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pneumonia ventilator newborns

A R Araujo da Silva, W Zingg, A Dramowski, J A Bielicki, M Sharland
International infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines provide standardized recommendations for healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) prevention in adults, but often lack specific information about neonates and children. We reviewed ten international IPC/HCAI guidelines to identify paediatric-specific recommendations for HCAI prevention. Hand hygiene, bloodstream infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, environmental control and outbreak management were frequently reported with recommendations applicable to children and newborns, but documents on catheter-associated urinary tract infection and surgical site infection were lacking...
October 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Javier Rodríguez-Fanjul, Carla Balcells, Victoria Aldecoa-Bilbao, Julio Moreno, Martín Iriondo
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of neonatal respiratory distress may be difficult to estimate at admission. Lung ultrasound is a useful diagnostic tool that is quick, requires little training, and is radiation free. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze whether early lung ultrasound can predict respiratory failure. METHODS: From January to December 2014, lung ultrasound was performed on neonates admitted with breathing difficulties if they were older than 32 weeks and not intubated...
2016: Neonatology
Shoichiro Tanaka, Sachiko Iwata, Masahiro Kinoshita, Kennosuke Tsuda, Sayaka Sakai, Mamoru Saikusa, Ryota Shindo, Eimei Harada, Junichiro Okada, Tadashi Hisano, Hiroshi Kanda, Yasuki Maeno, Yuko Araki, Kazuo Ushijima, Teruo Sakamoto, Yushiro Yamashita, Osuke Iwata
Adult patients frequently suffer from serious respiratory complications during therapeutic hypothermia. During therapeutic hypothermia, respiratory gases are humidified close to saturated vapor at 37°C (44 mg/L) despite that saturated vapor reduces considerably depending on temperature reduction. Condensation may cause serious adverse events, such as bronchial edema, mucosal dysfunction, and ventilator-associated pneumonia during cooling. To determine clinical variables associated with inadequate humidification of respiratory gases during cooling, humidity of inspiratory gases was measured in 42 cumulative newborn infants who underwent therapeutic hypothermia...
May 11, 2016: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
M Piastra, A Tempera, E Luca, E Buffone, C Cafforio, V Briganti, O Genovese, M Marano, D Rigante
Streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis has high morbidity, particularly if complicated by renal injury. Four patients with S. pneumonia invasive infections complicated by renal disorders are presented. The first case was an 18-month-old girl with pneumococcal empyema complicated by haemolytic uraemic (HUS) syndrome. She made a full recovery after mechanical ventilation, inotropic support and haemodiafiltration. The second was a 4-year-old boy who presented with acute post-infectious glomerulonephritis associated with bilateral pneumococcal pneumonia...
January 29, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Kristen Kelley, Kristen O'Dillon Goerg, Jessica Rhinehart-Ventura, Catherine Eppes, Haleh Sangi-Haghpeykar, Christina Davidson
OBJECTIVES: To assess short-term neonatal respiratory morbidity from inductions of labor (IOL) in well-dated (WD) pregnancies (dating ultrasound [US] <20 0/7 weeks) versus non-well-dated (NWD) pregnancies when applying National Institutes of Health/Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine/American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists delivery recommendations at ≥34 0/7 weeks. METHODS: Ours was a 1-year retrospective cohort of women with medically indicated IOL between 34 0/7 and 40 6/7 weeks with a live, cephalic, singleton gestation and no lethal anomaly...
