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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344740/trends-in-awareness-and-use-of-hiv-prep-among-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-vancouver-canada-2012-2016
#1
Terrance Mosley, Moliehi Khaketla, Heather L Armstrong, Zishan Cui, Paul Sereda, Nathan J Lachowsky, Mark W Hull, Gbolahan Olarewaju, Jody Jollimore, Joshua Edward, Julio S G Montaner, Robert S Hogg, Eric A Roth, David M Moore
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (gbMSM) are at the highest risk for HIV infection in British Columbia (BC). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been recently licensed but is currently not publicly funded in BC. Using respondent-driven sampling, we recruited a cohort of gbMSM to complete a computer-assisted self-interview with follow-up every 6 months. Stratified by HIV status, we examined trends in awareness of PrEP from 11/2012 to 02/2016 and factors associated with PrEP awareness. 732 participants responded to the PrEP awareness question...
January 17, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338770/nonmedical-prescription-opioid-use-and-illegal-drug-use-initiation-trajectory-and-related-risks-among-people-who-use-illegal-drugs-in-vancouver-canada
#2
Tessa Cheng, Will Small, Ekaterina Nosova, Bob Hogg, Kanna Hayashi, Thomas Kerr, Kora DeBeck
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prevalence of and risk factors associated with initiating nonmedical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) before and after illegal drugs using data from two linked cohort studies of street youth and adults who use illegal drugs in Vancouver, Canada. All participants who attended a study visit between 2013 and 2016 were eligible for the primary analyses. RESULTS: Among 512 youth and 833 adult participants, the prevalence of NMPOU was extremely high (88% among street youth; 90% among adults), and over one-third of those who reported engaging in NMPOU had initiated NMPOU before illegal drug use (vs...
January 16, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336651/formal-and-informal-control-of-cannabis-regular-users-experience
#3
Serge Brochu, Patrice Lépine, Catherine Patenaude, Patricia Erickson
BACKGROUND: The debate on recreational use of cannabis, recently relaunched by the election of the Liberal Party of Canada that intends to legalize and regulate its use and access, implies a better understanding of social control mechanisms that are in place, and their influence on users' behaviors. OBJECTIVE: This study addresses the issue of formal and informal controls by providing, first, a theoretical perspective of this concept, and, second, by illustrating its operation from the users' perspective...
January 16, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298408/exposure-to-rats-and-rat-associated-leptospira-and-bartonella-species-among-people-who-use-drugs-in-an-impoverished-inner-city-neighborhood-of-vancouver-canada
#4
David A McVea, Chelsea G Himsworth, David M Patrick, L Robbin Lindsay, Michael Kosoy, Thomas Kerr
Rat infestations are common, particularly in impoverished, inner-city neighborhoods. However, there has been little research into the nature and consequences of rat exposure in these neighborhoods, particularly in Canada. In this study, we sought to characterize exposure to rats and rat-associated Leptospira interrogans and Bartonella tribocorum, as well as risk factors associated with exposure, in residents (n = 202) of the Downtown Eastside (DTES) neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. There was no evidence of exposure to rat-associated L...
January 3, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295606/novel-application-of-cultured-epithelial-autografts-cea-with-expanded-mesh-skin-grafting-over-an-artificial-dermis-or-dermal-wound-bed-preparation
#5
Sadanori Akita, Kenji Hayashida, Hiroshi Yoshimoto, Masaki Fujioka, Chikako Senju, Shin Morooka, Gozo Nishimura, Nobuhiko Mukae, Kazuo Kobayashi, Kuniaki Anraku, Ryuichi Murakami, Akiyoshi Hirano, Masao Oishi, Shintaro Ikenoya, Nobuyuki Amano, Hiroshi Nakagawa
Cultured epithelial autografts (CEA) with highly expanded mesh skin grafts were used for extensive adult burns covering more than 30% of the total body surface area. A prospective study on eight patients assessed subjective and objective findings up to a 12-month follow-up. The results of wound healing for over 1:6 mesh plus CEA, gap 1:6 mesh plus CEA, and 1:3 mesh were compared at 3, 6, and 12 months using extensibility, viscoelasticity, color, and transepidermal water loss by a generalized estimating equation (GEE) or generalized linear mixed model (GLMM)...
