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housing instability

Judith Martin-Fernandez, Sandrine Lioret, Cécile Vuillermoz, Pierre Chauvin, Stéphanie Vandentorren
The number of families living in shelters in the Paris region (France) has increased by a factor of three in 10 years. In 2013, a survey was performed on homeless families in order to characterize their living conditions, their health needs, and the developmental problems in children. This probability survey was conducted in 17 languages among 801 homeless families sheltered in emergency centers for asylum-seekers, emergency housing centers, social rehabilitation centers, and social hotels in the Paris region...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Stefanie Mollborn, Elizabeth Lawrence, Elisabeth Dowling Root
Understanding residential mobility in early childhood is important for contextualizing family, school, and neighborhood influences on child well-being. We examined the consequences of residential mobility for socioemotional and cognitive kindergarten readiness using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative longitudinal survey that followed U.S. children born in 2001 from infancy to kindergarten. We described individual, household, and neighborhood characteristics associated with residential mobility for children aged 0-5...
February 28, 2018: Demography
Mostafa Shokoohi, Mohammad Karamouzian, Hamid Sharifi, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Adam W Carrico, Samira Hosseini Hooshyar, Ali Mirzazadeh
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, crystal methamphetamine (CM) use and associated high-risk sexual behaviors are a concern, but they are less studied among female sex workers (FSW) in developing countries. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and individual, interpersonal, and structural correlates of self-reported past-month CM use among FSW in Iran. METHODS: FSW aged ≥ 18 years who reported penetrative sex with more than one client in the last year were recruited (analytic sample: 1295)...
February 14, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Samantha P Williams, Kenneth L Bryant
BACKGROUND: Homelessness significantly affects health and well-being. Homeless adults often experience co-occurring and debilitating physical, psychological, and social conditions. These determinants are associated with disproportionate rates of infectious disease among homeless adults, including tuberculosis, HIV, and hepatitis. Less is known about sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among homeless adults. METHODS: We systematically searched three databases, and reviewed the 2000-2016 literature on STI prevalence among homeless adults in the U...
January 4, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Ann Elizabeth Montgomery, Anneliese E Sorrentino, Meagan C Cusack, Scarlett L Bellamy, Elina Medvedeva, Christopher B Roberts, Melissa E Dichter
INTRODUCTION: Women Veterans are at increased risk of both housing instability and intimate partner violence compared with their non-Veteran counterparts. The objectives of the present study were (1) to assess the relationship between women Veterans' experience of intimate partner violence and various indicators of housing instability, and (2) to assess what correlates help to explain experiences of housing instability among women Veterans who experienced past-year intimate partner violence...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Erik A Wikstrom, Tricia Hubbard-Turner, Sophie Guderian, Michael J Turner
CONTEXT:   Ankle sprains are the most common orthopaedic injury that occurs during sport and physical activity. Many individuals who sprain their ankles develop chronic ankle instability (CAI), a condition characterized by recurrent injury, decreased physical activity, and decreased quality of life. These residual impairments are believed to persist for the remainder of the patient's life, in part due to the link between CAI and posttraumatic ankle osteoarthritis. However, this belief remains speculative due to the lack of long-term prospective investigations...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Yiu To Yeung, Shuying Yin, Bingbing Lu, Suyu Fan, Ran Yang, Ruihua Bai, Chengjuan Zhang, Ann M Bode, Kangdong Liu, Zigang Dong
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is known to play a critical role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Constitutively active EGFR mutations, including in-frame deletion in exon 19 and L858R point mutation in exon 21, contribute about 90% of all EGFR-activating mutations in NSCLC. Although oral EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), gefitinib and erlotinib, show dramatic clinical efficacy with significantly prolonged progression-free survival in patients harboring these EGFR-activating mutations, most of these patients will eventually develop acquired resistance...
