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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636161/infinity-sperm-storage-the-gift-that-keeps-on-giving
#1
Gauthier Schang, Beatriz Fernandez-Fuertes, Samantha C Lean, Alexandra L Nguyen, Osvaldo Bogado Pascottini
Female Drosophila retain sperm for up to two weeks post-copulation in a network of storage organs includng the bursa, the seminal receptacle, and the spermathecae. This image shows the seminal receptacle of a Drosophila melanogaster female, 2-hrs post-copulation between a LHM (wild-type) female with a Protamine B (green), β-Tubulin (blue) fluorescently tagged male, whose sperm can be visualized within the female. This 'infinity' structure of the seminal receptacle resembles the tubular coil that allows for the storage of very long sperm relative to female body size -up to 20 times the length of the female in some Drosophila species...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636143/tetratricopeptide-repeat-protein-pyg7-is-essential-for-photosystem-i-assembly-by-interacting-with-psac-in-arabidopsis
#2
Huixia Yang, Pin Li, Aihong Zhang, Xiaogang Wen, Lixin Zhang, Congming Lu
Although progress has been made in determining the structure and understanding the function of photosystem I (PSI), the PSI assembly process remains poorly understood. PsaC is an essential subunit of PSI and participates in the transfer of electrons to ferredoxin. However, how PsaC is assembled during accumulation of the PSI complex is unknown. In the present study, we showed that Pyg7 localized to the stromal thylakoid and associated with the PSI complex. We also showed that Pyg7 interacted with PsaC. Furthermore, we found that the PSI assembly process was blocked following formation of the PsaAB heterodimer in the pyg7 mutant...
June 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635967/social-behaviour-involving-drug-resistance-the-role-of-initial-density-initial-frequency-and-population-structure-in-shaping-the-effect-of-antibiotic-resistance-as-a-public-good
#3
I L Domingues, J A Gama, L M Carvalho, F Dionisio
Bacteria sometimes cooperate with co-inhabiting cells. Pathogenic bacteria, for example, often produce and excrete virulence factors, eventually benefitting both producer and non-producer cells. The role of social interactions involving antibiotic resistance, however, has been more elusive. Enzymes that inactivate β-lactam antibiotics such as ampicillin or penicillin (β-lactamases) are good candidates as public goods. Nonetheless, it has been claimed that bacteria harbouring plasmids of natural origin coding for β-lactamase almost do not protect sensitive bacteria...
June 21, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635877/-a-neuropathic-component-of-lumboischialgia-mechanisms-of-development-and-treatment-approaches
#4
M V Churyukanov, G E Shevtsova, O I Zagorulko
Low back pain (LBP) is accompanied by the development of pain syndrome that spreads into the leg in 25-57% of patients. This is an important factor predicting the risk of transition of pain from acute to chronic and is an indirect indicator of disease severity. It is often impossible to specify the primary mechanism facilitated pain irradiation in lumboischialgia because many structures can cause analogous symptoms. Mechanisms of development of LBP are represented by nociceptive, neuropathic and psychogenic components...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635645/cembrene-diterpenoids-with-ether-linkages-from-sarcophyton-ehrenbergi-an-anti-proliferation-and-molecular-docking-assessment
#5
Mohamed-Elamir F Hegazy, Abdelsamed I Elshamy, Tarik A Mohamed, Ahmed R Hamed, Mahmoud A A Ibrahim, Shinji Ohta, Paul W Paré
Three new cembrene diterpenoids, sarcoehrenbergilid A-C (1-3), along with four known diterpenoids, sarcophine (4), (+)-7α,8β-dihydroxydeepoxysarcophine (5), sinulolide A (6), and sinulolide B (7), and one steroid, sardisterol (8), were isolated and characterized from a solvent extract of the Red Sea soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi. Chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses with absolute stereochemistry determined by X-ray analysis. Since these isolated cembrene diterpenes contained 10 or more carbons in a large flexible ring, conformer stabilities were examined based on density functional theory calculations...
June 21, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635589/regulation-of-escherichia-coli-pathogenesis-by-alternative-sigma-factor-n
#6
James T Riordan, Avishek Mitra
σ(N) (also σ(54)) is an alternative sigma factor subunit of the RNA polymerase complex that regulates the expression of genes from many different ontological groups. It is broadly conserved in the Eubacteria with major roles in nitrogen metabolism, membrane biogenesis, and motility. σ(N) is encoded as the first gene of a five-gene operon including rpoN (σ(N)), ptsN, hpf, rapZ, and npr that has been genetically retained among species of Escherichia, Shigella, and Salmonella. In an increasing number of bacteria, σ(N) has been implicated in the control of genes essential to pathogenic behavior, including those involved in adherence, secretion, immune subversion, biofilm formation, toxin production, and resistance to both antimicrobials and biological stressors...