December 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274187/sex-differences-in-diagnoses-treatment-and-outcomes-for-emergency-department-patients-with-chest-pain-and-elevated-cardiac-troponin
#6
Karin H Humphries, May K Lee, Mona Izadnegahdar, Min Gao, Daniel T Holmes, Frank X Scheuermeyer, Martha Mackay, Andre Mattman, Eric Grafstein
OBJECTIVE: While sex differences in the treatment and outcomes of subjects with acute coronary syndromes are well documented, little is known about the impact of cardiac troponin (cTn) levels obtained in the emergency department (ED) on the observed sex differences. We sought to determine whether cTn levels by chest pain features modify sex differences in diagnosis, treatment and outcomes in patients presenting with chest pain suggestive of ischemia. METHODS: All adults presenting to two hospitals in Vancouver, Canada between May 2008 and Mar 2013 with ischemic chest pain and with cTn testing were included in the study...
December 23, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274119/beyond-abundance-how-microenvironmental-features-and-weather-influence-bartonella-tribocorum-infection-in-wild-norway-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#7
J L Rothenburger, C G Himsworth, N M Nemeth, D L Pearl, C M Jardine
Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) inhabit cities worldwide and carry a number of zoonotic pathogens. Although many studies have investigated rat-level risk factors, there is limited research on the effects of weather and environment on zoonotic pathogen transmission ecology in rats. The objective of this study was to use a disease ecology approach to understand how abiotic (weather and urban microenvironmental features) and biotic (relative rat population abundance) factors affect Bartonella tribocorum prevalence in urban Norway rats from Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada...
December 23, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273031/knowledge-and-possession-of-take-home-naloxone-kits-among-street-involved-youth-in-a-canadian-setting-a-cohort-study
#8
Julia Goldman-Hasbun, Kora DeBeck, Jane A Buxton, Ekaterina Nosova, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr
BACKGROUND: The distribution of take-home naloxone (THN) kits has been an important strategy in reducing overdose fatalities among people who use drugs. However, little is known about the use of THN among youth who are street-involved. The present study explores knowledge and possession of THN among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting. METHODS: Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort of street-involved youth age 14-28 at enrollment in Vancouver, Canada...
December 22, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258607/burden-and-correlates-of-mental-health-diagnoses-among-sex-workers-in-an-urban-setting
#9
Nitasha Puri, Kate Shannon, Paul Nguyen, Shira M Goldenberg
BACKGROUND: Women involved in both street-level and off-street sex work face disproportionate health and social inequities compared to the general population. While much research has focused on HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among sex workers, there remains a gap in evidence regarding the broader health issues faced by this population, including mental health. Given limited evidence describing the mental health of women in sex work, our objective was to evaluate the burden and correlates of mental health diagnoses among this population in Vancouver, Canada...
December 19, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248334/diagnostic-accuracy-of-a-new-high-sensitivity-troponin-i-assay-and-five-accelerated-diagnostic-pathways-for-ruling-out-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-acute-coronary-syndrome
#10
Jaimi H Greenslade, Edward W Carlton, Christopher Van Hise, Elizabeth Cho, Tracey Hawkins, William A Parsonage, Jillian Tate, Jacobus Ungerer, Louise Cullen
STUDY OBJECTIVE: This diagnostic accuracy study describes the performance of 5 accelerated chest pain pathways, calculated with the new Beckman's Access high-sensitivity troponin I assay. METHODS: High-sensitivity troponin I was measured with presentation and 2-hour blood samples in 1,811 patients who presented to an emergency department (ED) in Australia. Patients were classified as being at low risk according to 5 rules: modified accelerated diagnostic protocol to assess patients with chest pain symptoms using troponin as the only biomarker (m-ADAPT), the Emergency Department Assessment of Chest Pain Score (EDACS) pathway, the History, ECG, Age, Risk Factors, and Troponin (HEART) pathway, the No Objective Testing Rule, and the new Vancouver Chest Pain Rule...