February 2018: EBioMedicine
Mosharrof Mondal, Pavel Klimov, Alex Sutton Flynt
House dust mites are common pests with an unusual evolutionary history, being descendants of a parasitic ancestor. Transition to parasitism is frequently accompanied by genome rearrangements, possibly to accommodate the genetic change needed to access new ecology. Transposable element (TE) activity is a source of genomic instability that can trigger large-scale genomic alterations. Eukaryotes have multiple transposon control mechanisms, one of which is RNA interference (RNAi). Investigation of the dust mite genome failed to identify a major RNAi pathway: the Piwi-associated RNA (piRNA) pathway, which has been replaced by a novel small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-like pathway...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
Megan Sandel, Richard Sheward, Stephanie Ettinger de Cuba, Sharon M Coleman, Deborah A Frank, Mariana Chilton, Maureen Black, Timothy Heeren, Justin Pasquariello, Patrick Casey, Eduardo Ochoa, Diana Cutts
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate how 3 forms of housing instability relate to caregiver and child health among low-income renter households. METHODS: Caregivers of children 0 to 48 months of age were interviewed in 5 urban medical centers from May 2009 to December 2015. Caregivers reported on the following: caregiver health, maternal depressive symptoms, child's health, lifetime hospitalizations, developmental risk, and 3 housing circumstances, which were categorized as being behind on rent in the past 12 months, multiple moves (≥ 2 in past 12 months), and child's lifetime history of homelessness...
January 22, 2018: Pediatrics
Barbara L Brush, Laura E Gultekin, Elizabeth B Dowdell, Denise M Saint Arnault, Katherine Satterfield
Although trauma-informed approaches guide services to families experiencing homelessness, more emphasis is placed on securing housing than addressing underlying trauma contributing to housing instability. Examining the stories of 29 homeless and/or unstably housed mothers within the broader literature on family trauma and violence, chronic illness, and cultural aspects of family functioning, we define the process of trauma normativeness and normalization that may occur with repeated trauma experiences and argue that rehousing efforts must include concomitant attention to trauma and to understanding how individual, family, community, and cultural factors influence help-seeking behaviors in this vulnerable and growing population...
November 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
Rebekah A Erickson, Tim Stockwell, Bernadette Pauly, Clifton Chow, Audra Roemer, Jinhui Zhao, Kate Vallance, Ashley Wettlaufer
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: We investigated coping strategies used by alcohol-dependent and unstably housed people when they could not afford alcohol, and how managed alcohol program (MAP) participation influenced these. The aim of this study was to investigate potential negative unintended consequences of alcohol being unaffordable. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 175 MAP residents in five Canadian cities and 189 control participants from nearby shelters were interviewed about the frequency they used 10 coping strategies when unable to afford alcohol...
January 4, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Melissa R Koch, Nealia C M House, Casey M Cosetta, Robyn M Jong, Christelle G Salomon, Cailin E Joyce, Elliot A Philips, Xiaofeng A Su, Catherine H Freudenreich
CAG/CTG trinucleotide repeats are unstable sequences that are difficult to replicate, repair, and transcribe due to their structure-forming nature. CAG repeats strongly position nucleosomes; however, little is known about the chromatin remodeling needed to prevent repeat instability. In a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system with CAG repeats carried on a YAC, we discovered that the chromatin remodeler Isw1 is required to prevent CAG repeat expansions during transcription. CAG repeat expansions in the absence of Isw1 were dependent on both transcription-coupled repair (TCR) and base-excision repair (BER)...
March 2018: Genetics
Brenda McCowan, Brianne Beisner, Darcy Hannibal
Biomedical facilities across the nation and worldwide aim to develop cost-effective methods for the reproductive management of macaque breeding groups, typically by housing macaques in large, multi-male multi-female social groups that provide monkey subjects for research as well as appropriate socialization for their psychological well-being. One of the most difficult problems in managing socially housed macaques is their propensity for deleterious aggression. From a management perspective, deleterious aggression (as opposed to less intense aggression that serves to regulate social relationships) is undoubtedly the most problematic behavior observed in group-housed macaques, which can readily escalate to the degree that it causes social instability, increases serious physical trauma leading to group dissolution, and reduces psychological well-being...
