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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938797/revisiting-the-safety-of-aspartame
#1
Arbind Kumar Choudhary, Etheresia Pretorius
Aspartame is a synthetic dipeptide artificial sweetener, frequently used in foods, medications, and beverages, notably carbonated and powdered soft drinks. Since 1981, when aspartame was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, researchers have debated both its recommended safe dosage (40 mg/kg/d) and its general safety to organ systems. This review examines papers published between 2000 and 2016 on both the safe dosage and higher-than-recommended dosages and presents a concise synthesis of current trends...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938792/gastrointestinal-microbial-population-of-turkey-meleagris-gallopavo-affected-by-hemorrhagic-enteritis-virus
#2
Sara D'Andreano, Armand Sànchez Bonastre, Olga Francino, Anna Cuscó Martí, Cristina Lecchi, Guido Grilli, Davide Giovanardi, Fabrizio Ceciliani
Hemorrhagic enteritis (HE) is an acute viral disease that affects avian species, particularly turkeys, compromising their commercial production and having a negative effect on animal welfare. Turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3), is the main causal agent of the disease. In this study, we considered 3 groups of turkeys to achieve 2 purposes: 1) A preliminary investigation on the microbiota content in the 4 parts of healthy turkey's intestine (group A), namely duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and ceca was done; 2) an investigation on the relationship between natural infections with TAdV-3 and the intestinal microbiota in the jejunum, where HE mostly develops, comparing group A with animals with molecular positivity for the virus and with clinical signs of HE (group B) and animals with molecular positivity for the virus but without clinical signs (group C)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938784/immunocastration-as-an-alternative-to-caponization-evaluation-of-its-effect-on-body-and-bone-development-and-on-meat-color-and-composition
#3
M A G Quaresma, I C Antunes, M F Ribeiro, S Prazeres, R J B Bessa, P Martins da Costa
Caponization is associated with some morbidity and mortality, which contributes to important economic losses. This practice is executed without any pain relief (neither anesthesia nor analgesia) and can be painful and without consideration of animal welfare. On the other hand, immunocastration accomplished by Improvac and Bovipriva in pigs and cattle represents a noninvasive procedure, and for that reason is regarded as an alternative with improved animal welfare. This study includes 4 experimental groups consisting of capons, slips, roosters, and birds submitted to the Improvac treatment...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938777/role-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-during-the-transition-from-incubation-behavior-to-rearing-behavior-in-the-female-native-thai-chicken
#4
S Namken, P Sinpru, B Kamkrathok, N Sartsoongnoen, Y Chaiseha
It is well documented that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an avian prolactin-releasing factor, regulating the reproductive cycle, that initiates and maintains incubation behavior in avian species. Native Thai chicken has strong maternal behaviors. Thus, it is an excellent animal model to study this phenomenon. Changes in the numbers of VIP neurons within the nucleus inferioris hypothalami (IH) and nucleus infundibuli hypothalami (IN) are associated with maternal behaviors in the native Thai chicken...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938775/effects-of-different-types-of-dark-brooders-on-injurious-pecking-damage-and-production-related-traits-at-rear-and-lay-in-layers
#5
A B Riber, D A Guzman
Injurious pecking (IP) remains one of the major welfare challenges in housing of laying hens worldwide due to the negative consequences it inflicts on animal welfare and economy. One potential solution to reduce IP is the use of dark brooders as the primary heat source during rearing. The objective was to investigate effects of rearing layer chicks with different management strategies and size allowances of dark brooders on IP and production-related traits during rear and lay. Groups of 100 to 103 Isa Warren chicks were reared either with one of 4 brooder types (n = 4 per treatment) or with whole-house heating (control: n = 6)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938750/allowable-warm-ischemic-time-and-morphological-and-biochemical-changes-in-uterine-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-cynomolgus-macaque-a-basic-study-for-uterus-transplantation
#6
Iori Kisu, Kiyoko Umeneo, Masataka Adachi, Katsura Emoto, Yuya Nogami, Kouji Banno, Iori Itagaki, Ikuo Kawamoto, Takahiro Nakagawa, Hayato Narita, Atsushi Yoshida, Hideaki Tsuchiya, Kazumasa Ogasawara, Daisuke Aoki