December 13, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246715/comparable-cumulative-incidence-of-late-periprosthetic-femoral-fracture-and-aseptic-stem-loosening-in-uncemented-total-hip-arthroplasty-a-concise-follow-up-report-at-a-minimum-of-20-years
#11
Moritz M Innmann, Marcus R Streit, Thomas Bruckner, Christian Merle, Tobias Gotterbarm
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of long-term studies into the third decade reporting on the incidence of periprosthetic femoral fracture (PPFF) and aseptic stem loosening (ASL) after cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). The aim of the present retrospective, longitudinal cohort study was to compare the cumulative incidence of PPFF and ASL in a consecutive cohort of 326 patients with 354 primary uncemented THAs after 20-25 years and to identify risk factors being associated with PPFFs. METHODS: Postoperative femoral fractures were investigated for timing, mechanism of injury, Vancouver classification, and subsequent treatment...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246332/parent-recommendations-to-enhance-enrollment-in-multidisciplinary-clinical-care-for-pediatric-weight-management
#12
Arnaldo J Perez, Maryam Kebbe, Nicholas L Holt, Rebecca Gokiert, Jean-Pierre Chanoine, Laurent Legault, Katherine M Morrison, Arya M Sharma, Geoff D C Ball
OBJECTIVE: To explore parents' recommendations to enhance enrollment in multidisciplinary clinical care for managing pediatric obesity. STUDY DESIGN: Data for this interpretative description study were collected through individual, semistructured interviews that were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Parents (n = 79) were recruited from 4 multidisciplinary weight management clinics in Canada located in Edmonton, Hamilton, Montreal, and Vancouver...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240903/declining-mortality-rates-in-hiv-infected-people-who-inject-drugs-during-a-seek-and-treat-initiative-in-vancouver-canada-1996-2014-a-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Kanna Hayashi, Huiru Dong, Thomas Kerr, Sabina Dobrer, Silvia Guillemi, Rolando Barrios, Julio S G Montaner, Evan Wood, M-J Milloy
We estimated rates and predictors of death among a community-recruited prospective cohort of 961 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada, between 1996 and 2014. The results demonstrated significant declines in age-adjusted all-cause and HIV-related mortality rates since 2010, coincident with the scale-up of a community-wide "seek-and-treat" campaign.
December 12, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232325/utility-of-electronic-medical-records-in-community-rheumatology-practice-for-assessing-quality-of-care-indicators-for-gout-a-feasibility-study
#14
Augusto Estrada, Nicole W Tsao, Alyssa Howren, John M Esdaile, Kamran Shojania, Mary A De Vera
OBJECTIVES: With comprehensive capture of information on patient encounters, electronic medical records (EMRs) may have utility for assessing adherence to quality indicators (QIs) in gout. Our objectives were to translate 10 previously established gout QIs into relevant EMR data and evaluate and describe the feasibility of using EMRs to assess gout QIs. METHODS: Using EMRs from 3 community rheumatology practices in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, we identified gout patients seen between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225896/incidence-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-factors-associated-with-its-development-in-hiv-positive-patients-over-the-age-of-50
#15
Faizal Samad, Marianne Harris, Cathy M Puskas, Monica Ye, Jason Chia, Sarah Chacko, Gregory P Bondy, Viviane D Lima, Julio Sg Montaner, Silvia A Guillemi
Objective: We sought to determine the incidence and factors associated with development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in older HIV-infected individuals. Research design and methods: We analyzed data from people living with HIV (PLWH) ≥50 years of age enrolled in a large urban HIV outpatient clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia. Patients were categorized as having DM if they had random blood sugar ≥11.1 mmol/L, fasting blood sugar ≥7 mmol/L, HbA1C ≥6.5%, antidiabetic medication use during the follow-up period, or medical chart review confirming diagnosis of DM...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223405/polished-collarless-tapered-cemented-stems-for-primary-hip-arthroplasty-may-exhibit-high-rate-of-periprosthetic-fracture-at-short-term-follow-up
#16
Trevor Scott, Anthony Salvatore, Pauline Woo, Yuo-Yu Lee, Eduardo A Salvati, Alejandro Gonzalez Della Valle
