bing Su, Xiaoqing Ding, Changsong Liu, Hao Wang, Ying Wu
Feature space transformation (FST) techniques have been widely studied for dimensionality reduction in vector-based feature space. However, these techniques are inapplicable to sequence data because the features in the same sequence are not independent. In this paper, we propose a method called max-min inter-sequence distance analysis (MMSDA) to transform features in sequences into a low-dimensional subspace such that different sequence classes are holistically separated. To utilize the temporal dependencies, MMSDA first aligns features in sequences from the same class to an adapted number of temporal states and then constructs the sequence class separability based on the statistics of these ordered states...
May 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533691/microbiome-disruption-and-recovery-in-the-fish-gambusia-affinis-following-exposure-to-broad-spectrum-antibiotic
#5
Jeanette M Carlson, Annie B Leonard, Embriette R Hyde, Joseph F Petrosino, Todd P Primm
Antibiotics are a relatively common disturbance to the normal microbiota of humans and agricultural animals, sometimes resulting in severe side effects such as antibiotic-associated enterocolitis. Gambusia affinis was used as a vertebrate model for effects of a broad-spectrum antibiotic, rifampicin, on the skin and gut mucosal microbiomes. The fish were exposed to the antibiotic in the water column for 1 week, and then monitored during recovery. As observed via culture, viable counts from the skin microbiome dropped strongly yet returned to pretreatment levels by 1...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530269/a-critical-comparison-of-coarse-grained-structure-based-approaches-and-atomic-models-of-protein-folding
#6
Jie Hu, Tao Chen, Moye Wang, Hue Sun Chan, Zhuqing Zhang
Structure-based coarse-grained Gō-like models have been used extensively in deciphering protein folding mechanisms because of their simplicity and tractability. Meanwhile, explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with physics-based all-atom force fields have been applied successfully to simulate folding/unfolding transitions for several small, fast-folding proteins. To explore the degree to which coarse-grained Gō-like models and their extensions to incorporate nonnative interactions are capable of producing folding processes similar to those in all-atom MD simulations, here we systematically compare the computed unfolded states, transition states, and transition paths obtained using coarse-grained models and all-atom explicit-solvent MD simulations...
May 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527377/fishing-for-leadership-the-role-diversification-plays-in-facilitating-change-agents
#7
Joshua S Stoll
Leadership is often viewed as being critical to successful natural resource management. This research focuses on a set of leaders identified through a social network analysis of fishers in a rural coastal region. Leaders' connections to different fisheries are evaluated, and these actors are found to be significantly more diversified than other fishers in the area. Drawing on theory related to institutional entrepreneurship and a series of in-depth interviews with these actors, this paper puts forward several hypotheses to explain how diverse social-ecological connections facilitate leadership...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527179/making-time-conservation-of-biological-clocks-from-fungi-to-animals
#8
Jay C Dunlap, Jennifer J Loros
The capacity for biological timekeeping arose at least three times through evolution, in prokaryotic cyanobacteria, in cells that evolved into higher plants, and within the group of organisms that eventually became the fungi and the animals. Neurospora is a tractable model system for understanding the molecular bases of circadian rhythms in the last of these groups, and is perhaps the most intensively studied circadian cell type. Rhythmic processes described in fungi include growth rate, stress responses, developmental capacity, and sporulation, as well as much of metabolism; fungi use clocks to anticipate daily environmental changes...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523559/techniques-for-single-molecule-mrna-imaging-in-living-cells
#9
Kevin Czaplinski
Typical measurement of macromolecules in a biological sample typically averages the result over all the cells or molecules within the sample, and while these types of measurements provide very useful information, they completely miss heterogeneity among the components within the sample that could be a very important aspect of the sample's function. These techniques are also limited in their ability to examine intracellular spatial orientation of molecular activity, which is often a critical component to the regulation of biological processes, particularly in cells with unique spatial relationships, such as neurons...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521939/developmental-and-evolutionary-mechanisms-shaping-butterfly-eyespots
