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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887652/limitations-of-malaria-reactive-case-detection-in-an-area-of-low-and-unstable-transmission-on-the-myanmar-thailand-border
#1
Daniel M Parker, Jordi Landier, Lorenz von Seidlein, Arjen Dondorp, Lisa White, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, Richard J Maude, François H Nosten
BACKGROUND: Reactive case detection is an approach that has been proposed as a tool for malaria elimination in low-transmission settings. It is an intuitively justified approach based on the concept of space-time clustering of malaria cases. When an index malaria clinical case is detected, it triggers reactive screening and treatment in the index house and neighbouring houses. However, the efficacy of this approach at varying screening radii and malaria prevalence remains ill defined...
November 25, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787347/housing-stability-and-medication-adherence-among-hiv-positive-individuals-in-antiretroviral-therapy-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies-in-the-u-s
#2
Rebecca Arden Harris, Xiaonan Xue, Peter A Selwyn
BACKGROUND: Previous research has produced inconsistent evidence of an association between housing stability and medication adherence among HIV-positive individuals in antiretroviral therapy. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a meta-analysis of the housing-adherence relationship based on a comprehensive search of observational studies in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases (January 2000 - January 2016). Ten qualifying studies were identified representing 10,556 individuals...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752312/improving-emergency-department-flow-through-optimized-bed-utilization
#3
Lucas Brien Chartier, Licinia Simoes, Meredith Kuipers, Barb McGovern
Over the last decade, patient volumes in the emergency department (ED) have grown disproportionately compared to the increase in staffing and resources at the Toronto Western Hospital, an academic tertiary care centre in Toronto, Canada. The resultant congestion has spilled over to the ED waiting room, where medically undifferentiated and potentially unstable patients must wait until a bed becomes available. The aim of this quality improvement project was to decrease the 90th percentile of wait time between triage and bed assignment (time-to-bed) by half, from 120 to 60 minutes, for our highest acuity patients...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750182/prevalence-and-correlates-of-substance-use-among-youth-living-with-hiv-in-clinical-settings
#4
Kristi E Gamarel, Larry Brown, Christopher W Kahler, M Isabel Fernandez, Douglas Bruce, Sharon Nichols
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to better understand the prevalence and correlates of substance use behaviors among HIV-infected adolescents in HIV care settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 2216 youth living with HIV (YLWH; ages 12-26) were recruited through the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV Interventions. Participants completed a one-time survey on sociodemographic factors, substance use and health behaviors. We used logistic regression models to understand the correlates of substance use outcomes...
October 11, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733167/mental-health-among-clients-of-the-sydney-medically-supervised-injecting-centre-msic
#5
Mark Goodhew, Allison M Salmon, Christina Marel, Katherine L Mills, Marianne Jauncey
The Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC) is a supervised injecting facility (SIF) where people who inject drugs (PWID) can do so legally, under health professional supervision. The majority of clients have low levels of education and employment, high rates of incarceration and unstable housing and poor social networks, and 70 % do not access local health services. These factors increase the risk of poor mental health, and it has been documented that PWID have elevated rates of mood, anxiety, personality and psychotic disorders; post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); and higher rates of trauma exposure, suicidality and self-harm...
October 12, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728890/cyromazine-resistance-in-a-field-strain-of-house-flies-musca-domestica-l-resistance-risk-assessment-and-bio-chemical-mechanism
#6
Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan, Waseem Akram
Developing resistance management strategies for eco-friendly insecticides is essential for the management of insect pests without harming the environment. Cyromazine is a biorational insecticide with very low mammalian toxicity. Resistance to cyromazine has recently been reported in house flies from Punjab, Pakistan. In order to propose a resistance management strategy for cyromazine, experiments were planned to study risk for resistance development, possibility of cross-resistance and bio-chemical mechanisms...