STUDY QUESTION: How long is the allowable warm ischemic time of the uterus and what morphological and biochemical changes are caused by uterine ischemia/reperfusion injury in cynomolgus macaques? SUMMARY ANSWER: Warm ischemia in the uterus of cynomolgus macaques is tolerated for up to 4 h and reperfusion after uterine ischemia caused no further morphological and biochemical changes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Uterus transplantation is a potential option for women with uterine factor infertility...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938749/the-testicular-transcriptome-associated-with-spermatogonia-differentiation-initiated-by-gonadotrophin-stimulation-in-the-juvenile-rhesus-monkey-macaca-mulatta
#7
Suresh Ramaswamy, William H Walker, Paula Aliberti, Rahil Sethi, Gary R Marshall, Alyxzandria Smith, Seyedmehdi Nourashrafeddin, Alicia Belgorosky, Uma R Chandran, Mark P Hedger, Tony M Plant
STUDY QUESTION: What is the genetic landscape within the testis of the juvenile rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) that underlies the decision of undifferentiated spermatogonia to commit to a pathway of differentiation when puberty is induced prematurely by exogenous LH and FSH stimulation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Forty-eight hours of gonadotrophin stimulation of the juvenile monkey testis resulted in the appearance of differentiating B spermatogonia and the emergence of 1362 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated testicular mRNAs encoding a complex network of proteins ranging from enzymes regulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis to membrane receptors, and from juxtacrine and paracrine factors to transcriptional factors governing spermatogonial stem cell fate...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938629/role-of-caspase-3-e-cadherin-in-helicobacter-pylori-induced-apoptosis-of-gastric-epithelial-cells
#8
Yongmei Yang, Jie Du, Fen Liu, Xiaoyan Wang, Xiaohui Li, Yuanjian Li
This study was designed to investigate the role of caspase-3/E-cadherin in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) -induced gastric epithelial apoptosis in cells, animal models and clinical gastritis patients. In cultured gastric mucosal epithelial cells, gastric glandular epithelial cells and C57BL/6 mice, H. pylori infection significantly induced apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells, down-regulated full-length E-cadherin and Bcl-2 expression, and up-regulated cleaved-caspase-3, E-cadherin/carboxy-terminal fragment 3 and Bax expression...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938612/magnetic-resonance-imaging-tracking-and-assessing-repair-function-of-the-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-transplantation-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Hongwu Zhang, Liqin Wang, Shihong Wen, Qingfeng Xiang, Xianhong Xiang, Caixia Xu, Yong Wan, Jingnan Wang, Bin Li, Yiqian Wan, Zhiyun Yang, David Y B Deng
The transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to repair spinal cord injury (SCI) has become a promising therapy. However, there is still a lack of visual evidence directly implicating the transplanted cells as the source of the improvement of spinal cord function. In this study, BMSCs were labeled with NF-200 promoter and lipase-activated gadolinium-containing nanoparticles (Gd-DTPA-FA). Double labeled BMSCs were implanted into spinal cord transaction injury in rat models in situ, the function recovery was evaluated on 1st, 7th, 14th, 28 th days by MRI, Diffusion Tensor Imaing, CT imaging and post-processing, and histological observations...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938576/computational-prediction-of-human-disease-related-micrornas-by-path-based-random-walk
#10
Israel Mugunga, Ying Ju, Xiangrong Liu, Xiaoyang Huang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenous RNAs that are 21-25 nucleotides in length. In animals and plants, miRNAs target specific genes for degradation or translation repression. Discovering disease-related miRNA is fundamental for understanding the pathogenesis of diseases. The association between miRNA and a disease is mainly determined via biological investigation, which is complicated by increased biological information due to big data from different databases. Researchers have utilized different computational methods to harmonize experimental approaches to discover miRNA that articulates restrictively in specific environmental situations...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938558/human-menstrual-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-a-cellular-vehicle-for-malignant-glioma-gene-therapy
#11
Xiao-Jun Wang, Bing-Yu Xiang, Ya-Hui Ding, Lu Chen, Hai Zou, Xiao-Zhou Mou, Charlie Xiang