December 7, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Alex Harocopos, Bennett Allen, Sarah Glowa-Kollisch, Homer Venters, Denise Paone, Ross Macdonald
A cohort of frequently incarcerated individuals in the New York City jail system was identified through "hot spotting" analysis. This group demonstrated higher levels of substance use, mental illness, and homelessness than the general jail population, and was typically incarcerated on minor criminal charges. To understand this population better, in-depth interviews (n = 20) were conducted at three Rikers Island correctional facilities with people who had entered the jail system at least 18 times in a six-year period...
2017: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Julieta Nattero, María Carla Cecere, Ricardo E Gürtler
Environmentally-induced developmental instability has frequently been assessed using fluctuating asymmetry (FA) methods. For Triatoma infestans, the major vector of Chagas disease, the combined effects of host-feeding sources and habitats affected wing developmental instability depending on sex in Figueroa villages, northwest Argentina. Here we investigated whether habitat, sex, season/year and insecticide applications affected wing developmental instability in T. infestans populations from Amamá and other rural villages of northwest Argentina over a four-year period...
December 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Chauncey R Gadek, Seth D Newsome, Elizabeth J Beckman, Andrea N Chavez, Spencer C Galen, Emil Bautista, Christopher C Witt
Most tropical bird species have narrow elevational ranges, likely reflecting climatic specialization. This is consistent with Janzen's Rule, the tendency for mountain passes to be effectively "higher" in the tropics. Hence, those few tropical species that occur across broad elevational gradients (elevational generalists) represent a contradiction to Janzen's Rule. Here, we aim to address the following questions. Are elevational generalists being sundered by diversifying selection along the gradient? Does elevational movement cause these species to resist diversification or specialization? Have they recently expanded, suggesting that elevational generalism is short-lived in geological time? To answer these questions, we tested for differentiation, movement and expansion in four elevational generalist songbird species on the Andean west slope...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
J A Schneider, N Lancki, P Schumm
Mass incarceration of young Black men has a significant impact on their network composition and stability that, in turn, may have major implications for health and well-being. A sub-group of young Black men with criminal justice involvement (CJI) identify as gay, bisexual or are non-identified men who have sex with men (hereafter MSM). This paper focuses on the potential effects of CJI on the composition of Black MSM social and sexual networks, their stability over time, and concomitant health and social outcomes...
October 2017: Social Networks
Zeynep Benderlioglu, Eliot Dow
Maternal aggression is behavior displayed by post-partum lactating female mice toward unfamiliar conspecifics, presumably as a defense against infanticide. A variety of perinatal stressors can impair maternal care in adulthood. Previous studies on associations between developmental perturbations and maternal aggression have produced mixed results. To address this issue, we employed a proxy for developmental instability, fluctuating asymmetry (FA) to further elucidate the relationship between low temperature stress and maternal aggression...
June 2017: Ethology: Formerly Zeitschrift Für Tierpsychologie
Tayla Smith, Lisa Hawke, Gloria Chaim, Joanna Henderson
OBJECTIVE: Though previous research has identified the high burden of mental health and addiction (MHA) concerns among precariously housed youth, earlier studies have not examined differences in MHA concerns among housing insecure Canadian youth across sectors. This study examines this issue using the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs Short Screener (GAIN-SS) in a cross-sectoral sample of Canadian youth. METHOD: A total of 2605 youth ages 12 to 24 seeking services across sectors completed the GAIN-SS and a sociodemographic form...
2017: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Patrick J Fowler, Katherine E Marcal, Jinjin Zhang, Orin Day, John Landsverk
The present study represents the first large-scale, prospective comparison to test whether aging out of foster care contributes to homelessness risk in emerging adulthood. A nationally representative sample of adolescents investigated by the child welfare system in 2008 to 2009 from the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being Study (NSCAW II) reported experiences of housing problems at 18- and 36-month follow-ups. Latent class analyses identified subtypes of housing problems, including literal homelessness, housing instability, and stable housing...
June 2017: Children and Youth Services Review
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