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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822969/preconditioning-with-the-bkca-channel-activator-ns-1619-prevents-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-inflammation-and-mucosal-barrier-dysfunction-ros-and-ho-1
#1
Hongyan Dai, Meifang Wang, Parag N Patel, Theodore J Kalogeris, Yajun Liu, William Durante, Ronald J Korthuis
Activation of large conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels evokes cell survival programs that mitigate intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) inflammation and injury 24 hours later. The goal of the current study was to determine the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in delayed acquisition of tolerance to I/R induced by pretreatment with the BKCa channel opener NS-1619. Superior mesentery arteries were occluded for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 70 min in wild type (WT) or HO-1 null (HO-1(-/-)) mice that were pretreated with NS-1619 or saline vehicle 24 hrs earlier...
August 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822946/differential-expression-of-vacuolar-and-defective-cell-wall-invertase-genes-in-roots-and-seeds-of-metalliferous-and-non-metalliferous-populations-of-rumex-dentatus-under-copper-stress
#2
Zhong-Rui Xu, Shen-Wen Cai, Wu-Xing Huang, Rong-Xiang Liu, Zhi-Ting Xiong
Acid invertase activities in roots and young seeds of a metalliferous population (MP) of Rumex dentatus were previously observed to be significantly higher than those of a non-metalliferous population (NMP) under Cu stress. To date, no acid invertase gene has been cloned from R. dentatus. Here, we isolated four full-length cDNAs from the two populations of R. dentatus, presumably encoding cell wall (RdnCIN1 and RdmCIN1 from the NMP and MP, respectively) and vacuolar invertases (RdnVIN1 and RdmVIN1 from the NMP and MP, respectively)...
August 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821876/transcriptomic-biochemical-and-physio-anatomical-investigations-shed-more-light-on-responses-to-drought-stress-in-two-contrasting-sesame-genotypes
#3
Komivi Dossa, Donghua Li, Linhai Wang, Xiaomin Zheng, Aili Liu, Jingyin Yu, Xin Wei, Rong Zhou, Daniel Fonceka, Diaga Diouf, Boshou Liao, Ndiaga Cissé, Xiurong Zhang
Sesame is an important oilseed crop with a high oil quality. It is prone to drought stress in the arid and semi-arid areas where it is widely grown. This study aims to decipher the response of tolerant (DT) and sensitive (DS) genotypes to progressive drought based on transcriptome, biochemical and physio-anatomical characterizations. Results indicated that under severe stress, DT relied on a well-functioning taproot while DS displayed a disintegrated root due to collapsed cortical cells. This was attributed to a higher accumulation of osmoprotectants and strong activity of antioxidant enzymes especially peroxidases in DT...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821860/gaba-accretion-reduces-lsi-1-and-lsi-2-gene-expressions-and-modulates-physiological-responses-in-oryza-sativa-to-provide-tolerance-towards-arsenic
#4
Navin Kumar, Arvind Kumar Dubey, Atul Kumar Upadhyay, Ambedkar Gautam, Ruma Ranjan, Saripella Srikishna, Nayan Sahu, Soumit Kumar Behera, Shekhar Mallick
GABA counteracts wide range of stresses through regulation of GABA shunt pathway in plants. Although, GABA assisted tolerance against As toxicity in plants is still unexplored. We have examined GABA induced tolerance in rice seedlings with two exposure periods of GABA i.e., short term and long term. Results showed that accumulation of GABA reduced the expressions of Lsi-1 and Lsi-2 transporter genes, which ultimately decreased the accumulation of As in rice seedlings. The accumulation of GABA also modulated the gene expression of GABA shunt pathway and activity of antioxidant enzymes, which strongly induced the tolerance in plants...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821804/nos2-deficient-mice-with-hypoxic-necrotizing-lung-lesions-predict-outcomes-of-tuberculosis-chemotherapy-in-humans
#5
Martin Gengenbacher, Maria A Duque-Correa, Peggy Kaiser, Stefanie Schuerer, Doris Lazar, Ulrike Zedler, Stephen T Reece, Amit Nayyar, Stewart T Cole, Vadim Makarov, Clifton E Barry Iii, Véronique Dartois, Stefan H E Kaufmann
During active TB in humans a spectrum of pulmonary granulomas with central necrosis and hypoxia exists. BALB/c mice, predominantly used in TB drug development, do not reproduce this complex pathology thereby inaccurately predicting clinical outcome. We found that Nos2 (-/-) mice incapable of NO-production in immune cells as microbial defence uniformly develop hypoxic necrotizing lung lesions, widely observed in human TB. To study the impact of hypoxic necrosis on the efficacy of antimycobacterials and drug candidates, we subjected Nos2 (-/-) mice with TB to monotherapy before or after establishment of human-like pathology...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821664/differential-desensitization-observed-at-multiple-effectors-of-somatic-mu-opioid-receptors-underlies-sustained-agonist-mediated-inhibition-of-proopiomelanocortin-neuron-activity
