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child poverty

Omar Ali Juma, Zachary Obinna Enumah, Hannah Wheatley, Mohamed Yunus Rafiq, Seif Shekalaghe, Ali Ali, Shishira Mgonia, Salim Abdulla
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition has long been associated with poverty, poor diet and inadequate access to health care, and it remains a key global health issue that both stems from and contributes to ill-health, with 50 % of childhood deaths due to underlying undernutrition. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition among children under-five seen at Bagamoyo District Hospital (BDH) and three rural health facilities ranging between 25 and 55 km from Bagamoyo: Kiwangwa, Fukayosi, and Yombo...
October 19, 2016: BMC Public Health
Lara Gerassi, Melissa Jonson-Reid, Brett Drake
Little is known about whether there are specific subpopulations of youth with known problem behaviors that are more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors. This study's sample (n=4,117) was drawn from a larger longitudinal administrative data, consisting of young adults with child abuse and/or poverty histories and records of some form of high-risk behavior or mental health diagnosis during adolescence. A cluster-controlled, logistic regression resulted in eleven statistically significant relationships. Youth treated for a mental health disorder and experienced multiple forms of abuse were more likely to be treated for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)...
September 2016: Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma
Wanjie Tang, Jingdong Zhao, Yi Lu, Tingting Yan, Lijuan Wang, Jun Zhang, Jiuping Xu
OBJECTIVE: Millions of children were exposed to major earthquake in China, with serious psychological and developmental consequences. To obtain accurate rate of post-disaster related disorder and identify predictors may help inform post-disaster rescue and rehabilitation efforts. The present longitudinal study explored correlations of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of juvenile survivors of the Ya'an and Wenchuan earthquakes in China with their trajectories of post-disaster related disorder...
September 13, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Mats Målqvist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Linda M Richter, Bernadette Daelmans, Joan Lombardi, Jody Heymann, Florencia Lopez Boo, Jere R Behrman, Chunling Lu, Jane E Lucas, Rafael Perez-Escamilla, Tarun Dua, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Karin Stenberg, Paul Gertler, Gary L Darmstadt
Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children...
October 3, 2016: Lancet
Elena Longhi, Lynne Murray, Rachael Hunter, David Wellsted, Samantha Taylor-Colls, Kathryn MacKenzie, Gwynne Rayns, Richard Cotmore, Peter Fonagy, Richard M Pasco Fearon
BACKGROUND: Young mothers living in low-income urban settings often are exposed to significant and chronic environmental difficulties including poverty, social isolation and poor education and typically also have to cope with personal histories of abuse and depression. Minding the Baby® (MTB) is an interdisciplinary home-visiting programme developed to support first-time young mothers, which integrates primary care and mental health approaches into a single intensive intervention from the last trimester of pregnancy until the child's second birthday...
October 7, 2016: Trials
Lanlan Xu, Maureen A Pirog, Edward D Vargas
A large body of literature documents the importance of child support for children's wellbeing, though little is known about the child support behaviors of mixed-status families, a large and rapidly growing population in the United States. In this paper, we use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to investigate the impact of citizenship status on formal and informal child support transfers among a nationally representative sample of parents who have citizen children. Probit regression models and propensity score matching (PSM) estimators show that mixed-status families are significantly less likely to have child support orders and child support receipt compared to their citizen counterparts...
November 2016: Social Science Research
Laurie Miller Brotman, Spring Dawson-McClure, Dimitra Kamboukos, Keng-Yen Huang, Esther J Calzada, Keith Goldfeld, Eva Petkova
Importance: Low-income minority children living in urban neighborhoods are at high risk for mental health problems and underachievement. ParentCorps, a family-centered, school-based intervention in prekindergarten, improves parenting and school readiness (ie, self-regulation and preacademic skills) in 2 randomized clinical trials. The longer-term effect on child mental health and academic performance is not known. Objective: To examine whether ParentCorps delivered as an enhancement to prekindergarten programs in high-poverty urban schools leads to fewer mental health problems and increased academic performance in the early elementary school years...
October 3, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Jennifer L Marino, Lucy N Lewis, Deborah Bateson, Martha Hickey, S Rachel Skinner
BACKGROUND: Australia's teenage birth rate has fallen to historic lows, but teenage motherhood still occurs and can be challenging for mother and baby. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to review current evidence on the epidemiology and clinical care of teenage pregnancy and parenting, and provide recommendations around management of these young people in Australia. DISCUSSION: Teenage mothers may have experienced family, sexual, and partner violence, family disruption, and socioeconomic disadvantage...
October 2016: Australian Family Physician
Helen Elsey, Shraddha Manandah, Dilip Sah, Sudeepa Khanal, Frances MacGuire, Rebecca King, Hilary Wallace, Sushil Chandra Baral
BACKGROUND: Communities in urban slums face multiple risks to their health. These are shaped by intermediary and structural determinants. Gaining a clear understanding of these determinants is a prerequisite for developing interventions to reduce the health consequences of urban poverty. With 828 million people living in slum conditions, the need to find ways to reduce risks to health has never been greater. In many low income settings, the kitchen is the epicentre of activities and behaviours which either undermine or enhance health...