March 2016: Southern Medical Journal
Zhengli Wang, Qingqing Xiang, Ting Yang, Luquan Li, Jingli Yang, Hongong Li, Yu He, Yunhui Zhang, Qi Lu, Jialin Yu
Streptococcus mitis (S. mitis) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) are typically found in the upper respiratory tract of infants. We previously found that P. aeruginosa and S. mitis were two of the most common bacteria in biofilms on newborns' endotracheal tubes (ETTs) and in their sputa and that S. mitis was able to produce autoinducer-2 (AI-2), whereas P. aeruginosa was not. Recently, we also found that exogenous AI-2 and S. mitis could influence the behaviors of P. aeruginosa. We hypothesized that S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shaoying Li, Lingyun Guo, Linlin Liu, Fang Dong, Gang Liu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze risk factors, clinical features, outcomes and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli(E.coli) causing bloodstream infections in children. METHOD: All inpatients with E. coli positive blood culture in Beijing Children's Hospital from January 2012 to May 2014 were enrolled; 112 cases were included, 66 cases (58.9%) were male, and 46 cases(41.1%) were female. Age range was 2 days to 16 years. Among them, 43 cases (38.4%) were neonates, 19 cases (17...
February 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Chen-Zhou Liu, Bi-Yin Huang, Bao-Ying Tan, Hao-Feng Guan, Xiao-Hui Xu, Qing-Yun Guo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of volume-targeted ventilation (VTV) for the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). METHODS: Fifty-two neonates with NRDS between August 2013 and August 2015 were randomly divided into two groups: VTV and pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) (n=26 each ). A/C+Vc+ ventilation model was applied in the VTV group, and A/C+PCV ventilation model was applied in the PCV group. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed at 6, 24, and 48 hours after ventilation...
January 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Christian L Hermansen, Anand Mahajan
Newborn respiratory distress presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Newborns with respiratory distress commonly exhibit tachypnea with a respiratory rate of more than 60 respirations per minute. They may present with grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. Common causes include transient tachypnea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia, sepsis, pneumothorax, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and delayed transition. Congenital heart defects, airway malformations, and inborn errors of metabolism are less common etiologies...
December 1, 2015: American Family Physician
Jens Bräunlich, Hubert Wirtz
Nasal High Flow (NHF) provides a warmed and humidified air stream. In pediatrics, this method is already in widespread use and is increasingly replacing the CPAP. New studies show success in treating adults. Currently the acute hypoxemic insufficiency cause of pneumoniae is a secured area of use. NHF is not inferior in comparison to other oxygen delivery systems. At this juncture effectiveness of this easy to use method is not clear. Preliminary reports describe an improvement in ventilation by the NHF. Here, a wash-out of the airways and improved alveolar ventilation seem to be the main operating principles...
December 2015: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Steven Barron Frazier, Robert Sepanski, Christopher Mangum, Christine Bovat, Arno Zaritsky, Sandip Godambe
OBJECTIVES: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) may complicate pneumonia. When present, it suggests that the patient's pneumonia is more severe. As such, recognition of SIRS among patients with pneumonia may be helpful in identifying those requiring more careful evaluation. Our objective was to examine the relation between the presence of SIRS and adverse clinical outcomes among children with pneumonia seen in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on children diagnosed as having community-acquired pneumonia who presented to a children's hospital ED during a 3-month period...
November 2015: Southern Medical Journal
Y Yuan, W Zhou, X Rong, W N Lu, Z Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The study's aim was to assess incidence and epidemiologic profile of nosocomial infection (NI) in a NICU of China, and to identify main risk factors of NIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chi square test for discrete variables and independent t-test for continuous variables to examine the association with NI. Univariate regression model was applied to the variables to predict the NI status. Finally the multivariate model was utilized with stepwise methods included all variables in the univariate model to extrapolate the independent variables to NI...
2015: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
Dassaev Izelo-Flores, Fortino Solórzano-Santos, María Guadalupe Miranda-Novales
BACKGROUND: The studies that describe risk factors for the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in newborn infants report dissimilar information, possibly related to the type of intensive care unit and population included. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for the development of VAP in a neonatal intensive-care unit. METHODS: Case-control study. Patients with the diagnosis of VAP were classified as cases and compared with two controls of the same gestational age, weight, and diagnosis at admission...
