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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675412/capacities-for-the-risk-assessment-of-gmos-challenges-to-build-sustainable-systems
#1
Danilo Fernández Ríos, Clara Rubinstein, Carmen Vicién
The need for functional risk assessment bodies in general, and in the biosafety field in particular, demands continued efforts and commitment from regulatory agencies, if results that are sustainable in time are to be achieved. The lack of formal processes that ensure continuity in the application of state of the art scientific criteria, the high rotation in some cases or the lack of experienced professionals, in others, is a challenge to be addressed. Capacity building initiatives with different approaches and degrees of success have been implemented in many countries over the years, supported by diverse governmental and non-governmental organizations...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674064/determination-of-eight-carbonyl-compounds-in-aerosols-trapped-in-phosphate-buffer-saline-solutions-to-support-in-vitro-assessment-studies
#2
Roberto Buratto, Daniela Correia, Monique Parel, Maude Crenna, Mickaël Bilger, Audrey Debrick
When investigating the toxicological impact of aerosols using in vitro systems like cell cultures, it is essential to have a quantitative measurement of the chemicals that the cells are exposed to. Carbonyl compounds represent an important class of marker compounds for in vitro and in vivo exposure to different toxicological agents, including cigarette smoke (CS). A new LC-MS/MS method that quantifies eight of these analytes in aerosols trapped in phosphate-buffered saline solutions has been developed to measure exposure...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673362/problems-maintaining-collaborative-approaches-with-excluded-populations-in-a-randomised-control-trial-lessons-learned-implementing-housing-first-in-france
#3
Pauline Rhenter, Aurélie Tinland, Julien Grard, Christian Laval, Jean Mantovani, Delphine Moreau, Benjamin Vidaud, Tim Greacen, Pascal Auquier, Vincent Girard
BACKGROUND: In 2006, a local collective combating homelessness set up an 'experimental squat' in an abandoned building in Marseille, France's second largest city. They envisioned the squat as an alternative to conventional health and social services for individuals experiencing long-term homelessness and severe psychiatric disorders. Building on what they learned from the squat, some then joined a larger coalition that succeeded in convincing national government decision-makers to develop a scientific, intervention-based programme based on the Housing First model...
April 19, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669643/seniors-experiences-of-congregate-housing-in-sweden
#4
Britt-Maj Wikström
A study of older people's experiences of living in congregate housing units in Sweden found three categories of adaptation to this mode of living: good adaptation (found a new home), intermediate adaptation (having no choice), and poor adaptation (remaining grief ). Support in daily care must be individual depending on the degree of adaptation.
April 1, 2018: Creative Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666289/new-york-city-house-mice-mus-musculus-as-potential-reservoirs-for-pathogenic-bacteria-and-antimicrobial-resistance-determinants
#5
Simon H Williams, Xiaoyu Che, Ashley Paulick, Cheng Guo, Bohyun Lee, Dorothy Muller, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann, Franklin D Lowy, Robert M Corrigan, W Ian Lipkin
House mice ( Mus musculus ) thrive in large urban centers worldwide. Nonetheless, little is known about the role that they may play in contributing to environmental contamination with potentially pathogenic bacteria. Here, we describe the fecal microbiome of house mice with emphasis on detection of pathogenic bacteria and antimicrobial resistance genes by molecular methods. Four hundred sixteen mice were collected from predominantly residential buildings in seven sites across New York City over a period of 13 months...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665003/the-inside-tract-the-appendicular-cecal-and-colonic-microbiome-of-captive-aye-ayes
#6
Lydia K Greene, Erin A McKenney
OBJECTIVES: The aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) is famous for its feeding strategies that target structurally defended, but high-quality resources. Nonetheless, the influence of this digestible diet on gut microbial contributions to aye-aye metabolism and nutrition remains unexplored. When four captive aye-ayes were unexpectedly lost to persin toxicity, we opportunistically collected samples along the animals' gastrointestinal tracts. Here we describe the diversity and composition of appendicular, cecal, and colonic consortia relative to the aye-aye's unusual feeding ecology...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662230/reliability-and-validity-of-the-new-vikingslice-software-for-computed-tomography-body-composition-analysis
#7
Imanta Ozola-Zālīte, Esben Bolvig Mark, Tomas Gudauskas, Vladimir Lyadov, Søren Schou Olesen, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Aldis Pukitis, Jens Brøndum Frokjær
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Body composition assessment by computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes in various patient groups. This study aimed to compare the reliability and validity of a newly in-house developed segmentation software VikingSlice against a commercial software (SliceOMatic) for quantification of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle cross-sectional areas (CSA). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifty abdominal CT sets from chronic pancreatitis patients were analyzed (mean age 49, range 27-84 years; 38 males)...