2016: PloS One
Pamela T Avila
Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is associated with child abuse, neglect, poverty, homelessness, and societal causes. Sex trafficking is the participation in commercial sex acts in which force, fraud, or coercion occur. This article discusses the scope of CSEC and sex trafficking, and the necessary identification skills and medical evaluations needed to help these patients.
September 27, 2016: Nurse Practitioner
Joshua O Akinyemi, Rotimi F Afolabi, Olutosin A Awolude
BACKGROUND: The maternal, newborn and child health care continuum require that mother/child pair should receive the full package of antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care in order to derive maximum benefits. Continuity of care is a challenge in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we investigate the patterns and factors associated with dropout in the continuum of maternity (antenatal, delivery and postnatal) care in Nigeria. METHOD: Using women recode file from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, we analysed data on 20,467 women with an index birth within 5 years prior to data collection...
September 27, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Janice C Probst, Judith C Barker, Alexandra Enders, Paula Gardiner
PURPOSE: Children's health is influenced by the context in which they live. We provide a descriptive essay on the status of children in rural America to highlight features of the rural environment that may affect health. DESCRIPTION: We compiled information concerning components of the rural environment that may contribute to health outcomes. Areas addressed include the economic characteristics, provider availability, uniquely rural health risks, health services use, and health outcomes among rural children...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Rural Health
Anthony Staines, Kevin P Balanda, Steve Barron, Yvonne Corcoran, Lorraine Fahy, Louise Gallagher, Tessa Greally, Jean Kilroe, Caroline Mason Mohan, Anne Matthews, Elyce McGovern, Alf Nicholson, Anne O'Farrell, Roy K Philip, Helen Whelton
The Irish health care system is based on a complex and costly mix of private, statutory, and voluntary provisions. The majority of health care expenditure comes from the state, with a significant proportion of acute hospital care funded from private insurance, but there are relatively high out-of-pocket costs for most service users. There is free access to acute hospital care, but not for primary care, for all children. About 40% of the population have free access to primary care. Universal preventive public health services, including vaccination and immunization, newborn blood spot screening, and universal neonatal hearing screening are free...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Ingrid Wolfe, Louise Sigfrid, Neil Chanchlani, Simon Lenton
Child health in the United Kingdom has improved markedly over recent decades but has failed to match health gains and reductions in mortality achieved by other European countries. Child poverty and inequalities are rising in the United Kingdom. The National Health Service (NHS) is a universally accessible health service, funded by taxation and is free at the point of use. The NHS is undergoing substantial reform, aiming to improve care quality and experience, meet rising demands, and contain costs. The NHS is struggling to balance access with expertise for urgent and unscheduled care...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Alexander Baranov, Leyla Namazova-Baranova, Valeriy Albitskiy, Natalia Ustinova, Rimma Terletskaya, Olga Komarova
We present a historical and analytical overview of the Russian child health care system describing strengths and challenges of the system. Main indicators of social environment and children's health, general demographics, and socioeconomic factors of Russia are described. The Russian health care system has preserved positive elements of the former Soviet model of pediatric care. However, beginning in 1991, it has been altered greatly in its funding and management. The child health care system is composed of a special network of outpatient and inpatient facilities...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Greg J Duncan, Katherine Magnuson, Elizabeth Votruba-Drzal
In the United States, does growing up in a poor household cause negative developmental outcomes for children? Hundreds of studies have documented statistical associations between family income in childhood and a host of outcomes in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Many of these studies have used correlational evidence to draw policy conclusions regarding the benefits of added family income for children, in particular children in families with incomes below the poverty line. Are these conclusions warranted? After a review of possible mechanisms linking poverty to negative childhood outcomes, we summarize the evidence for income's effects on children, paying particular attention to the strength of the evidence and the timing of economic deprivation...
September 14, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
Sophie M Goudet, Elizabeth W Kimani-Murage, Frederick Wekesah, Milka Wanjohi, Paula L Griffiths, Barry Bogin, Nyovani J Madise
OBJECTIVE: Children in slums are at high risk of undernutrition, which has long-term negative consequences on their physical growth and cognitive development. Severe undernutrition can lead to the child's death. The present paper aimed to understand the causes of undernutrition in children as perceived by various groups of community members in Nairobi slums, Kenya. DESIGN: Analysis of ten focus group discussions and ten individual interviews with key informants...
September 20, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
Roberto A Accinelli, Juan A Leon-Abarca, David Gozal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pneumonia constitutes one of the major causes of worldwide mortality in young children. Poverty has been traditionally assigned as the underlying factor accounting for these trends. However, the independent role of solid fuel use yielding biomass pollution on pneumonia rates among young children has not been extensively examined. METHODS: Independent socio-economic variables, and the percentage of solid fuel use, tobacco consumption, improved water access source and sanitation facilities were extracted for each country from the available public databases...
September 18, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Silvia Avram, Eva Militaru
We investigate the impact of the Romanian and Czech family policy systems on the poverty risk of families with children. We focus on separating out the effects of policy design itself and size of benefits from the interaction between policies and population characteristics. We find that interactions between population characteristics, the wider tax benefit system and child related policies are pervasive and large. Both population characteristics and the wider tax-benefit environment can dramatically alter the antipoverty effect of a given set of policies...
2016: Social Indicators Research
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