#6
Philip D Fox, Shane T Hentges
Activation of somatic mu opioid receptors (MORs) in hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons leads to the activation of G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium (GIRK) channels and hyperpolarization, but in response to continued signaling, MORs undergo acute desensitization resulting in robust reduction in the peak GIRK current after minutes of agonist exposure. We hypothesized that the attenuation of the GIRK current would lead to a recovery of neuronal excitability whereby desensitization of the receptor would lead to a new steady-state of POMC neuron activity reflecting the sustained GIRK current observed after the initial decline from peak with continued agonist exposure...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821631/6-methoxyethylamino-numonafide-inhibits-hepatocellular-carcinoma-xenograft-growth-as-a-single-agent-and-in-combination-with-sorafenib
#7
Yanning Liu, Guohua Lou, John T Norton, Chen Wang, Irawati Kandela, Shuai Tang, Nathaniel I Shank, Pankaj Gupta, Min Huang, Michael J Avram, Richard Green, Andrew Mazar, Daniel Appella, Zhi Chen, Sui Huang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading form of cancer worldwide, and its incidence is increasing rapidly in the United States, tripling over the past 3 decades. The current chemotherapeutic strategies against localized and metastatic HCC are ineffective. Here we report that 6-methoxyethylamino-numonafide (MEAN) is a potent growth inhibitor of murine xenografts of 2 human HCC cell lines. At the same dose and with the same treatment strategies, MEAN was more efficacious in inhibiting tumor growth in mice than sorafenib, the only approved drug for HCC...
August 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821621/protein-kinase-g-confers-survival-advantage-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-during-latency-like-conditions
#8
Mehak Zahoor Khan, Ashima Bhaskar, Sandeep Upadhyay, Pooja Kumari, Raju S Rajmani, Preeti Jain, Amit Singh, Dhiraj Kumar, Neel Sarovar Bhavesh, Vinay Kumar Nandicoori
Protein Kinase G (PknG), a thioredoxin-fold containing eukaryotic like serine/threonine protein kinase (STPK), is a virulence factor in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis, required for inhibition of phago-lysosomal fusion. Here, we unravelled novel functional facets of PknG during latency like conditions. We find that PknG mediates persistence under stressful conditions like hypoxia and abets drug tolerance. PknG mutant displayed minimal growth in nutrient limiting conditions suggesting its role in modulating cellular metabolism...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821548/the-transcriptional-regulator-phlh-modulates-2-4-diacetylphloroglucinol-biosynthesis-in-response-to-the-biosynthetic-intermediate-and-end-product
#9
Xu Yan, Rui Yang, Rui-Xue Zhao, Jian-Ting Han, Wen-Juan Jia, Di-Yin Li, Yong Wang, Nannan Zhang, Yi Wu, Li-Qun Zhang, Yong-Xing He
Certain strains of biocontrol Pseudomonas fluorescens produce the secondary metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) to antagonize the soil-borne phytopathogens in the rhizosphere. The gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of 2,4-DAPG is named phlACBDEFGH and it is still unclear how the pathway-specific regulator phlH within this gene cluster regulates the metabolism of 2,4-DAPG. Here, we found that PhlH in Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 2P24 represses the expression of the phlG gene encoding the 2,4-DAPG hydrolase by binding to a sequence motif overlapping with the -35 site recognized by σ(70) factors...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821380/unique-transcriptional-profile-of-native-persisters-in-escherichia-coli
#10
Shinya Matsumoto, Yuto Kawai, Satoshi Miyagawa, Yuka Iwamoto, Shujiro Okuda, Alicia Sánchez-Gorostiaga, Miguel Vicente, Satoshi Tsuneda
Non-dividing persisters, bacteria that can survive in the presence of antibiotics by pausing their metabolic activity, are among the many causes of the refractory nature of bacterial infections. Here we constructed a recombinant Escherichia coli strain that enables to distinguish non-dividing from dividing cell based on Z-ring during cell division. Then, non-dividing cells and dividing cells were successfully separated using a fluorescence activated cell sorter. The sorted non-dividing cells showed significantly higher tolerance toward ofloxacin than dividing cells, which indicates that persisters were concentrated with the methodology...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820964/modulating-the-modulator-regulation-of-protein-methylation-by-nitric-oxide
#11
Lucas Frungillo, Steven H Spoel
Protein methylation is an important modulator of signal transduction pathways, but methyltransferases themselves may also be modulated. Hu et al. (2017) demonstrate in this issue of Molecular Cell that S-nitrosylation selectively modulates enzymatic activity of a protein arginine methyltransferase vital to abiotic stress tolerance.