BACKGROUND: Cemented stems are designed to follow 1 of 2 principles of fixation: composite beams or slide taper. Stems in the latter category have a collarless, polished, tapered (CPT) design and subside into the cement mantle, creating hoop stresses. We compared the rate of periprosthetic fracture (PPF) of stem designed with these 2 principles of fixation. In addition, we examined radiographic factors that may predispose to the development of PPF. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent primary THA by a single surgeon using highly polished cemented stems...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220642/substance-use-patterns-associated-with-recent-exposure-to-fentanyl-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-vancouver-canada-a-cross-sectional-urine-toxicology-screening-study
#17
Kanna Hayashi, M-J Milloy, Mark Lysyshyn, Kora DeBeck, Ekaterina Nosova, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr
INTRODUCTION: Vancouver, Canada is experiencing an opioid overdose crisis where fentanyl, a potent, synthetic opioid contaminating the illicit drug supply, has been detected in the majority of fatal overdose cases. Despite its growing presence throughout North America, few studies have characterized exposure to fentanyl among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD). We sought to identify the prevalence and correlates of fentanyl exposure among PWUD in Vancouver. METHODS: Data were derived from cohort studies of PWUD in Vancouver...
December 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215354/associations-between-extreme-precipitation-and-acute-gastro-intestinal-illness-due-to-cryptosporidiosis-and-giardiasis-in-an-urban-canadian-drinking-water-system-1997-2009
#18
Bimal K Chhetri, Tim K Takaro, Robert Balshaw, Michael Otterstatter, Sunny Mak, Marcus Lem, Marc Zubel, Mark Lysyshyn, Len Clarkson, Joanne Edwards, Manon D Fleury, Sarah B Henderson, Eleni Galanis
Drinking water related infections are expected to increase in the future due to climate change. Understanding the current links between these infections and environmental factors is vital to understand and reduce the future burden of illness. We investigated the relationship between weekly reported cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis (n = 7,422), extreme precipitation (>90th percentile), drinking water turbidity, and preceding dry periods in a drinking water system located in greater Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (1997-2009) using distributed lag non-linear Poisson regression models adjusted for seasonality, secular trend, and the effect of holidays on reporting...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214616/a-randomized-controlled-trial-evaluating-methylsulfonylmethane-versus-placebo-to-prevent-knee-pain-in-military-initial-entry-trainees
#19
David J Tennent, Christina M Hylden, Benjamin K Kocher, James K Aden, Anthony E Johnson
BACKGROUND: Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a naturally occurring sulfur containing substance that has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. Previous studies using MSM as an oral supplement to improve pain in those patients with knee osteoarthritis have shown superiority compared to placebo. However, these studies are not translatable to active individuals performing high impact activities and have not evaluated MSM as a preventative measure. METHODS: A total of 180 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 40 years were enrolled...
October 2017: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214336/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-early-postoperative-botulinum-toxin-a-injection-for-facial-scars
#20
Seo H Lee, Hyung J Min, Yang W Kim, Young W Cheon
BACKGROUND: Scars widen when the underlying musculature pulls apart suture lines, and scars oriented against relaxed skin tension lines are especially susceptible to these distraction forces. Because botulinum toxin A (BTA) induces complete muscle paralysis, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of BTA using both observer-dependent qualitative assessments and quantitative measurements to verify its beneficial effects on facial scarring. METHODS: Patients with vertical forehead lacerations, treated by primary closure, were randomly assigned to two groups: one (n = 15) received BTA injections within 5 days of primary closure and the other (n = 15) received no further treatment...
December 6, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
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