April 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661191/factors-associated-with-treatment-seeking-for-malaria-in-urban-poor-communities-in-accra-ghana
#8
Raphael Baffour Awuah, Paapa Yaw Asante, Lionel Sakyi, Adriana A E Biney, Mawuli Komla Kushitor, Francis Agyei, Ama de-Graft Aikins
BACKGROUND: In Ghana, about 3.5 million cases of malaria are recorded each year. Urban poor residents particularly have a higher risk of malaria mainly due to poor housing, low socio-economic status and poor sanitation. Alternative treatment for malaria (mainly African traditional/herbal and/or self-medication) is further compounding efforts to control the incidence of malaria in urban poor communities. This study assesses factors associated with seeking alternative treatment as the first response to malaria, relative to orthodox treatment in three urban poor communities in Accra, Ghana...
April 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661136/effects-of-a-community-health-promotion-program-on-social-factors-in-a-vulnerable-older-adult-population-residing-in-social-housing
#9
Gina Agarwal, Madison Brydges
BACKGROUND: Supporting older adults' health and wellbeing in the community is an important policy goal that can be supported by health promotion. Despite widespread acceptance of the biopsychosocial model of health and its relation to health, many health promotion programs fail to realize this model in program design. Further, there is limited evidence to support program design targeting social determinants of health such as social isolation or connectedness. To fill this gap, we aimed to understand older adult's experiences participating in cardiovascular health promotion program in a subsidized residential building to capture unintended 'spin-off' psychosocial effects...
April 16, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660091/context-before-implementation-a-qualitative-study-of-decision-makers-views-of-a-peer-led-healthy-lifestyle-intervention-for-people-with-serious-mental-illness-in-supportive-housing
#10
Leopoldo J Cabassa, Ana Stefancic
People with serious mental illness die at an earlier age than people in the general population largely due to cardiovascular disease. Healthy lifestyle interventions can help reduce this health inequity. In this qualitative study, we examined the perceptions that decision makers in supportive housing agencies had toward a peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention and their views of contextual factors that could shape implementation at these agencies. A purposive sample of 12 decision makers from three supportive housing agencies was recruited...
April 4, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651924/abuse-of-rural-elders-in-mansoura-districts-dakahlia-egypt-prevalence-types-risk-factors-and-lifestyle
#11
Ghada El-Khawaga, Noha Eladawi, Farida Abdel-Wahab
This study was carried out to explore the prevalence of elderly abuse, identify its types, associated risk factors and determine quality of their life in Rural Mansoura districts, Egypt. A cross-section study was conducted on a sample of 272 elders recruited from outpatient clinicsFamily Health Centers in Shawa & Berkin villages from May 1 to September 3, 2016. 200 (73.5%) elders accepted participation. A previously designed and validated questionnaires were used to collect data from participants. 46% of the studied elders were abused...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651759/investigating-the-support-networks-for-mothers-of-a-high-density-public-housing-community-and-the-effects-of-housing-closures-on-these-support-systems
#12
Jennifer Smith, Soyang Kwon, Maryann Mason, Karen Sheehan
Over the past few decades, public housing initiatives have focused on the decentralization of poverty by replacing high-density public housing (HDPH) models with lower-density, mixed-income models. This action has resulted in the displacement of families who had lived in these developments for generations. In past studies, public housing residents have been shown to have stronger social ties than those living in other types of assisted housing. Research on the dismemberment of US public housing has demonstrated a "root shock" or disruption in the support infrastructure in these resource-limited communities...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642866/using-photo-elicitation-to-understand-reasons-for-repeated-self-harm-a-qualitative-study
#13
Amanda J Edmondson, Cathy Brennan, Allan O House
BACKGROUND: Reasons for self-harm are not well understood. One of the reasons for this is that first-hand accounts are usually elicited using traditional interview and questionnaire methods. This study aims to explore the acceptability of using an approach (photo-elicitation) that does not rely on solely verbal or written techniques, and to make a preliminary assessment of whether people can usefully employ images to support a discussion about the reasons why they self-harm. METHOD: Interviews with eight participants using photo elicitation, a method in which photographs produced by the participant are used as a stimulus and guide within the interview...