Despite many advances in conventional treatment strategies, there is no effective treatment modality for malignant gliomas. Gene therapy may offer a promising option for gliomas and several gene therapy approaches have shown anti-tumor efficiency in previous studies. Mesenchymal stem cell-based gene therapies, in which stem cells are genetically engineered to express therapeutic molecules, have shown tremendous potential because of their innate homing ability. In this study, human menstrual blood-derived MSCs (MenSC), a novel type of multipotential MSCs displays tropism for human malignant glioma when used as a gene delivery vehicle for therapeutics...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938532/modulation-of-gdf11-expression-and-synaptic-plasticity-by-age-and-training
#12
Emanuela De Domenico, Giovanna D'Arcangelo, Isabella Faraoni, Mattia Palmieri, Virginia Tancredi, Grazia Graziani, Paola Grimaldi, Lucio Tentori
The Growth Differentiation Factor 11 (GDF11) has been controversially involved in the aging/rejuvenation process. To clarify whether GDF11 is differently expressed during aging, we have evaluated GDF11 levels in skeletal muscles and hippocampi of young and old mice, sedentary or subjected to a 12-weeks triweekly training protocol. The results of real-time PCR and Western blot analyses indicate that skeletal muscles of sedentary old mice express higher levels of GDF11 compared to young animals (p < 0.05)...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938523/hypothermia-induced-by-anesthesia-regulates-various-signals-expressions-in-the-hippocampus-of-animals
#13
Huimei Hao, Shanshan Wang
Though important for a variety of medical procedures, general anesthesia is not a problem free. Some anesthetics have been suggested to affect a number of signals, which are associated with memory consolidation and cognition. In the present study, we attempted to investigate the molecular mechanism of anesthesia-regulated processes. We found that under hypothermic condition, anesthetic of isoflurane enhances various signals expression in hippocampus, including Hspd1, Actb, Mgst1, THBS4, Syp, C1QC, Serpine, Plat, and Ngf, which were related to cellular stress, neural plasticity responses, and hippocampal injury...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938519/gilaburu-viburnum-opulus-l-fruit-extract-alleviates-testis-and-sperm-damages-induced-by-taxane-based-chemotherapeutics
#14
Serpil Sarıözkan, Gaffari Türk, Ayşe Eken, Latife Çakır Bayram, Ayşe Baldemir, Gülden Doğan
In this study, it was aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of gilaburu (Viburnum opulus L., Glb) fruit extract on testis and sperm damages induced by docetaxel (DTX) and paclitaxel (PTX) chemotherapeutics in rats. Sixty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into 6 equal groups, 10 animals each. The groups were created as control (weekly i.p. saline injection), Glb (weekly i.p. saline injection and daily oral 100mg/kg Glb), DTX (weekly i.p. injection of 5mg/kg DTX), PTX (weekly i.p. injection of 4mg/kg PTX), DTX+Glb (weekly i...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938514/-2-4-fluorobenzamido-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic-acid-a-novel-thiazole-compound-ameliorates-insulin-sensitivity-and-hyperlipidaemia-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-plausible-role-of-inflammatory-and-oxidative-stress-markers
#15
Yam Nath Paudel, Md Rahmat Ali, Mohammad Adil, Sandhya Bawa, Manju Sharma
Emerging evidence suggests that thiazole compounds are of great interest due to their protective effect against DM. Protective effects of thiazole derivatives against hyperglycemia have been demonstrated in earlier in vitro and in vivo studies. Previously, anti-oxidant and free radical scavenging activities of 2-(4-Fluorobenzamido)-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylicacid, a newly developed thiazole derivative (NDTD), have been well-documented. Current study investigated the pharmacological effect of NDTD on hyperglycaemia, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, anti-inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in an animal model...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938481/vesicular-glutamate-transporter-1-knockdown-in-infralimbic-prefrontal-cortex-augments-neuroendocrine-responses-to-chronic-stress-in-male-rats
#16
Brent Myers, Jessica M McKlveen, Rachel Morano, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai, Matia B Solomon, Steven P Wilson, James P Herman
Chronic stress-associated pathologies frequently associate with alterations in the structure and activity of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, the influence of infralimbic cortex (IL) projection neurons on HPA axis activity is unknown, as is the involvement of these cells in chronic stress-induced endocrine alterations. In the current study, a lentiviral-packaged vector coding for a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGluT1) mRNA was microinjected into the IL of male rats...
