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carbapenemase resistant

A Aguirre-Quiñonero, L Martínez-Martínez
Infections caused by carbapenemase-producing bacteria are becoming a major clinical and public health concern. Detection of carbapenemase producing strains is often challenging, since susceptibility to carbapenems may vary significantly among carbapenemase producers. Some carbapenemases have shown to exhibit weak activity against carbapenems leading to minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems below the breakpoint for defining clinical resistance and even below the proposed screening breakpoint. Thus, reliable and rapid detection of carbapenemase-activity is needed for an appropriate patient management and a rapid implementation of infection prevention and control measures...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Katsutoshi Yamasaki, Masaru Komatsu, Tamotsu Ono, Hisaaki Nishio, Noriyuki Sueyoshi, Kaneyuki Kida, Kaori Satoh, Hirofumi Toda, Isao Nishi, Masahiro Akagi, Tetsu Mizutani, Isako Nakai, Tomomi Kofuku, Tamaki Orita, Takuya Zikimoto, Tatsuya Nakamura, Yasunao Wada
Six Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates resistant to various cephalosporins and cephamycins were identified in a Japanese general hospital, a tertiary care hospital, between November 2009 and April 2010. All K. pneumoniae isolates carried blaGES-4 and blaSHV-1, while 2 K. pneumoniae isolates also harbored blaCTX-M-15. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns revealed that these 6 K. pneumoniae isolates were almost identical, suggesting their clonal relatedness. Plasmid profiles and conjugation assays revealed that these blaGES-4 genes were located on similar conjugative plasmids...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Sam Abraham, Mark O'Dea, Darren J Trott, Rebecca J Abraham, David Hughes, Stanley Pang, Genevieve McKew, Elaine Y L Cheong, John Merlino, Sugiyono Saputra, Richard Malik, Thomas Gottlieb
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a pressing public health issue due to limited therapeutic options to treat such infections. CREs have been predominantly isolated from humans and environmental samples and they are rarely reported among companion animals. In this study we report on the isolation and plasmid characterization of carbapenemase (IMP-4) producing Salmonella enterica Typhimurium from a companion animal. Carbapenemase-producing S. enterica Typhimurium carrying blaIMP-4 was identified from a systemically unwell (index) cat and three additional cats at an animal shelter...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Richard Aschbacher, Elisabetta Pagani, Massimo Confalonieri, Claudio Farina, Paolo Fazii, Francesco Luzzaro, Pier Giorgio Montanera, Aurora Piazza, Laura Pagani
BACKGROUND: Rates of colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are increasing worldwide, in both acute care hospitals and long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Italy has one of the highest prevalence of MDR bacteria in European countries, especially with regard to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) or carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). METHOD: Review of studies on colonization by MDR bacteria from Italian LTCFs, risk factors for colonization and molecular characteristics of surveillance and clinical isolates, compared with other European countries...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Sara A Buckman, Tamara Krekel, Anouk E Muller, John E Mazuski
The treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) is increasingly challenging due to increased resistance of Gram-negative organisms. These multidrug resistant organisms lead to an increase in morbidity and mortality. This has led to renewed interest in use of older β-lactam antibiotics in combination with newer β-lactamase inhibitors. Ceftazidime-avibactam is one of the newest such combination antibiotics, which has been released for treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections in combination with metronidazole...
October 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Farah Ben Tanfous, Carla Andrea Alonso, Wafa Achour, Laura Ruiz-Ripa, Carmen Torres, Assia Ben Hassen
The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular features among Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli strains showing a resistant/intermediate-resistant phenotype to ertapenem (R/IR-ERT), implicated in colonization/infection in patients of the Hematology and Graft Units of the National Bone Marrow Transplant Center of Tunisia (3-year period, 2011-2014). The major carbapenemase, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamase genes were analyzed and characterized by PCR and sequencing...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Zhijie Pan, Rong Liu, Pei Zhang, Hua Zhou, Yiqi Fu, Jianying Zhou
Raoultella planticola is a gram-negative bacterium that rarely causes diseases in humans. Here, we present a case of hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by R. planticola that likely originated in the gastrointestinal tract. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report describing the detection of the gene New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase-1 (blaNDM-1) in multidrug-resistant R. planticola. Clinical samples were collected for bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing from a patient during hospitalization...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
N R Zembower, A Zhu, M Malczynski, C Qi
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of brain and spinal cord injury (BSCI) patients among all patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP) and to evaluate clinical characteristics and duration of colonization. SETTING: Tertiary care academic medical center. METHODS: Electronic medical records of BSCI patients with KPC-KP from February 2009 to December 2014 were reviewed to determine clinical characteristics...
