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Li Jie Li, Wan Rong Gu, Yao Meng, Yue Li Wang, Jun Yi Mu, Jing Li, Shi Wei
To explore the role of exogenous spermidine (Spd) in enhancing the resistance of maize to drought stress, 15% polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) was used to simulate drought stress and with 'Xianyu 335' (drought-insensitive) and 'Fenghe 1' (drought sensitive) as the experiment materials, the effects of Spd (0.1 mmol·L-1 ) on the growth, photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, osmotic adjustment substance, membrane lipid peroxidation and root activity of maize seedlings were investigated. The results showed that the application of Spd significantly promoted the growth of maize seedlings under drought stress, increased chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn ), stomatal conductance (gs ), transpiration rate (Tr ) and water use efficiency (WUE), and decreased the enhancement of intercellular carbon dioxide concentration (Ci ) in 'Fenghe 1'...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Stanley B Cohen, Rubén Burgos-Vargas, Paul Emery, Bo Jin, Carol Cronenberger, María-Dolores Vázquez-Abad
OBJECTIVE: This extension study provided continued treatment to subjects with active rheumatoid arthritis who had participated for ≥16 weeks in a pharmacokinetic similarity study of PF-05280586 (potential rituximab biosimilar). Objectives were to evaluate overall pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of PF-05280586 after transition from a licensed rituximab product to PF-05280586, and followup of biomarker and efficacy assessments. METHODS: Subjects were offered ≤3 additional courses of treatment of PF-05280586, with or without a single transition from rituximab EU (rituximab-EU) or US (rituximab-US) to PF-05280586...
April 25, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Pengjiao Zeng, Zhihua Guo, Xuan Zeng, Cui Hao, Yiran Zhang, Meng Zhang, Yong Liu, Hui Li, Juan Li, Lijuan Zhang
Ganoderma lucidum is an edible medicinal mushroom known as "Lingzhi" in China and "Reishi or Manetake" in Japan. It is a highly prized vitality-enhancing herb for more than 2000 years. G. lucidum polysaccharide (GLPS) has been identified as one of the major bioactive components and developed into a drug named "Ji 731 Injection" in China since 1973. The large-scale production of the drug began in 1985 and approved by the Chinese FDA as "Polysaccharidum of G. lucidum Karst Injection" (Ling Bao Duo Tang Zhu She Ye) in 2000, which is applied intramuscularly...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Mariangela Panebianco, Hemanshu Prabhakar, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder (neurological disorder). Epileptic seizures are the result of excessive and abnormal cortical nerve cell electrical activity in the brain. Despite the development of more than 10 new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) since the early 2000s, approximately a third of people with epilepsy remain resistant to pharmacotherapy, often requiring treatment with a combination of AEDs. In this review, we summarised the current evidence regarding rufinamide, a novel anticonvulsant medication, which, as a triazole derivative, is structurally unrelated to any other currently used anticonvulsant medication, when used as an add-on treatment for refractory epilepsy...
April 25, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Wenqi Bao, Xiaowei Wang, Mo Chen, Tuanyao Chai, Hong Wang
PcWRKY33 is a transcription factor which can reduce salt tolerance by decreasing the expression of stress-related genes and increasing the cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). WRKY transcription factors play important roles in the regulation of biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we report a group I WRKY gene from Polygonum cuspidatum, PcWRKY33, that encodes a nucleoprotein, which specifically binds to the W-box in the promoter of target genes to regulate their expression. The results from qPCR and promoter analysis show that expression of PcWRKY33 can be induced by various abiotic stresses, including NaCl and plant hormones...
April 24, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Monique R Heitmeier, Maria A Payne, Carla Weinheimer, Attila Kovacs, Richard C Hresko, Patrick Y Jay, Paul W Hruz
GLUT transgenic and knockout mice have provided valuable insight into the role of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) in cardiovascular and metabolic disease, but compensatory physiological changes can hinder interpretation of these models. To determine whether adaptations occur in response to GLUT inhibition in the failing adult heart, we chronically treated TG9 mice, a transgenic model of dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure, with the GLUT inhibitor ritonavir. Glucose tolerance was significantly improved with chronic treatment and correlated with decreased adipose tissue retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and resistin...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qianqian Shi, Jian Shi, Fengbao Luo, Guanglai Song, Xiaozhou He, Ying Xia
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in the cellular response to hypoxia and their dysregulation may contribute to the progression and pathology of diverse human renal diseases. Recent studies suggest that the regulation of MAPK responses to hypoxic stress may be different in different cells, even within the same organ. However, it is unclear if MAPKs are differentially regulated in different renal cells in hypoxia. This work was carried out to clarify this fundamental issue...