June 2017: EcoSal Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635504/applying-rasch-model-analysis-in-the-development-of-the-cantonese-tone-identification-test-cantit
#7
Kathy Y S Lee, Joffee H S Lam, Kit T Y Chan, Charles Andrew van Hasselt, Michael C F Tong
OBJECTIVE: Applying Rasch analysis to evaluate the internal structure of a lexical tone perception test known as the Cantonese Tone Identification Test (CANTIT). DESIGN: A 75-item pool (CANTIT-75) with pictures and sound tracks was developed. Respondents were required to make a four-alternative forced choice on each item. A short version of 30 items (CANTIT-30) was developed based on fit statistics, difficulty estimates, and content evaluation. Internal structure was evaluated by fit statistics and Rasch Factor Analysis (RFA)...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635499/hearing-aid-fine-tuning-based-on-dutch-descriptions
#8
Thijs Thielemans, Donné Pans, Michelene Chenault, Lucien Anteunis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to derive an independent fitting assistant based on expert consensus. Two questions were asked: (1) what (Dutch) terms do hearing impaired listeners use nowadays to describe their specific hearing aid fitting problems? (2) What is the expert consensus on how to resolve these complaints by adjusting hearing aid parameters? DESIGN: Hearing aid dispensers provided descriptors that impaired listeners use to describe their reactions to specific hearing aid fitting problems...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635493/the-structure-of-lamin-filaments-in-somatic-cells-as-revealed-by-cryo-electron-tomography
#9
Y Turgay, O Medalia
Metazoan nuclei are equipped with nuclear lamina - a thin layer of intermediate filaments (IFs) mostly built of nuclear lamins facing the inner nuclear membrane (INM). The nuclear lamina serves as an interaction hub for INM-proteins, soluble nuclear factors and DNA. It confers structural and mechanical stability to the nucleus, transduces mechanical forces and biochemical signals across the nuclear envelope (NE) and regulates the organization of chromatin. By utilizing cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET), we recently provided an unprecedented view into the 3D organization of lamin filaments within the lamina meshwork in mammalian somatic cells...
June 21, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635432/psychological-resilience-in-people-experiencing-schizophrenia-and-suicidal-thoughts-and-behaviours
#10
Patricia Ann Gooding, Donna Littlewood, Rebecca Owen, Judith Johnson, Nick Tarrier
BACKGROUND: Negative stressors can aggravate the impact of schizophrenia. However, some people find ways of combating such stressors. There is a dearth of research examining factors which enable individuals with schizophrenia to show psychological resilience. AIMS: The goal of this study was to investigate resilience to negative stressors in people with disorders on the schizophrenia spectrum using a qualitative methodology. METHODS: Data were collected from 23 participants who had experienced schizophrenia and suicidal thoughts and behaviours...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634676/evaluation-of-the-psychometric-properties-of-the-eortc-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-questionnaire-qlq-cipn20
#11
Jacobien M Kieffer, Tjeerd J Postma, Lonneke van de Poll-Franse, Floortje Mols, Jan J Heimans, Guido Cavaletti, Neil K Aaronson
PURPOSE: To investigate the scale structure and psychometrics of the EORTC chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy module (QLQ-CIPN20). METHODS: Using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), we tested two hypothesized scale structure models of the QLQ-CIPN20 in 473 patients with non-small cell lung cancer, 281 patients with heterogeneous cancer diagnoses, and 500 patients with colorectal cancer. We also modeled the two hypothesized models as bi-factor models. These included a general factor, in addition to the specific domain factors...
June 20, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634638/co-existence-of-anaerobic-ammonium-oxidation-bacteria-and-denitrifying-anaerobic-methane-oxidation-bacteria-in-sewage-sludge-community-diversity-and-seasonal-dynamics
#12
Sai Xu, Wenjing Lu, Muhammad Farooq Mustafa, Luis Miguel Caicedo, Hanwen Guo, Xindi Fu, Hongtao Wang
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) and denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) have been recently discovered as relevant processes in the carbon and nitrogen cycles of wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the seasonal dynamics of ANAMMOX and DAMO bacterial community structures and their abundance in sewage sludge collected from wastewater treatment plants were analysed. Results indicated that ANAMMOX and DAMO bacteria co-existed in sewage sludge in different seasons and their abundance was positively correlated (P < 0...
