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Michael J Widener, Leia M Minaker, Jessica L Reid, Zachary Patterson, Tara Kamal Ahmadi, David Hammond
OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential links between activity spaces, the food retail environment and food shopping behaviours for the population of young, urban adults. DESIGN: Participants took part in the Canada Food Study, which collected information on demographics, food behaviour, diet and health, as well as an additional smartphone study that included a seven-day period of logging GPS (global positioning system) location and food purchases. Using a time-weighted, continuous representation of participant activity spaces generated from GPS trajectory data, the locations of food purchases and a geocoded food retail data set, negative binomial regression models were used to explore what types of food retailers participants were exposed to and where food purchases were made...
March 16, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Michael A Irvine, Bernhard P Konrad, Warren Michelow, Robert Balshaw, Mark Gilbert, Daniel Coombs
Increasing HIV testing rates among high-risk groups should lead to increased numbers of cases being detected. Coupled with effective treatment and behavioural change among individuals with detected infection, increased testing should also reduce onward incidence of HIV in the population. However, it can be difficult to predict the strengths of these effects and thus the overall impact of testing. We construct a mathematical model of an ongoing HIV epidemic in a population of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Carla T Hilario, John L Oliffe, Josephine P Wong, Annette J Browne, Joy L Johnson
Distress among young immigrant and refugee men has drawn increasing research attention in recent years. Nuanced understandings of distress are needed to inform mental health and public health programming. The purpose of this research was to examine distress from the perspectives of young immigrant and refugee men living in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Thirty-three young men (aged 15-22 years) from diverse immigrant and refugee backgrounds participated in interviews, which were conducted between 2014 and 2015...
March 1, 2018: Health (London)
Kiffer G Card, Nathan J Lachowsky, Heather L Armstrong, Zishan Cui, Lu Wang, Paul Sereda, Jody Jollimore, Thomas L Patterson, Trevor Corneil, Robert S Hogg, Eric A Roth, David M Moore
INTRODUCTION: Among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM), collinearity between polysubstance use and mental health concerns has obscured their combined effects on HIV risk with multivariable results often highlighting only one or the other. METHODS: We used mediation and moderation analyses to examine the effects of polysubstance use and depressive symptoms on high-risk sex (i.e., condomless anal sex with serodiscordant/unknown status partner) in a sample of sexually-active GBM, aged ≥16 years, recruited in Metro Vancouver using respondent driven sampling...
March 6, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Nur Afiqah Mohd Salleh, Lindsey Richardson, Thomas Kerr, Jean Shoveller, Julio Montaner, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, M-J Milloy
OBJECTIVES: Among people living with HIV (PLWH), high levels of adherence to prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) is required to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. However, little is known about the effects of daily pill burden on adherence amongst PLWH who use drugs. We sought to investigate the association between daily pill burden and adherence to ART among members of this key population in Vancouver, Canada. METHODS: We used data from the AIDS Care Cohort to Evaluate Exposure to Survival Services study, a long-running community-recruited cohort of PLWH who use illicit drugs linked to comprehensive HIV clinical records...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Héctor A Velásquez García, Boris G Sobolev, Carolyn C Gotay, Christine M Wilson, Caroline A Lohrisch, Agnes S Lai, Kristan J Aronson, John J Spinelli
PURPOSE: The association between high mammographic density (MD) and elevated breast cancer risk is well established. However, the role of absolute non-dense area remains unclear. We estimated the effect of the mammographic non-dense area and other density parameters on the risk of breast cancer. METHODS: This study utilizes data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia, with 477 female postmenopausal breast cancer cases and 588 female postmenopausal controls...