April 19, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Roy M Gulick
Over the past 30 years, antiretroviral drug regimens for treating HIV infection have become more effective, safer, and more convenient. Despite 31 currently approved drugs, the pipeline of investigational HIV drugs remains full. Investigational antiretroviral drugs include the nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase translocation inhibitor (NRTTI) MK-8591, a long-acting compound that could be dosed once weekly. Investigational nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) include doravirine, which is active in vitro against NNRTI-resistant HIV and was potent and well-tolerated when used in combination with a dual-nucleoside analogue RTI (nRTI) backbone in treatment-naive individuals...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
Jordan Whitt, Vivienne Woo, Patrick Lee, Jessica Moncivaiz, Yael Haberman, Lee Denson, Patrick Tso, Theresa Alenghat
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal microbiota modulate metabolism and associate closely with epithelial cells in the intestine. In intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) integrates microbiota-derived signals to control intestinal homeostasis. We investigated whether HDAC3 in IECs regulates metabolism and the development of obesity in mice. METHODS: Adult C57BL/6 (control) mice and mice with constitutive or inducible IEC-specific disruption of Hdac3 (HDAC3ΔIEC mice) were placed on a standard chow or high-fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal from fat)...
April 21, 2018: Gastroenterology
Stefan Wirth, Hongfei Zhang, Winita Hardikar, Kathleen B Schwarz, Etienne Sokal, Weibo Yang, Huimin Fan, Vyacheslav Morozov, Qing Mao, Hong Deng, Yang Huang, Lei Yang, Nicolas Frey, Clare Nasmyth-Miller, Vedran Pavlovic, Cynthia Wat
Children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) represent an area of unmet medical need, due to increased lifetime risk of CHB sequelae and limited therapeutic options compared with adult CHB patients. The PEG-B-ACTIVE (NCT01519960) phase III study evaluated peginterferon (PegIFN) alfa-2a treatment in children aged 3 to <18 years with CHB. A total of 161 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive immune-active patients without advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis were randomized (2:1) to PegIFN alfa-2a (Group A, n = 101) or no treatment (Group B, n = 50); patients with advanced fibrosis were assigned to PegIFN alfa-2a (Group C, n = 10)...
April 24, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Giorgio Ciprandi, Matteo Gelardi
Inflammatory rhinitis is a very common disorder. It includes allergic rhinitis (AR) and non-allergic rhinitis (NAR). Nasal inflammation is shared by both disorders. So, anti-inflammatory treatment is indicated for both. Beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) is a corticosteroid that is long time available both as intranasal spray and aerosol solution. BDP is a corticosteroid with proved efficacy in the treatment of rhinitis, both as spray and aerosol. Safety issue has been satisfactory explored, thus BDP is usually safe and well tolerated...
April 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Manabu Kato, Hidetoshi Furuie, Takako Shimizu, Atsuhiro Miyazaki, Fumiaki Kobayashi, Hitoshi Ishizuka
AIMS: To characterise the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of esaxerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, in healthy adult Japanese men. METHODS: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential, dose-escalation studies were conducted in subjects randomised to receive oral once-daily esaxerenone (ranges: 5-200 mg [single-dose]; 10-100 mg over 10 days [multiple-dose]) or placebo under fasting conditions. Plasma concentrations were analysed by liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry...
April 24, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Xinyuan Hao, Hu Tang, Bo Wang, Chuan Yue, Lu Wang, Jianming Zeng, Yajun Yang, Xinchao Wang
Green tea has attracted an increasing number of consumers worldwide due to its multiple health benefits. With the increase in global warming, more frequent cold spells in the spring often cause more serious damage to green tea production because of the young leaves used. We recorded the changes in climatic conditions during a typical cold spell and the damage symptoms caused by the cold spell in different tea cultivars and breeding lines. By simulating the low temperature of a cold spell under controlled conditions, comparative transcriptome and metabolic analyses were performed with sprouting shoots...
April 23, 2018: Tree Physiology
Sholeem Griffin, Gareth D Healey, I Martin Sheldon
Preventing postpartum uterine disease depends on the ability of endometrial cells to tolerate the presence of the bacteria that invade the uterus after parturition. Postpartum uterine disease and endometrial pathology in cattle is most associated with the pathogen Trueperella pyogenes. Trueperella pyogenes secretes a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, pyolysin, which causes cytolysis by forming pores in the plasma membrane of endometrial stromal cells. The aim of the present study was to identify cell-intrinsic pathways that increase bovine endometrial stromal cell tolerance to pyolysin...