#10
REVIEW
Patrícia Beldade, Carolina M Peralta
Butterfly eyespots are visually compelling models to study the reciprocal interactions between evolutionary and developmental processes that shape phenotypic variation. They are evolutionarily diversified, ecologically relevant, and developmentally tractable, and have made key contributions to linking genotype, development, phenotype and fitness. Advances in the availability of analytical tools (e.g. gene editing and visualization techniques) and resources (e.g. genomic and transcriptomic data) are boosting the detailed dissection of the mechanisms underlying eyespot development and evolution...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518116/the-wincf-model-an-inexpensive-and-tractable-microcosm-of-a-mucus-plugged-bronchiole-to-study-the-microbiology-of-lung-infections
#11
William J Comstock, Edwin Huh, Reiley Weekes, Connor Watson, Tianyang Xu, Pieter C Dorrestein, Robert A Quinn
Many chronic airway diseases result in mucus plugging of the airways. Lungs of an individual with cystic fibrosis are an exemplary case where their mucus-plugged bronchioles create a favorable habitat for microbial colonization. Various pathogens thrive in this environment interacting with each other and driving many of the symptoms associated with CF disease. Like any microbial community, the chemical conditions of their habitat have a significant impact on the community structure and dynamics. For example, different microorganisms thrive in differing levels of oxygen or other solute concentrations...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514438/conversion-of-adult-endothelium-to-immunocompetent-haematopoietic-stem-cells
#12
Raphael Lis, Charles C Karrasch, Michael G Poulos, Balvir Kunar, David Redmond, Jose G Barcia Duran, Chaitanya R Badwe, William Schachterle, Michael Ginsberg, Jenny Xiang, Arash Rafii Tabrizi, Koji Shido, Zev Rosenwaks, Olivier Elemento, Nancy A Speck, Jason M Butler, Joseph M Scandura, Shahin Rafii
Developmental pathways that orchestrate the fleeting transition of endothelial cells into haematopoietic stem cells remain undefined. Here we demonstrate a tractable approach for fully reprogramming adult mouse endothelial cells to haematopoietic stem cells (rEC-HSCs) through transient expression of the transcription-factor-encoding genes Fosb, Gfi1, Runx1, and Spi1 (collectively denoted hereafter as FGRS) and vascular-niche-derived angiocrine factors. The induction phase (days 0-8) of conversion is initiated by expression of FGRS in mature endothelial cells, which results in endogenous Runx1 expression...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514167/quantum-dot-peptide-fullerene-bioconjugates-for-visualization-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-cellular-membrane-potential
#13
Okhil Kumar Nag, Michael H Stewart, Jeffrey R Deschamps, Kimihiro Susumu, Eunkeu Oh, Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Qinggong Tang, Alexander L Efros, Roman Vaxenburg, Bryan J Black, Yungchia Chen, Thomas J O'Shaughnessy, Stella H North, Lauren D Field, Philip E Dawson, Joseph J Pancrazio, Igor L Medintz, Yu Chen, Reha S Erzurumlu, Alan L Huston, James B Delehanty
We report the development of a quantum dot (QD)-peptide-fullerene (C60) electron transfer (ET)-based nanobioconjugate for the visualization of membrane potential in living cells. The bioconjugate is comprised of (1) a central QD electron donor, (2) a membrane-inserting peptidyl linker, and (3) a C60 electron acceptor. The photoexcited QD donor engages in ET with the C60 acceptor resulting in quenching of QD photoluminescence (PL) that tracks positively with the number of C60 moieties arrayed around the QD. The nature of the QD-capping ligand also modulates the quenching efficiency; a neutral ligand coating facilitates greater QD quenching than a negatively charged carboxylated ligand...
May 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510653/chronic-corticosterone-treatment-during-adolescence-has-significant-effects-on-metabolism-and-skeletal-development-in-male-c57bl6-n-mice
#14
Scott A Kinlein, Ziasmin Shahanoor, Russell D Romeo, Ilia N Karatsoreos
Glucocorticoids are potent modulators of metabolic and behavioral function. Their role as mediators in the "stress response" is well known, but arguably their primary physiological function is in the regulation of cellular and organismal metabolism. Disruption of normal glucocorticoid function is linked to metabolic disease, such as Cushing's syndrome. Glucocorticoids are also elevated in many forms of obesity, suggesting that there are bidirectional effects of these potent hormones on metabolism and metabolic function...