October 8, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714432/abrupt-transitions-to-tumor-extinction-a-phenotypic-quasispecies-model
#7
Josep Sardanyés, Regina Martínez, Carles Simó, Ricard Solé
The dynamics of heterogeneous tumor cell populations competing with healthy cells is an important topic in cancer research with deep implications in biomedicine. Multitude of theoretical and computational models have addressed this issue, especially focusing on the nature of the transitions governing tumor clearance as some relevant model parameters are tuned. In this contribution, we analyze a mathematical model of unstable tumor progression using the quasispecies framework. Our aim is to define a minimal model incorporating the dynamics of competition between healthy cells and a heterogeneous population of cancer cell phenotypes involving changes in replication-related genes (i...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702881/minimally-invasive-beat-by-beat-monitoring-of-cardiac-power-in-normal-hearts-and-during-acute-ventricular-dysfunction
#8
Audun E Rimehaug, Eirik Skogvoll, Petter Aadahl, Oddveig Lyng, Dag O Nordhaug, Lasse Løvstakken, Idar Kirkeby-Garstad
Cardiac power, the product of aortic flow and blood pressure, appears to be a fundamental cardiovascular parameter. The simplified version named cardiac power output (CPO), calculated as the product of cardiac output (CO) in L/min and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in mmHg divided by 451, has shown great ability to predict outcome in a broad spectrum of cardiac disease. Beat-by-beat evaluation of cardiac power (PWR) therefore appears to be a possibly valuable addition when monitoring circulatory unstable patients, providing parameters of overall cardiovascular function...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688870/sex-specific-effects-of-dietary-fatty-acids-on-saliva-cortisol-and-social-behavior-in-guinea-pigs-under-different-social-environmental-conditions
#9
Matthias Nemeth, Eva Millesi, Verena Puehringer-Sturmayr, Arthur Kaplan, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Ruth Quint, Bernard Wallner
BACKGROUND: Unbalanced dietary intakes of saturated (SFAs) and polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids can profoundly influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and glucocorticoid secretions in relation to behavioral performances. The beneficial effects of higher dietary PUFA intakes and PUFA:SFA ratios may also affect social interactions and social-living per se, where adequate physiological and behavioral responses are essential to cope with unstable social environmental conditions...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668008/-i-don-t-know-what-fun-is-examining-the-intersection-of-social-capital-social-networks-and-social-recovery
#10
Miriam Boeri, Megan Gardner, Erin Gerken, Melissa Ross, Jack Wheeler
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to understand how people with problematic drug use access positive social capital. Social capital is defined as relations that provide valuable resources to individuals through participation in social networks. People with low socioeconomic status remain at a disadvantage for acquiring positive social capital, a component of recovery capital. The concept of social recovery emphasises the relational processes of recovery. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: In-depth life history data were collected from 29 individuals who used heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine for at least five years, have less than a high school education, and unstable employment and housing...
2016: Drugs Alcohol Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647057/smoking-cessation-interventions-for-urban-hospital-patients-a-randomized-comparative-effectiveness-trial
#11
Scott E Sherman, Alissa R Link, Erin S Rogers, Paul Krebs, Joseph A Ladapo, Donna R Shelley, Yixin Fang, Binhuan Wang, Ellie Grossman
INTRODUCTION: Hospitalization is a unique opportunity for smoking cessation, but prior interventions have measured efficacy with narrowly defined populations. The objective of this study was to enroll smokers admitted to two "safety net" hospitals and compare the effectiveness of two post-discharge cessation interventions. DESIGN: A randomized comparative effectiveness trial was conducted. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: At two New York City public hospitals, every hospitalized patient identified as a smoker (based on admission records) was approached...
October 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646498/the-association-between-familial-homelessness-aggression-and-victimization-among-children
#12
Katelyn K Jetelina, Jennifer M Reingle Gonzalez, Paula M Cuccaro, Melissa F Peskin, Marc N Elliott, Tumaini R Coker, Sylvie Mrug, Susan L Davies, Mark A Schuster
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the number of periods children were exposed to familial homelessness and childhood aggression and victimization. METHODS: Survey data were obtained from 4,297 fifth-grade children and their caregivers in three U.S. cities. Children and primary caregivers were surveyed longitudinally in 7th and 10th grades. Family homelessness, measured at each wave as unstable housing, was self-reported by the caregiver...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640925/multiple-types-of-childhood-and-adult-violence-among-homeless-and-unstably-housed-women-in-san-francisco
#13
Lauren H Wong, Martha Shumway, Annesa Flentje, Elise D Riley
This study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood violence (emotional, physical, and sexual) and these same forms of violence in adulthood, using a cross-sectional baseline survey of 298 homeless and unstably housed women in San Francisco, California. We also examined other related factors, including mental illnesses diagnosis, sex exchange, jail time, HIV status, and sociodemographic information. Regression analysis indicated that although several of these factors were associated with experiences of violence as an adult, specific types of child violence (e...
September 16, 2016: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638472/evolution-of-socioeconomic-conditions-and-its-relation-to-spatial-temporal-changes-of-giardiasis-and-helminthiasis-in-amazonian-children
#14
B M Delfino, R G Campos, T M Pereira, S A S Mantovani, H Oliart-Guzmán, A C Martins, A M Braña, F L C C Branco, J A Filgueira-Júnior, A P Santos, T S Araújo, C S M Oliveira, A A Ramalho, P T Muniz, C T Codeço, M da Silva-Nunes
This study analyzed the evolution of socioeconomic, sanitary, and personal factors as well as spatiotemporal changes in the prevalence of helminthiasis and giardiasis in urban Amazonian children between 2003 and 2011. Child age, lack of sanitation, and lack of access to bottled water were identified as significant associated factors for helminthiasis and giardiasis. There was an overall improvement in socioeconomic and sanitary conditions in the city resulting in decreased helminth prevalences from 12.42 to 9...
