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children with cerebral palsy and upper airway obstruction

Christopher Clark, Seckin O Ulualp
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may have multiple sites of upper airway obstruction (UAO). A wide variety of techniques has been used to evaluate UAO. Our aim was to compare findings of cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) in identifying UAO sites in children with persistent OSA after adenotonsillectomy (AT). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of children who underwent DISE and cine MRI were reviewed...
May 2017: Laryngoscope
Rahul G Baijal, Sudha A Bidani, Charles G Minard, Mehernoor F Watcha
BACKGROUND: Perioperative respiratory complications after adenotonsillectomy (T&A) are common and have been described to occur more frequently in children below 3 years of age, those with cranio-facial abnormalities, Down syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, morbid obesity, and failure to thrive. AIMS: To investigate the association between awake vs deep tracheal extubation and perioperative respiratory conditions. RESULTS: The primary outcome was any perioperative respiratory complication...
April 2015: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Georgios Kontorinis, Mahilravi S Thevasagayam, Neil D Bateman
OBJECTIVE: To examine the progress of the airway obstruction over time in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and the timing of any interventions. METHODS: The medical notes of patients with CP younger than 16 years admitted with airway obstruction to a tertiary referral Pediatric Otolaryngology Center from 2006 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The gender, age of referral, co-morbidities, type of surgical intervention and age this was performed and the time interval between sequential surgeries were documented...
October 2013: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Dominic J Wilkinson, Gordon Baikie, Robert G Berkowitz, Dinah S Reddihough
OBJECTIVE: Some children with severe cerebral palsy develop symptoms of upper airway obstruction (UAO) while awake. The aetiology, natural history and treatment of this complication have not previously been systematically described. This study documents a case series of children with severe cerebral palsy admitted to hospital because of severe awake UAO and reviews the relevant literature. METHODS: The case records of children admitted to hospital with UAO while awake over an 8-month period were reviewed...
January 2006: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Diego A Preciado, James D Sidman, Daniel E Sampson, Frank L Rimell
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of distraction osteogenesis of the mandible for relief of airway obstruction in neurologically impaired children. DESIGN: Prospective pilot study. SETTING: Tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENTS: Five children with upper airway obstruction secondary to hypotonia were identified by airway endoscopy, pulse oximetry, and polysomnography. Four children were tracheotomy-dependent because of upper airway obstruction, and 1 was being considered for tracheotomy because of progressive airway obstruction...
June 2004: Archives of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Helen Caulfield
Ninety percent of normal children with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) improve, or are cured, with adenotonsillectomy. However, 10% of apparently normal children show no improvement following this operation and it has a very poor outcome in Down's syndrome, where only about one in six children improve. Adenotonsillectomy is also rarely curative in children with cerebral palsy or craniofacial syndromes. In these children investigations of the site and severity of their obstruction is necessary. Taking a detailed history and asking the parents to fill in a questionnaire for data collection will identify most children with OSA...
December 2003: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Gordon Worley, David L Witsell, Gregory F Hulka
OBJECTIVE To present three cases of inspiratory stridor caused by laryngeal dystonia (LD) in children with cerebral palsy (CP), one of whom is being treated by periodic botulinum toxin type A (BTX) injection into a vocalis muscle, thereby avoiding tracheostomy. STUDY DESIGN Case series. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Laryngeal dystonia was diagnosed in three children with CP who presented with inspiratory stridor associated with generalized dystonia, all of whom were thought previously to have had laryngomalacia. The inspiratory stridor was severe enough in one patient that a tracheostomy was planned...
December 2003: Laryngoscope
Kazutoshi Takahashi
Children with severe physical disabilities frequently have respiratory problems which affect their quality of life (QOL). They commonly stem from central nervous system dysfunctions and/or severe motor disabilities, and consist of various impairments deriving primarily from central and motor dysfunctions, such as dysmyotonia, deformation, dysphagia, and gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), which often influence each other and result in respiratory insufficiency without adequate interventions. Aging is also an important factor to worsen respiratory involvements and to change their underlying pathophysiology gradually, even if the primary cause of the disability is non-progressive...
May 2003: No to Hattatsu. Brain and Development
H M Myatt, E J Beckenham
In this paper we present a prospective study of the role of diagnostic sleep nasendoscopy in the investigation and treatment of 20 children referred to a tertiary children's hospital with obstructive awake apnoea or severe obstructive sleep apnoea (apnoea/hypopnoea index greater than 30/h). We describe the technique of diagnostic sleep nasendoscopy and provide a classification system for documenting the findings. We demonstrate sleep nasendoscopy is an invaluable tool in the management of children who continue to have upper airway obstruction despite previous adenotonsillectomy and in children with airway obstruction due to cerebral palsy, syndromes and craniofacial malformations...
June 2000: Clinical Otolaryngology and Allied Sciences
S R Cohen, C Simms, F D Burstein, J Thomsen
PURPOSE: Since 1989, 70 children have been treated surgically with varying degrees of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Of these, 29 patients had completely failed conventional medical and surgical treatment and were considered tracheostomy (T) candidates, whereas five had previously undergone T for severe OSA as infants and did not respond to standard decannulation protocols. The preoperative diagnoses were cerebral palsy (n = 5), Down's syndrome (n = 5), hemifacial microsomia (n = 4), Pierre Robin sequence (n = 6), and a mixed group of craniofacial disorders (n = 14)...
January 1999: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
S R Cohen, J F Lefaivre, F D Burstein, C Simms, A V Kattos, P H Scott, G L Montgomery, L Graham
Children with cerebral palsy are at risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea, which is initially managed by medical therapy but often requires tracheostomy for stabilization of the airway. We report preoperative and postoperative polysomnographic findings in a prospective series of 18 patients with cerebral palsy and obstructive sleep apnea who were refractory to medical management and underwent aggressive surgical treatment of upper airway obstruction. Fifteen of the 18 children (83 percent) in whom tracheostomy was recommended were spared the procedure...
March 1997: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
F D Burstein, S R Cohen, P H Scott, G R Teague, G L Montgomery, A V Kattos
Obstructive sleep apnea in children may result in hypoxia, right-sided heart failure, and sudden death. Children with craniofacial deformities and/or cerebral palsy are at high risk for the development of obstructive sleep apnea. Prompted by the excellent results obtained in adults when sleep apnea was managed by an aggressive surgical approach, we undertook a similar treatment philosophy in children. Twenty-eight patients representing four diagnostic groups were evaluated and operated on for severe upper airway obstruction: Down syndrome (n = 5), cerebral palsy (n = 12), Goldenhar syndrome (n = 4), and a mixed apnea group (n = 7)...
July 1995: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
R G Berkowitz, G H Zalzal
A retrospective study was performed on 190 children younger than 3 years who underwent tonsillectomy either alone or in combination with other surgical procedures at the Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, over a 5-year period. The average age was 2 years 4 months and average weight was 12.8 kg. The most common indication for surgery was upper airway obstruction with apnea. One hundred sixty-two of 190 patients were discharged on the day following surgery. Complications were seen in 20 (10.5%) patients, 16 requiring prolongation of hospital stay and 4 requiring readmission...
June 1990: Archives of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
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