April 24, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Debabrata Panda, Dibyajyoti Panda, Bandana Padhan, Meghali Biswas
Revegetation with metal tolerant plants for management of fly ash deposits is an important environmental perspective nowadays. Growth performance, photosynthesis, and antioxidant defense of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) were evaluated under various combination of fly ash amended with garden soil in order to assess its fly ash tolerance potential. Under low level of fly ash (25%) amended soil, the plant growth parameters such as shoot, root, and total plant biomass as well as metal tolerance index were increased compared to the control plants grown on garden soil, followed by decline under higher concentration of fly ash (50%, 75% and 100%)...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Somayeh Naderi, Mahdiyeh Gholami, Bahram Baninasab, Majid Afyuni
Many reports have already been published regarding the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions onto activated carbon. However, the biosorbents' effect on the plant response still needs further investigation. In this study, activated carbon derived from the pomegranate peel [pomegranate activated carbons (PAC)] was used to see the effects of the addition of PAC on growing strawberry in Cd-contaminated sand. Cd accumulation and toxicity to strawberry was investigated by measuring the concentration of Cd in plant tissues and various biochemical activities of plant...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Waheed Ullah Khan, Nasim Ahmad Yasin, Sajid Rashid Ahmad, Aamir Ali, Aqeel Ahmad, Waheed Akram, Muhammad Faisal
The current study was performed to assess the effect of Burkholderia cepacia CS8 on the phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd) by Catharanthus roseus grown in Cd-contaminated soil. The plants cultivated in Cd amended soil showed reduced growth, dry mass, gas-exchange capacity, and chlorophyll contents. Furthermore, the plants exhibited elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) under Cd stress. The bacterized plants showed higher shoot length, root length; fresh and dry weight. The improved stress tolerance in inoculated plants was attributed to the reduced quantity of MDA and H2 O2 , enhanced synthesis of protein, proline, phenols, flavonoids, and improved activity of antioxidant enzymes including peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Zaina T Al-Salama, Lesley J Scott
Baricitinib (Olumiant® ) is an oral, targeted synthetic DMARD that inhibits JAK1 and JAK2, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This novel, small molecule is approved for use as monotherapy, or in combination with methotrexate, for the treatment of adults with moderate to severe active RA who responded inadequately to or were intolerant of ≥ 1 DMARD. In pivotal multinational trials, once-daily baricitinib 4 mg, with/without methotrexate (± another csDMARD), improved the signs and symptoms of RA, disease activity and physical function in DMARD-naive patients and in patients with an inadequate response to methotrexate, csDMARDs or TNF inhibitors; baricitinib treatment also slowed structural joint damage in DMARD-naive patients and in those with an inadequate response to methotrexate and csDMARDs...
April 23, 2018: Drugs
Maria E Ramos-Araque, Cristina Rodriguez, Rebeca Vecino, Elisa Cortijo Garcia, Mercedes de Lera Alfonso, Mercedes Sanchez Barba, Laura Colàs-Campàs, Francisco Purroy, Juan F Arenillas, Angeles Almeida, Maria Delgado-Esteban
Cerebral preconditioning (PC) confers endogenous brain protection after stroke. Ischemic stroke patients with a prior transient ischemic attack (TIA) may potentially be in a preconditioned state. Although PC has been associated with the activation of pro-survival signals, the mechanism by which preconditioning confers neuroprotection is not yet fully clarified. Recently, we have described that PC-mediated neuroprotection against ischemic insult is promoted by p53 destabilization, which is mediated by its main regulator MDM2...
April 23, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Hyung Rae Cho, Seon Hwan Kim, Jin A Kim, Jin Hye Min, Yong Kyung Lee
Background: Nefopam is a non-opioid, non-steroidal analgesic drug with fewer adverse effects than narcotic analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and is widely used for postoperative pain control. Because nefopam sometimes causes side effects such as nausea, vomiting, somnolence, hyperhidrosis and injection-related pain, manufacturers are advised to infuse it slowly, over a duration of 15 minutes. Nevertheless, pain at the injection site is very common. Therefore, we investigated the effect of warmed carrier fluid on nefopam injection-induced pain...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Pain
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