2015: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
Hongdong Li, Chao Song, Dong Liu, Qing Ai, Jialin Yu
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) results in considerable morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units. VAP is associated with polymicrobial biofilms that form on endotracheal tubes (ETTs). We aimed to evaluate the diversity and the bacterial community in biofilms on ETTs extubated from mechanically ventilated newborns. ETTs (N = 29) and aerobic sputum cultures were obtained from 20 mechanically ventilated newborns. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to characterize the bacterial species in the biofilms on the ETTs...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
M Piastra, A Tempera, E Luca, E Buffone, C Cafforio, V Briganti, O Genovese, M Marano, D Rigante, On Behalf Of The Intrepid Group
Streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis has high morbidity, particularly if complicated by renal injury. Four patients with S. pneumonia invasive infections complicated by renal disorders are presented. The first case was an 18-month-old girl with pneumococcal empyema complicated by haemolytic uraemic (HUS) syndrome. She made a full recovery after mechanical ventilation, inotropic support and haemodiafiltration. The second was a 4-year-old boy who presented with acute post-infectious glomerulonephritis associated with bilateral pneumococcal pneumonia...
September 13, 2015: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Sujit K Chowdhary, Deepak K Kandpal, Deepak Agarwal, Saroja Balan, Nameet Jerath, Anupam Sibal, Sohan L Broor
AIM: The aim of the study is to report feasibility and safety of endoscopic esophageal substitution in infants with pure esophageal atresia and wide gap tracheoesophageal fistula with a minimum one year follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted from January 2012 for twenty four consecutive months at Apollo Hospital, New Delhi. All babies either followed up or referred for esophageal substitution without any history of mediastinitis or associated major congenital anomaly and weighing greater than 6kg were to be included in the study...
March 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Flávio S Chiuchetta, Tiago N Munhoz, Iná S Santos, Ana M B Menezes, Elaine Albernaz, Fernando C Barros, Alicia Matijasevich
The study's objective was to evaluate the association between neonatal ventilatory support and the subsequent occurrence of respiratory diseases in children up to six years of age. This was a population-based birth cohort study. The main exposure was ventilatory support at birth, defined as the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) and/or mechanical ventilation (MV) for more than three hours from the time of hospitalization at birth until the first 28 days of life. Outcomes were: chest wheezing in the twelve months prior to the follow-up interview, medical diagnosis of asthma any time in the child´s life, and occurrence of pneumonia up to six years of age...
July 2015: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Seham F A Azab, Hanan S Sherbiny, Safaa H Saleh, Wafaa F Elsaeed, Mona M Elshafiey, Ahmed G Siam, Mohamed A Arafa, Ashgan A Alghobashy, Eman A Bendary, Maha A A Basset, Sanaa M Ismail, Nagwa E Akeel, Nahla A Elsamad, Wesam A Mokhtar, Tarek Gheith
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious health care-associated infection, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. It also prolongs hospital stay and drives up hospital costs. Measures employed in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia in developing countries are rarely reported. In this study we tried to assess the efficacy of our designed "VAP prevention bundle" in reducing VAP rate in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHOD: This prospective before-and-after study was conducted at university hospital NICU, all neonates who had mechanical ventilation for ≥ 48 h were eligible...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Zenichiro Saze, Hiroaki Miyata, Hiroyuki Konno, Mitsukazu Gotoh, Takayuki Anazawa, Ai Tomotaki, Go Wakabayashi, Masaki Mori
The aim of the study was to evaluate preoperative variables predictive of lethal morbidities in critically ill surgical patients at a national level.There is no report of risk stratification for morbidities associated with mortality in critically ill patients with acute diffuse peritonitis (ADP).We examined data from 16,930 patients operated during 2011 and 2012 in 1546 different hospitals for ADP identified in the National Clinical Database of Japan. We analyzed morbidities significantly associated with operative mortality...
July 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
M Beer, B Ammann
Pediatric lung diseases are a common clinical problem. Besides the clinical examination and laboratory tests, imaging studies are the mainstay in the diagnostics of pediatric lung diseases. Thorough consideration of radiation protection based on optimized equipment also includes the protection of relatives and medical staff. The high impact of radiation protection in children necessitates a different choice of imaging modalities compared to adults. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as adjunct or complementary imaging methods are of greater value than computed tomography (CT)...
July 2015: Der Radiologe
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