March 7, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Taejong Song, Kye Hyun Kim, Kyo Won Lee
To compare the efficacy of silicone gel and onion extract gel on new surgical wounds, we performed a randomised controlled trial evaluating the appearance of the laparoscopic surgical scars of 60 subjects after 12 weeks of two times daily application of either silicone gel or onion extract gel. Objective scar assessment by the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) and the Image Panel Scale (IPS) and subjective scar assessment by the Body Image Scale (BIS) and Cosmetic Scale (CS) were performed after 12 weeks of treatment...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Rene Buttar, Jolanta Aleksejūnienė, Jeffrey Coil
AIM: To assess the prescribing decisions of general dentists in Vancouver and endodontists in British Columbia regarding analgesics and antibiotics for patients with endodontic disease. An additional aim was to determine whether gender, clinical experience or practice location have an impact on such decisions. METHODS: A 4-page survey was developed and distributed to approximately half the general dentists in Vancouver (n = 259) and all of the endodontists in British Columbia (n = 50)...
September 2017: Journal—Canadian Dental Association, Journal de L'Association Dentaire Canadienne
Joseph G H Lee, Kelly R Genga, Chawika Pisitsak, John H Boyd, Alex K K Leung, James A Russell, Keith R Walley
BACKGROUND: Patients with sepsis with a high ratio of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) have increased mortality. Our goal was to investigate the mechanism of this effect, noting that low LDL levels are also associated with increased sepsis mortality. Accordingly we tested for association between VAT/SAT, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, and mortality. Then we examined the effect of statin treatment, which decreases LDL production, and the effect of PCSK9 genotype, which increases LDL clearance...
March 6, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Alexander C Peterson, Jason M Sutherland, Guiping Liu, R Trafford Crump, Ahmer A Karimuddin
PURPOSE: The Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (FIQL) is a commonly used patient-reported outcome measure for fecal incontinence, often used in clinical trials, yet has not been validated in English since its initial development. This study uses modern methods to thoroughly evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the FIQL and its potential for differential functioning by gender. METHODS: This study analyzed prospectively collected patient-reported outcome data from a sample of patients prior to colorectal surgery...
March 5, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Geoff Bardwell, Solanna Anderson, Lindsey Richardson, Lorna Bird, Hugh Lampkin, Will Small, Ryan McNeil
BACKGROUND: While drug user organizations (DUO) have received public health attention as a means to potentially reduce the harms associated with drug use, there is a lack of research on the compensation and structural forces that promote or inhibit participation in DUO. Against the backdrop of structural vulnerability experienced by people who use drugs (PWUD), we examined the impact of monetary 'volunteer stipends' provided through a DUO and explore their role in providing low-threshold employment opportunities and shaping participation in DUO...
March 1, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Dazhi Fan, Qing Xia, Shuzhen Wu, Shaoxin Ye, Li Liu, Wen Wang, Xiaoling Guo, Zhengping Liu
BACKGROUND: Cesarean delivery has already become a very common method of delivery around the world, especially in low-income countries. Hypertrophic scars and wound infections have affected younger mothers and frustrated obstetricians for a long time. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have strong potential for self-renewal and differentiation to multilineage cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that MSCs are involved in enhancing diabetic wound healing. Therefore, this study is designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of using MSCs in the treatment of Cesarean section skin scars...
March 2, 2018: Trials
Linda Zhang, Monica Norena, Anne Gadermann, Anita Hubley, Lara Russell, Tim Aubry, Matthew J To, Susan Farrell, Stephen Hwang, Anita Palepu
OBJECTIVE: Individuals who are homeless or vulnerably housed have a higher prevalence of concurrent disorder, defined as having a mental health diagnosis and problematic substance use, compared to the general housed population. The study objective was to investigate the effect of having a concurrent disorder on health care utilization among homeless or vulnerably housed individuals, using longitudinal data from the Health and Housing in Transition Study. METHODS: In 2009, 1190 homeless or vulnerably housed adults were recruited in Ottawa, Toronto and Vancouver, Canada...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Maximilian B Bibok, Kristine Votova, Robert F Balshaw, Mary L Lesperance, Nicole S Croteau, Anurag Trivedi, Jaclyn Morrison, Colin Sedgwick, Andrew M Penn
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the performance of a novel triage system for Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) units built upon an existent clinical prediction rule (CPR) to reduce time to unit arrival, relative to the time of symptom onset, for true TIA and minor stroke patients. Differentiating between true and false TIA/minor stroke cases (mimics) is necessary for effective triage as medical intervention for true TIA/minor stroke is time-sensitive and TIA unit spots are a finite resource. METHODS: Prospective cohort study design utilizing patient referral data and TIA unit arrival times from a regional fast-track TIA unit on Vancouver Island, Canada, accepting referrals from emergency departments (ED) and general practice (GP)...