September 15, 2016: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558634/a-mixed-methods-study-to-examine-the-influence-of-the-neighborhood-social-context-on-adolescent-health-service-utilization
#15
Kristin Mmari, Beth Marshall, Trevor Hsu, Ji Won Shon, Amenze Eguavoen
BACKGROUND: While adolescents' access and utilization of health services is critical for ensuring their health, very few seek care, and if they do, it is primarily from family members, friends, or other non-formal sources of care. Examining the influence of the social context on adolescent health care seeking behaviors may provide us with a better understanding for how interventions can increase adolescents' utilization of formal health care services. METHODS: The study is based on qualitative and quantitative data collected as part of the Well Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study, one of the first global studies to focus on very disadvantaged urban adolescents (aged 15-19 years) across five diverse sites, which include: Baltimore (USA), Ibadan (Nigeria), Johannesburg (South Africa), New Delhi (India), and Shanghai (China)...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547855/social-support-and-housing-transitions-among-homeless-adults-with-serious-mental-illness-and-substance-use-disorders
#16
Sonya Gabrielian, Alexander S Young, Jared M Greenberg, Elizabeth Bromley
Objective: Research suggests that social supports are associated with housing retention among adults who have experienced homelessness. Yet, we know very little about the social support context in consumers find and retain housing. We examined the ways and identified the junctures in which consumers' skills and deficits in accessing and mobilizing social supports influenced their longitudinal housing status. Method: We performed semi-structured qualitative interviews with VA Greater Los Angeles consumers (n = 19) with serious mental illness, substance use disorders, and a history of homelessness; interviews explored associations between longitudinal housing status (categorized as: stable, independent housing; sheltered housing, continually engaged in structured housing programs; and unstable housing) and social supports...
August 22, 2016: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514889/dominant-fitness-costs-of-resistance-to-fipronil-in-musca-domestica-linnaeus-diptera-muscidae
#17
Naeem Abbas, Rizwan Mustafa Shah, Sarfraz Ali Shad, Faheem Azher
House fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) a common pest of poultry, has developed resistance to the commonly used insecticide fipronil. The life history traits were examined in the fipronil-selected (Fipro-SEL), susceptible counterpart (UNSEL), and their hybrid progeny strains in order to design an effective resistant management strategy. Compared to the UNSEL strain, the Fipro-SEL was 181.94-fold resistant to fipronil. This resistance was unstable after five generations without selection. The Fipro-SEL had a significantly longer larval duration, lower pupal weight, lower fecundity, lower hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, lower intrinsic rate of population increase and lower biotic potential than the UNSEL strain...
August 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448959/use-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-during-the-preconception-antepartum-and-postpartum-periods-at%C3%A2-two%C3%A2-united-states-medical-centers
#18
Dominika L Seidman, Shannon Weber, Maria Teresa Timoney, Karishma K Oza, Elizabeth Mullins, Deborah L Cohan, Rodney L Wright
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy may increase a woman's susceptibility to HIV. Maternal HIV acquisition during pregnancy and lactation is associated with increased perinatal and lactational HIV transmission. There are no published reports of preexposure prophylaxis use after the first trimester of pregnancy or during lactation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to report the use of preexposure prophylaxis and to identify gaps in HIV prevention services for women who were at substantial risk of HIV preconception and during pregnancy and lactation at 2 United States medical centers...
July 19, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427925/risk-profiles-of-women-experiencing-initial-and-repeat-incarcerations-implications-for-prevention-programs
#19
Jeffrey H Herbst, Olivia Branscomb-Burgess, Deborah J Gelaude, Puja Seth, Sharon Parker, Catherine I Fogel
Incarcerated women experience myriad individual, interpersonal, and structural factors leading to arrest and rearrest. This study examined risk profiles of women experiencing initial and repeat incarcerations. The sample included 521 women recruited from two prisons in North Carolina and enrolled in a HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention trial. Variables included socio-demographics, structural/economic factors, sexual and substance use behaviors, STDs, victimization history, and depressive symptoms. Bivariate and multivariable analyses identified risk differences...
August 2016: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417882/yth-streetconnect-development-and-usability-of-a-mobile-app-for-homeless-and-unstably-housed-youth
#20
Bhupendra Sheoran, Cara Lynn Silva, James Elliot Lykens, Londiwe Gamedze, Samantha Williams, Jessie VanNess Ford, Melissa A Habel
BACKGROUND: Homeless and unstably housed (H/UH) youth are disproportionately affected by sexual health issues, including human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted diseases, teen pregnancy, and dating violence, and are at a higher risk for poor mental health and underutilization of services. Research suggests that linking health care to H/UH adolescents might help improve their continuity of care, with most preferring to access health care information via the Internet. YTH StreetConnect is a dual-purpose mobile app that helps H/UH youth access health and vital services in Santa Clara County, CA, USA...
2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
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