July 25, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938437/progressive-fibrosis-a-progesterone-and-klf11-mediated-sexually-dimorphic-female-response
#17
Chandra C Shenoy, Zaraq Khan, Ye Zheng, Tiffanny L Jones, Khashayarsha Khazaie, Gaurang S Daftary
Progressive scarring is ubiquitous post-operatively and in an array of chronic systemic diseases. Recent studies indicate that such scarring has high female propensity; females are also almost exclusively affected by endometriosis, a common sex steroid dependent fibrotic disease. Endometriosis related fibrosis is regulated epigenetically through transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 11(KLF11). In response to surgical induction of endometriosis, Klf11-/- female mice develop significant fibrosis in contrast to wild-type mice...
August 11, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938432/mitochondrial-function-regulated-by-mitoguardin-1-2-is-crucial-for-ovarian-endocrine-functions-and-ovulation
#18
Xiao-Man Liu, Yin-Li Zhang, Shu-Yan Ji, Long-Wen Zhao, Wei-Na Shang, Dali Li, Zijiang Chen, Chao Tong, Heng-Yu Fan
The balances of mitochondrial dynamic changes, mitochondrial morphology, and mitochondrial number are critical in cell metabolism. Once disturbed, disorders in these processes generally cause diseases or even death in animals. We performed large-scale genetic screenings in fruit flies and discovered the new gene mitoguardin (miga) that encodes for a mitochondrial outer membrane protein. In order to examine the physiological functions of its mammalian homologs Miga1 and 2, we generated Miga1 and Miga2 single- and double-knockout mouse strains and found that the knockout mice were viable, but the females were subfertile...
August 23, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938425/linking-stress-and-infertility-a-novel-role-for-ghrelin
#19
Luba Sominsky, Deborah M Hodgson, Eileen A McLaughlin, Roger Smith, Hannah M Wall, Sarah J Spencer
Infertility affects a remarkable one in four couples in developing countries. Psychological stress is a ubiquitous facet of life, and while stress affects us all at some point, prolonged or unmanageable stress may become harmful for some individuals, negatively impacting on their health, including fertility. For instance, women who struggle to conceive are twice as likely to suffer from emotional distress than fertile women. Assisted reproductive technology treatments place an additional physical, emotional and financial burden of stress, particularly on women, who are often exposed to invasive techniques associated with treatment...
July 27, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938418/androgens-support-male-acrobatic-courtship-behavior-by-enhancing-muscle-speed-and-easing-the-severity-of-its-trade-off-with-force
#20
Matthew J Fuxjager, Meredith C Miles, Franz Goller, John Petersen, Julia Yancey
Steroid hormone action in the brain regulates many animals' elaborate social displays used for courtship and competition, but it is increasingly recognized that the periphery may also be a site for potent steroidal modulation of complex behavior. However, the mechanisms of such "bottom up" regulation of behavioral outflow are largely unclear. To study this problem, we examine how androgenic sex hormones act through the skeletal muscular system to mediate elaborate courtship acrobatics in a tropical bird called the golden-collared manakin...
August 29, 2017: Endocrinology
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