February 27, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Yun Zou, Li Hu, Mathias Tremp, Yunbo Jin, Hui Chen, Gang Ma, Xiaoxi Lin
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to repair large periorbital cutaneous defects by an innovative technique called PEPSI (periorbital elevation and positioning with secret incisions) technique with functional and aesthetic outcomes. METHODS: In this retrospective study, unilateral periorbital cutaneous defects in 15 patients were repaired by the PEPSI technique. The ages of patients ranged from 3 to 46 years (average, 19 years). The outcome evaluations included scars (Vancouver Scar Scale and visual analog scale score), function and aesthetic appearance of eyelids, and patient satisfaction...
February 23, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Li Hu, Yun Zou, Shih-Jen Chang, Yajing Qiu, Hui Chen, Ma Gang, Yunbo Jin, Xiaoxi Lin
BACKGROUND: Early intervention might improve the quality of surgical scars. Botulinum toxin type A has been shown to improve surgical scars in the past decade. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of botulinum toxin type A on surgical facial scars. METHODS: In this prospective, split-scar, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 16 consecutive patients who underwent facial surgery between June and October of 2015 were enrolled. Botulinum toxin type A was injected randomly into half of each surgical wound closure immediately after surgery...
March 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Nikola Bulatović, Miroslav Kezunović, Čedomir Vučetić, Nermin Abdić, Ivan Benčić, Tomislav Čengić
The rate of periprosthetic femoral fractures following total hip replacement has been growing steadily in the last 20 years and ranges from 0.1% to 2.1%. These fractures are mostly related to older patients with the presence of chronic diseases and frequently poor bone quality. The treatment is surgically very complex and demanding, followed by a series of complications. The evaluation in this retrospective study included 23 patients who were medically treated from January 2004 to December 2015 with the mean follow-up of 14...
September 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
Ulrik Haagen Panton, Malene Bagger, Simón Barquera
OBJECTIVES: To explore the future implications of diabetes for urban centres, we projected the prevalence and cost of diabetes from 2015 to 2040 in three very different North American cities: Houston, Mexico City and Vancouver. STUDY DESIGN: We use a simple demographic transition model using existing sources to project future prevalence and financial burden of diabetes. METHODS: Based on data from each individual city, projections of the diabetes prevalence and financial burden were created through a three-stage transition model where the likelihood of moving across stages is based on incidence rates for age and gender groups...
February 21, 2018: Public Health
Devon Greyson, Rod Knight, Jean A Shoveller
Population health information interventions (PHIIs) use information in efforts to promote health. PHIIs may push information to a target audience (communication), pull information from the public (surveillance), or combine both in a bidirectional intervention. Although PHIIs have often been framed as non-invasive and ethically innocuous, in reality they may be intrusive into people's lives, affecting not only their health but their senses of security, respect, and self-determination. Ethical acceptability of PHIIs may have impacts on intervention effectiveness, potentially giving rise to unintended consequences...
February 19, 2018: Health Promotion International
Vanessa A Barcellos, Liline M S Martins, Alide C L Fontes, Julia C V Reuwsaat, Eamim D Squizani, Glauber R de Sousa Araújo, Susana Frases, Charley C Staats, Augusto Schrank, Livia Kmetzsch, Marilene H Vainstein
The Cryptococcus gattii species complex harbors the main etiological agents of cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients. C. gattii molecular type VGII predominates in the north and northeastern regions of Brazil, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. C. gattii VGII isolates have a strong clinical relevance and phenotypic variations. These phenotypic variations among C. gattii species complex isolates suggest that some strains are more virulent than others, but little information is available related to the pathogenic properties of those strains...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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