October 18, 2016: Spinal Cord
John Osei Sekyere
A review of the literature was undertaken to delineate the current level and mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems, colistin, and tigecycline in South Africa. Thirty-two English publications and 32 National Institute of Communicable Diseases communiqués identified between early January 2000 and 20 May, 2016 showed substantial reports of NDM (n = 860), OXA-48 (n = 584), VIM (n = 131), and IMP (n = 45) carbapenemases within this period, mainly in Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1138), Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 332), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 201), and Serratia marcescens (n = 108)...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
O Perovic, E Britz, V Chetty, A Singh-Moodley
Molecular confirmation of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) was introduced in South Africa (SA) at the end of 2011. We report on the detection of these resistance genes based on referral isolates. Enterobacteriaceae with non-susceptibility to any of the carbapenems according to defined criteria for antimicrobial susceptibility testing results were sent to a reference laboratory. A proportion of isolates had limited demographic, epidemiological and clinical data available. Organism identification was reconfirmed using reference laboratory methods, and the presence of carbapenemases was confirmed with a real-time polymerase chain reaction...
September 6, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Ashika Singh-Moodley, Olga Perovic
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is a concern in South Africa and worldwide. It is therefore important that these organisms be accurately identified for infection prevention control purposes. METHOD: In this study 1193 suspected CREs from 46 laboratories from seven provinces in South Africa were assessed to confirm the prevalence of carbapenemase genes from our referral diagnostic isolates for the period 2012 to 2015. We compared the antimicrobial susceptibility testing method used in the reference laboratory to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which is used as the gold standard...
October 4, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
D N Tran, H H Tran, M Matsui, M Suzuki, S Suzuki, K Shibayama, T D Pham, T T Van Phuong, D A Dang, H S Trinh, C T Loan, L T V Nga, H R van Doorn, H F L Wertheim
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important cause of multidrug-resistant hospital acquired infections in the world. Here, we investigate the presence of NDM-1 and other carbapenemases among carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolated between August 2010 and December 2014 from three large hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam. We identified 23/582 isolates (4 %) (11 from hospital A, five from hospital B, and seven from hospital C) that were NDM-1 positive, and among them 18 carried additional carbapenemase genes, including seven isolates carrying NDM-1, IMP-1, and OXA-58 with high MICs for carbapenems...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Yasemin Cag, Hulya Caskurlu, Yanyan Fan, Bin Cao, Haluk Vahaboglu
By definition, the terms sepsis and septic shock refer to a potentially fatal infectious state in which the early administration of an effective antibiotic is the most significant determinant of the outcome. Because of the global spread of resistant bacteria, the efficacy of antibiotics has been severely compromised. S. pneumonia, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas are the predominant pathogens of sepsis and septic shock. It is common for E. coli, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas to be resistant to multiple drugs...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Mazen S Bader, Mark Loeb, Annie A Brooks
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a growing concern due to limited therapeutic options. Gram-negative bacteria, specifically Enterobacteriaceae, are common causes of both community-acquired and hospital acquired UTIs. These organisms can acquire genes that encode for multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC- β -lactamase, and carbapenemases. The assessment of suspected UTI includes identification of characteristic symptoms or signs, urinalysis, dipstick or microscopic tests, and urine culture if indicated...