June 20, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634409/characterization-of-the-3d-structure-of-a-cultivated-land-surface-and-its-influence-on-wheat-seedlings-growth-using-kinect
#13
Tao Liu, Wen Chen, Fujian Li, Wei Wu, Chengming Sun, Jinfeng Ding, Xinkai Zhu, Wenshan Guo
The quality of wheat emergence has a significant impact on the subsequent growth and development of seedlings. The structure of cultivated land surfaces is an important factor influencing wheat seedlings growth. However, few studies have investigated this. In this study, three-dimensional structural parameters of cultivated land surfaces were collected using 3D imaging equipment, and the effects of different grades of lands on the emergence and growth of wheat were evaluated. The evaluation criteria for the soil blocks was designed according to the ISO-25178-2 standard, and the wheat emergence rate, speed, tillering capacity per plant, dry weight per plant, and final yields of different grades of cultivated land were investigated...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634398/mutations-in-human-aid-differentially-affect-its-ability-to-deaminate-cytidine-and-5-methylcytidine-in-ssdna-substrates-in-vitro
#14
Lucyna Budzko, Paulina Jackowiak, Karol Kamel, Joanna Sarzynska, Janusz M Bujnicki, Marek Figlerowicz
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is known for its established role in antibody production. AID induces the diversification of antibodies by deaminating deoxycytidine (C) within immunoglobulin genes. The capacity of AID to deaminate 5-methyldeoxycytidine (5 mC) and/or 5-hydroxymethyldeoxycytidine (5 hmC), and consequently AID involvement in active DNA demethylation, is not fully resolved. For instance, structural determinants of AID activity on different substrates remain to be identified. To better understand the latter issue, we tested how mutations in human AID (hAID) influence its ability to deaminate C, 5 mC, and 5 hmC in vitro...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634376/structural-basis-to-stabilize-the-domain-motion-of-bard1-ard-brct-by-cstf50
#15
Rajan Kumar Choudhary, Mohd Quadir Siddiqui, Pankaj S Thapa, Nikhil Gadewal, Senthil Kumar Nachimuthu, Ashok K Varma
BRCA1 associated ring domain protein 1(BARD1) is a tumor suppressor protein having a wide role in cellular processes like cell-cycle checkpoint, DNA damage repair and maintenance of genomic integrity. Germ-line mutation Gln 564 His discovered in linker region of BARD1 leads to loss of binding to Cleavage stimulating factor (CstF50), which in turn instigates the premature mRNA transcript formation and apoptosis. We have studied the dynamics of ARD domain present in the BARD1 wild-type and mutant protein in association with CstF50 using biophysical, biochemical and molecular dynamics simulations...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634332/predicting-the-potential-risk-area-of-illegal-vaccine-trade-in-china
#16
Yilan Liao, Yanhui Lei, Zhoupeng Ren, Huiyan Chen, Dongyue Li
Since the disclosure of the "Illegal vaccine operation series case in Jinan, Shandong" in March, 2016, this issue has attracted a great deal of attention and has led to public concerns about the safety and efficacy of the vaccines involved in this case. The main purpose of this paper is to scientifically and scrupulously predict the possible geographic distribution of illegal vaccines in China, and provide a foundation to guide future governmental policies and actions. A species distribution model was used because of the advantages of using presence/pseudo-absence or presence-only data, and it performs well with incomplete species distribution data...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634327/high-quality-factor-confined-tamm-modes
#17
C Symonds, S Azzini, G Lheureux, A Piednoir, J M Benoit, A Lemaitre, P Senellart, J Bellessa
We demonstrate that quality factors up to 5000 can be obtained in Tamm-like hybrid metal/semiconductor structures. To do this, a Bragg mirror is covered by a thin transparent layer and a metallic film. The reduced losses of these modes are related to an intermediate behavior between conventional Tamm plasmon and Bragg modes lying deeper in the semiconductor medium. One of the most striking features of this approach is that these super Tamm modes can still be spatially confined with the metal. Confinement on micrometric scale is experimentally demonstrated...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634305/data-driven-extraction-of-a-nested-model-of-human-brain-function
#18
Taylor Bolt, Jason S Nomi, B T Thomas Yeo, Lucina Q Uddin
Decades of cognitive neuroscience research have revealed two basic facts regarding task-driven brain activation patterns. First, distinct patterns of activation occur in response to different task demands. Second, a superordinate, dichotomous pattern of activation/de-activation, is common across a variety of task demands. We explore the possibility that a hierarchical model incorporates these two observed brain activation phenomena into a unifying framework. We apply a latent variable approach, exploratory bi-factor analysis, to a large set of human (both sexes) brain activation maps (n = 108) encompassing cognition, perception, action and emotion behavioral domains, to determine the potential existence of a nested structure of factors that underlies a variety of commonly observed activation patterns...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634289/sex-specific-early-survival-drives-adult-sex-ratio-bias-in-snowy-plovers-and-impacts-mating-system-and-population-growth
#19
Luke J Eberhart-Phillips, Clemens Küpper, Tom E X Miller, Medardo Cruz-López, Kathryn H Maher, Natalie Dos Remedios, Martin A Stoffel, Joseph I Hoffman, Oliver Krüger, Tamás Székely
Adult sex ratio (ASR) is a central concept in population biology and a key factor in sexual selection, but why do most demographic models ignore sex biases? Vital rates often vary between the sexes and across life history, but their relative contributions to ASR variation remain poorly understood-an essential step to evaluate sex ratio theories in the wild and inform conservation. Here, we combine structured two-sex population models with individual-based mark-recapture data from an intensively monitored polygamous population of snowy plovers...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634253/role-of-autophagy-in-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-apoptosis-of-osteoblast-cells
#20
Liwen Zheng, Wanchun Wang, Jiangdong Ni, Xinzhan Mao, Deye Song, Tang Liu, Jianwei Wei, Zhou Huaying
The aim of this study is to investigate the role of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in apoptosis and autophagy of mouse osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells, as well as the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis. Mouse osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), rapamycin, 3-methyl adenine (3-MA) and TNF-α either alone or in combination, respectively. MTT assays were used to monitor the cell viability upon different treatments. Annexin-V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) staining was used to detect the apoptotic rate of osteoblasts...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
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