May 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502793/salt-mediated-oligomerization-of-the-mouse-prion-protein-monitored-by-real-time-nmr
#15
Ishita Sengupta, Suhas H Bhate, Ranabir Das, Jayant B Udgaonkar
The prion protein forms ß-rich soluble oligomers in vitro at pH4 in the presence of physiological concentrations of salt. In the absence of salt, oligomerization and misfolding does not take place in an experimentally tractable timescale. While it is well established that a lowering of pH facilitates misfolding and oligomerization of this protein, the role of salt remains poorly understood. Here, solution-state NMR was used to probe perturbations in the monomeric mouse prion protein moPrP) structure immediately upon salt-addition, prior to the commencement of the oligomerization reaction...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502662/-what-not-detectors-help-the-brain-see-in-depth
#16
Nuno R Goncalves, Andrew E Welchman
Binocular stereopsis is one of the primary cues for three-dimensional (3D) vision in species ranging from insects to primates. Understanding how the brain extracts depth from two different retinal images represents a tractable challenge in sensory neuroscience that has so far evaded full explanation. Central to current thinking is the idea that the brain needs to identify matching features in the two retinal images (i.e., solving the "stereoscopic correspondence problem") so that the depth of objects in the world can be triangulated...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500009/end-to-end-feature-aware-label-space-encoding-for-multilabel-classification-with-many-classes
#17
Zijia Lin, Guiguang Ding, Jungong Han, Ling Shao
To make the problem of multilabel classification with many classes more tractable, in recent years, academia has seen efforts devoted to performing label space dimension reduction (LSDR). Specifically, LSDR encodes high-dimensional label vectors into low-dimensional code vectors lying in a latent space, so as to train predictive models at much lower costs. With respect to the prediction, it performs classification for any unseen instance by recovering a label vector from its predicted code vector via a decoding process...
May 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498102/chimeric-origins-of-ochrophytes-and-haptophytes-revealed-through-an-ancient-plastid-proteome
#18
Richard G Dorrell, Gillian Gile, Giselle McCallum, Raphaël Méheust, Eric P Bapteste, Christen M Klinger, Loraine Brillet-Guéguen, Katalina D Freeman, Daniel J Richter, Chris Bowler
Plastids are supported by a wide range of proteins encoded within the nucleus and imported from the cytoplasm. These plastid-targeted proteins may originate from the endosymbiont, the host, or other sources entirely. Here, we identify and characterise 770 plastid-targeted proteins that are conserved across the ochrophytes, a major group of algae including diatoms, pelagophytes and kelps, that possess plastids derived from red algae. We show that the ancestral ochrophyte plastid proteome was an evolutionary chimera, with 25% of its phylogenetically tractable proteins deriving from green algae...
May 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496109/the-quantum-zeno-and-anti-zeno-effects-with-strong-system-environment-coupling
#19
Adam Zaman Chaudhry
To date, studies of the quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects focus on quantum systems that are weakly interacting with their environment. In this paper, we investigate what happens to a quantum system under the action of repeated measurements if the quantum system is strongly interacting with its environment. We consider as the quantum system a single two-level system coupled strongly to a collection of harmonic oscillators. A so-called polaron transformation is then used to make the problem in the strong system-environment coupling regime tractable...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495960/inferring-the-joint-demographic-history-of-multiple-populations-beyond-the-diffusion-approximation
#20
Julien Jouganous, Will Long, Aaron P Ragsdale, Simon Gravel
Understanding variation in allele frequencies across populations is a central goal of population genetics. Classical models for the distribution of allele frequencies, using forward simulation, coalescent theory, or the diffusion approximation, have been applied extensively for demographic inference, medical study design, and evolutionary studies. Here we propose a tractable model of ordinary differential equations for the evolution of allele frequencies that is closely related to the diffusion approximation but avoids many of its limitations and approximations...
May 11, 2017: Genetics
keyword
keyword
114228
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"