April 11, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628760/support-needs-of-patients-with-copd-a-systematic-literature-search-and-narrative-review
#14
REVIEW
A Carole Gardener, Gail Ewing, Isla Kuhn, Morag Farquhar
Introduction: Understanding the breadth of patients' support needs is important for the delivery of person-centered care, particularly in progressive long-term conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Existing reviews identify important aspects of managing life with COPD with which patients may need support (support needs); however, none of these comprehensively outlines the full range of support needs that patients can experience. We therefore sought to systematically determine the full range of support needs for patients with COPD to inform development of an evidence-based tool to enable person-centered care...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627964/evaluating-concurrent-validity-of-criminal-justice-and-clinical-assessments-among-women-on-probation
#15
Camila D Odio, Megan Carroll, Susan Glass, Ashley Bauman, Faye S Taxman, Jaimie P Meyer
BACKGROUND: Women in the criminal justice (CJ) system experience complex and comorbid medical, psychiatric, and substance use disorders, which often contribute to CJ involvement. To identify intersections between CJ and health needs, we calculated Spearman r correlations between concurrent CJ and clinical assessments from women on probation in Connecticut who were enrolled in a clinical trial. We examined longitudinal trends in CJ risk scores over 9 years of observation (2005-2014), modeling time to probation recidivism with shared gamma frailty models and comparing contiguous time points by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests...
April 7, 2018: Health & Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627910/correction-to-smoking-policy-change-within-permanent-supportive-housing
#16
Anne Berit Petersen, Holly C Stewart, Jon Walters, Maya Vijayaraghavan
The original version of this article unfortunately contains mistakes. 1. On page 315, in the last sentence under the "Tobacco Use" subheading, the percentage should read "59.3%" rather than "55.6%". 2. On page 315, in the last sentence under the "Secondhand Smoke Exposure" subheading, the percentage "28.2%" should read "28.6%". 3. The presentation of "Post-policy" and "Pre-policy" terms in the Figs. 1 and 3 were incorrect. It should be read as: Figure 1: Pre-policy (n = 27); Post-policy (n = 16)...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625567/geographic-variations-in-involuntary-care-and-associations-with-the-supply-of-health-and-social-care-results-from-a-nationwide-study
#17
Coralie Gandré, Jeanne Gervaix, Julien Thillard, Jean-Marc Macé, Jean-Luc Roelandt, Karine Chevreul
BACKGROUND: Involuntary psychiatric care remains controversial. Geographic disparities in its use can challenge the appropriateness of the care provided when they do not result from different health needs of the population. These disparities should be reduced through dedicated health policies. However, their association with the supply of health and social care, which could be targeted by such policies, has been insufficiently studied. Our objectives were therefore to describe geographic variations in involuntary admission rates across France and to identify the characteristics of the supply of care which were associated with these variations...
April 6, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624576/quantification-of-pathogenic-leptospira-in-the-soils-of-a-brazilian-urban-slum
#18
Andrew G Schneider, Arnau Casanovas-Massana, Kathryn P Hacker, Elsio A Wunder, Mike Begon, Mitermayer G Reis, James E Childs, Federico Costa, Janet C Lindow, Albert I Ko
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease that causes considerable morbidity and mortality globally, primarily in residents of urban slums. While contact with contaminated water plays a critical role in the transmission of leptospirosis, little is known about the distribution and abundance of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in soil and the potential contribution of this source to human infection. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected soil samples (n = 70) from three sites within an urban slum community endemic for leptospirosis in Salvador, Brazil...
April 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621989/examining-neighborhood-and-interpersonal-norms-and-social-support-on-fruit-and-vegetable-intake-in-low-income-communities
#19
Akilah Dulin, Patricia M Risica, Jennifer Mello, Rashid Ahmed, Kate B Carey, Michelle Cardel, Chanelle J Howe, Sarah Nadimpalli, Kim M Gans
BACKGROUND: We examined whether neighborhood-, friend-, and family- norms and social support for consumption and purchase of fruits and vegetables (F&V) were associated with F&V intake among low-income residents in subsidized housing communities. We examined baseline data from a study ancillary to the Live Well/Viva Bien intervention. Participants included 290 residents in four low-income subsidized housing sites who were ≥ 18 years of age, English and/or Spanish speaking, and without medical conditions that prevented consumption of F&V...
April 5, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621353/mid-life-psychosocial-work-environment-as-a-predictor-of-work-exit-by-age-50
#20
Stephen A Stansfeld, Ewan Carr, Melanie Smuk, Charlotte Clark, Emily Murray, Nicola Shelton, Jenny Head
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether psychosocial work characteristics at age 45 years predict exit from the labour market by the age of 50 years in data from the 1958 British Birth Cohort. METHODS: Psychosocial work characteristics (decision latitude, job demands, job strain and work social support at 45 years and job insecurity at 42 years) measured by questionnaire were linked to employment outcomes (unemployment, retirement, permanent sickness, homemaking) at 50 years in 6510 male and female participants...
2018: PloS One
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