August 17, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820799/regional-anesthesia-and-analgesia-after-surgery-in-icu
#12
Mathieu Capdevila, Séverin Ramin, Xavier Capdevila
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to demonstrate that ICU physicians should play a pivotal role in developing regional anesthesia techniques that are underused in critically ill patients despite the proven facts in perioperative and long-term pain, organ dysfunction, and postsurgery patient health-related quality of life improvement. RECENT FINDINGS: Regional anesthesia and/or analgesia strategies in ICU reduce the surgical and trauma-stress response in surgical patients as well as complications incidence...
August 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820325/small-alarmone-synthetases-as-novel-bacterial-rna-binding-proteins
#13
Vasili Hauryliuk, Gemma C Atkinson
The alarmone nucleotides guanosine pentaphosphate (pppGpp) and tetraphosphate (ppGpp), collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp, are key regulators of bacterial growth, stress adaptation, antibiotic tolerance and pathogenicity. We have recently shown that the Small Alarmone Synthetase (SAS) RelQ from the Gram-positive pathogen Enterococcus faecalis has an RNA-binding activity (Beljantseva et al. 2017). RelQ's activities as an enzyme and as a RNA-binding protein are mutually incompatible: binding of single-stranded RNA potently inhibits (p)ppGpp synthesis in a sequence-specific manner, and RelQ's enzymatic activity destabilizes the RNA:RelQ complex...
August 18, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820283/n-3-pufas-induce-inflammatory-tolerance-by-formation-of-keap1-containing-sqstm1-p62-bodies-and-activation-of-nfe2l2
#14
Jennifer Mildenberger, Ida Johansson, Ismail Sergin, Eli Kjøbli, Jan Kristian Damås, Babak Razani, Trude Helen Flo, Geir Bjørkøy
Inflammation is crucial in the defense against infections but must be tightly controlled to limit detrimental hyperactivation. Our diet influences inflammatory processes and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have known anti-inflammatory effects. The balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory processes is coordinated by macrophages and macroautophagy/autophagy has recently emerged as a cellular process that dampens inflammation. Here we report that the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) transiently induces cytosolic speckles of the autophagic receptor SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) (described as SQSTM1/p62-bodies) in macrophages...
August 18, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820259/oxidant-controlled-c-sp2-sp3-h-cross-dehydrogenative-coupling-of-n-heterocycles-with-benzylamines
#15
Rohit Sharma, Mohd Abdullaha, Sandip B Bharate
Oxidant controlled ionic liquid mediated cross-dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) of benzylamines with N-heterocycles having sp2 or sp3 carbon resulted in the formation of C-benzoylated or alkenylated products. Benzoylation of N-heterocycles occurs via (NH4)2S2O8 catalyzed benzoyl radical formation. An oxidative alkenylation of N-heterocycles having C-sp3 carbon (2-methylaza-arenes) occurs via deamination of benzylamine followed by Csp3-H bond activation in high stereoselectivity. Both benzoylation and alkenylation protocols are metal-free, green, simple, efficient and tolerates wide variety of functional groups...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820222/quasi-zero-dimensional-cobalt-doped-ceo2-dots-on-pd-catalysts-for-alcohol-electro-oxidation-with-enhanced-poisoning-tolerance
#16
Qiang Tan, Haiyan Zhu, Shengwu Guo, Yuanzhen Chen, Tao Jiang, Chengyong Shu, Shaokun Chong, Benjamin Hultman, Yongning Liu, Gang Wu
Deactivation of an anode catalyst resulting from the poisoning of COad-like intermediates is one of the major problems for methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions (MOR & EOR), and remains a grand challenge towards achieving high performance for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs). Herein, we report a new approach for the preparation of ultrafine cobalt-doped CeO2 dots (Co-CeO2, d = 3.6 nm), which can be an effective anti-poisoning promoter for Pd catalysts towards MOR and EOR in alkaline media. Compared to Pd/CeO2 and pure Pd, the hybrid Pd/Co-CeO2 nanocomposite catalyst exhibited a much enhanced activity and remarkable anti-poisoning ability for both MOR and EOR...