October 7, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Ivana Goic-Barisic, Jasna Hrenovic, Ana Kovacic, Martina Šeruga Musić
Six carbapenem-resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii were recovered from untreated and treated municipal wastewater of the capital city of Zagreb, Croatia. Molecular identification of environmental isolates of A. baumannii was performed by amplification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses of rpoB gene. The presence of blaOXA genes encoding OXA-type carbapenemases (OXA-51-like, OXA-23, and OXA-40-like) was confirmed by multiplex PCR and sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses corroborated the affiliation of detected blaOXA genes to three different clusters and showed association of environmental OXAs with those described from clinical isolates...
October 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Marion J Skalweit, Mei Li
Genetic screening of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PSDA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) reveals genes that confer increased susceptibility to β-lactams when disrupted, suggesting novel drug targets. One such target is lytic transglycosylase. Bulgecin A (BlgA) is a natural product of Pseudomonas mesoacidophila and a lytic transglycosolase inhibitor that works synergistically with β-lactams targeting PBP3 for Enterobacteriaceae. BlgA also weakly inhibits di-Zn(2+) metallo-β-lactamases like L1 of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Shio-Shin Jean, Po-Ren Hsueh
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antimicrobial resistance and assess the molecular characteristics of β-lactamases (ESBLs, AmpC β-lactamases and carbapenemases) among Enterobacteriaceae isolates that caused intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in patients hospitalized in the Asia-Pacific region during 2008-14. METHODS: Multiplex PCR was used to detect the specific types of β-lactamase in 2893 isolates with MICs of ertapenem >0.5 mg/L. In-hospital acquisition times for most isolates were also delineated...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Joao Gatica, Vijay Tripathi, Stefan J Green, Célia M Manaia, Thomas Berendonk, Damiano Cacace, Christophe Merlin, Norbert Kreuzinger, Thomas Schwartz, Despo Fatta-Kassinos, Luigi Rizzo, Carsten U Schwermer, Hemda Garelick, Edouard Jurkevitch, Eddie Cytryn
Integrons are extensively targeted as a proxy for anthropogenic impact in the environment. We developed a novel high-throughput amplicon sequencing pipeline that enables characterization of thousands of integron gene cassette-associated reads, and applied it to acquire a comprehensive overview of gene cassette composition in effluents from wastewater treatment facilities across Europe. Between 38,100 and 172,995 reads per-sample were generated and functionally characterized by screening against nr, SEED, ARDB and β-lactamase databases...
September 30, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Pascale Trepanier, Kim Mallard, Danièle Meunier, Rachel Pike, Derek Brown, Janet P Ashby, Hugo Donaldson, F Mustafa Awad-El-Kariem, Indran Balakrishnan, Marc Cubbon, Paul R Chadwick, Michael Doughton, Rachael Doughton, Fiona Hardiman, Graham Harvey, Carolyne Horner, John Lee, Jonathan Lewis, Anne Loughrey, Rohini Manuel, Helena Parsons, John D Perry, Gemma Vanstone, Graham White, Nandini Shetty, John Coia, Camilla Wiuff, Katie L Hopkins, Neil Woodford
OBJECTIVES: To estimate UK prevalence and incidence of clinically significant carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), and to determine epidemiological characteristics, laboratory methods and infection prevention and control (IPC) measures in acute care facilities. METHODS: A 6 month survey was undertaken in November 2013-April 2014 in 21 sentinel UK laboratories as part of the European Survey on Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae (EuSCAPE) project...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Aurélie Jayol, Laurent Poirel, Laurent Dortet, Patrice Nordmann
From January 2014 to December 2014, 972 consecutive non-replicate carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from colonised or infected patients were collected at the Associated French National Reference Centre as part of the French national survey on antimicrobial resistance. It included 577 Klebsiella spp. (59%), 236 Escherichia coli (24%), 108 Enterobacter spp. (11%), 50 Citrobacter spp. (5%), and a single Salmonella spp. isolate (0.1%). Of 561 K. pneumoniae isolates, 35 were found to be resistant to colistin (6...
September 15, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
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