August 18, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819385/a-randomized-open-label-safety-and-exploratory-efficacy-study-of-kanglaite-injection-klti-plus-gemcitabine-versus-gemcitabine-in-patients-with-advanced-pancreatic-cancer
#17
Lee S Schwartzberg, Francis P Arena, Bryan J Bienvenu, Edward H Kaplan, Luis H Camacho, Luis T Campos, J Paul Waymack, Mary A Tagliaferri, Michael M Chen, Dapeng Li
Background: This study was designed to assess the safety and preliminary efficacy of KLTi plus gemcitabine in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Methods: In a randomized, open-label study, patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer were randomized 2:1 to receive KLTi plus gemcitabine or gemcitabine monotherapy. Three sequential cohorts were tested at 30 g/day, 50 g/day, and 30 g/day. Gemcitabine was administered at 1000 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8 and 15 of each 28 day cycle...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819147/nitrogen-starvation-impacts-the-photosynthetic-performance-of-porphyridium-cruentum-as-revealed-by-chlorophyll-a-fluorescence
#18
Long-Sheng Zhao, Kang Li, Qian-Min Wang, Xiao-Yan Song, Hai-Nan Su, Bin-Bin Xie, Xi-Ying Zhang, Feng Huang, Xiu-Lan Chen, Bai-Cheng Zhou, Yu-Zhong Zhang
Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients needed for plants and algae to survive, and the photosynthetic ability of algae is related to nitrogen abundance. Red algae are unique photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms in the evolution of algae, as they contain phycobilisomes (PBSs) on their thylakoid membranes. In this report, the in vivo chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence kinetics of nitrogen-starved Porphyridium cruentum were analyzed to determine the effects of nitrogen deficiency on photosynthetic performance using a multi-color pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) chlorophyll fluorometer...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819025/mre11-promotes-tumorigenesis-by-facilitating-resistance-to-oncogene-induced-replication-stress
#19
Elizabeth Spehalski, Kayla M Capper, Cheryl J Smith, Mary J Morgan, Maria Dinkelmann, Jeffrey Buis, JoAnn M Sekiguchi, David O Ferguson
Hypomorphic mutations in the genes encoding the MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) DNA repair complex lead to cancer-prone syndromes. MRN binds DNA double strand breaks where it functions in repair and triggers cell cycle checkpoints via activation of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. To gain understanding of MRN in cancer, we engineered mice with B lymphocytes lacking MRN, or harboring MRN in which MRE11 lacks nuclease activities. Both forms of MRN deficiency led to hallmarks of cancer, including oncogenic translocations involving c-Myc and the immunoglobulin locus...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818757/expression-of-a-na-h-antiporter-rtnhx1-from-a-recretohalophyte-reaumuria-trigyna-improved-salt-tolerance-of-transgenic-arabidopsis-thaliana
#20
Ningning Li, Xue Wang, Binjie Ma, Chao Du, Linlin Zheng, Yingchun Wang
Reaumuria trigyna is an endangered recretohalophyte and a small xeric shrub that is endemic to the eastern Alxa and western Ordos areas of Inner Mongolia, China. Using transcriptome data, we identified a 1662-bp open reading frame encoding a 553-amino-acid protein corresponding to a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter (RtNHX1) from R. trigyna. RtNHX1 was rapidly up-regulated by NaCl and exogenous abscisic acid treatment and had different tissue-specific expression patterns before and after salt-stress treatment. Overexpression of RtNHX1 enhanced seed germination, biomass accumulation, chlorophyll content, and root elongation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants under salt stress and rescued the salt-sensitive deficiencies of the nhx1 mutant...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
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