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child poverty

Michelle Hughes, Whitney Tucker
Research demonstrates the correlation between childhood adversities linked to poverty and negative outcomes in adulthood, indicating that poverty may itself be considered an adverse childhood experience. Because child poverty is a result of family economic circumstance, policy investments promoting family financial health are imperative to protect child well-being and North Carolina's future prosperity.
March 2018: North Carolina Medical Journal
Connor Sheehan, Daniel Powers, Claire Margerison-Zilko, Teresa McDevitt, Catherine Cubbin
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether historical neighborhood poverty measures are associated with mothers' reports of their children's sleep duration and to compare results from historical neighborhood poverty measures to contemporaneous measures of neighborhood poverty. DESIGN: The Geographic Research on Wellbeing (GROW) study is a follow-up survey of mothers who gave birth between 2003 and 2007. GROW mothers assessed their own and their children's health and health behaviors 5-10 years later (2012-2013)...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Sanju Silwal, Ragnhild Dybdahl, Roshan Chudal, Andre Sourander, Lars Lien
BACKGROUND: In 2015, Nepal was hit by two major earthquakes, which caused 8900 deaths and displaced more than 450,000 people. We assessed the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depressive symptoms and explored potential risk factors among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study comprised 893 students aged 11-17 in school grades 7-10. They lived in two districts affected by the earthquakes: Sindhupalchok and Kathmandu. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using Child PTSD symptom scale and Depression Self-Rating Scale...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Liana J Petruzzi, Samuel J Pullen, Brittany C L Lange, Lindsey Parnarouskis, Silvia Dominguez, Benjamin Harris, Nicole Quiterio, Gondah Lekpeh, Burgess Manobah, David C Henderson, Christina P C Borba
Substance use is prevalent among youth in postconflict African countries and is associated with a number of public health problems such as poverty, child homelessness, and school truancy. This qualitative study explores the risk factors associated with substance use among Liberian youth from the perspective of public-school students. Nine focus groups were conducted with 72 Liberian public-school students (35 female, 37 male). Multiple risk factors for substance use among Liberian youth were identified through qualitative analysis, including emotional instability, gender, fear of academic failure, accessibility to substances within the school and community, poverty, and unintentional drug use...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Melissa H Bellin, Angelica Newsome, Cassie Lewis-Land, Joan Kub, Shawna S Mudd, Rachel Margolis, Arlene M Butz
INTRODUCTION: Low-income caregiver perspectives on asthma management are understudied but may illuminate strategies to improve care delivery and child outcomes. METHOD: Purposive sampling methods were used to recruit 15 caregivers of children with frequent asthma emergency department visits. Interviews explored how poverty and stress affect asthma management. Grounded theory coding techniques were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Participants were the biological mother (100%) and were poor (75% had mean annual income ≤ $30,000)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Hannah Kuper, Tracey Smythe, Antony Duttine
Universal health coverage (UHC) has been adopted by many countries as a national target for 2030. People with disabilities need to be included within efforts towards UHC, as they are a large group making up 15% of the world's population and are more vulnerable to poor health. UHC focuses both on covering the whole population as well as providing all the services needed and must include an emphasis on health promotion, as well as disease treatment and cure. Health promotion often focusses on tackling individual behaviours, such as encouraging exercise or good nutrition...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Cynthia Khamala Wangamati, Johanne Sundby, Ruth Jane Prince
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a major global health concern. Although it is prevalent in Kenya, scant literature on factors contributing to CSA vulnerability exists. Using qualitative data from 28 focus groups and ethnographic field notes, we explored and assessed community perceptions of factors contributing to CSA vulnerability in Homa Bay County, Western Kenya. Findings suggest that people living in these communities perceived CSA as being influenced by multiple factors: developmental stage, peer pressure, huge gender disparities exacerbated by negative social norms and cultural practices, the HIV epidemic and social media platforms that circulate sexualised images...
March 13, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Veni Kandasamy, Ashley H Hirai, Reem M Ghandour, Michael D Kogan
OBJECTIVE: Flourishing reflects positive mental health and thriving and is important for children's development and well-being. Few national studies of flourishing among school-aged children exist. Exposure to socioeconomic disadvantage is negatively associated with social and health outcomes, including flourishing. This analysis describes independent associations of the child, family, school, and neighborhood factors with flourishing, which we hypothesized may contribute to sociodemographic disparities...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Jessica Snowden, Paul Darden, Paul Palumbo, Phil Saul, Jeannette Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The institutional development award (IDeA) program was created to increase the competitiveness of investigators in states with historically low success rates for National Institutes of Health (NIH) research funding applications. IDeA states have high numbers of rural and medically underserved residents with disproportionately high rates of infant mortality, obesity, and poverty. This program supports the development and expansion of research infrastructure and research activities in these states...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Susan Andrea Bartels, Saja Michael, Sophie Roupetz, Stephanie Garbern, Lama Kilzar, Harveen Bergquist, Nour Bakhache, Colleen Davison, Annie Bunting
Introduction: The Syrian conflict has resulted in over 2.3 million child refugees in the Middle East and the prevalence of early marriage has reportedly increased among displaced Syrian families. This study explores the underlying factors contributing to child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon with the goal of informing community-based strategies to address the issue. Methods: In July-August 2016, trained interviewers collected self-interpreted stories in Lebanon using Cognitive Edge's SenseMaker, a mixed-method data collection tool...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Cristiane S Paula, Jair J Mari, Isabel Altenfelder Santos Bordin, Euripedes C Miguel, Isabela Fortes, Natalia Barroso, Luis Augusto Rohde, Evandro Silva Freire Coutinho
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to identify early vulnerabilities for psychiatric disorders among Brazilian elementary school children, controlling for familial and community adversities. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study examining the association between child psychiatric disorders and potential early vulnerabilities (disability, low intellectual quotient, and negative dimensions of the temperament trait self-directedness (low resourcefulness, low purposefulness, low enlightened second nature), controlling for the potential confounders: familial and community adversities...
March 6, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Abhishek Pandey, Kerry Littlewood, Larry Cooper, Julie McCrae, Michelle Rosenthal, Angelique Day, Liliana Hernandez
Custodial grandparenting can be especially challenging for older grandmothers facing age specific issues. Kinship navigator programs are social service delivery programs intended to inform grandparents and other relatives raising children about available resources and services, provide information specific to their individual needs, and help families navigate service systems. Our study utilizes self-report data from one kinship navigator federal demonstration project, which used a randomized control trial, to examine demographic characteristics for grandmothers under and over 55 years of age, whether grandmother caregivers (≥55 years) improve family resilience, social support, and caregiver self-efficacy, and which interventions improved outcomes for grandmothers (≥55 years)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Women & Aging
Erin J Rotheram-Fuller, Mark Tomlinson, Aaron Scheffler, Thomas W Weichle, Panteha Hayati Rezvan, Warren Scott Comulada, Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus
OBJECTIVE: The consequences of maternal depressed mood on children's growth, health, and cognitive and language development are examined over the first 3 years of life. METHOD: Pregnant women in 24 periurban township neighborhoods in Cape Town, South Africa (N = 1,238 mothers) were randomized by neighborhood to a home visiting intervention or a standard care condition. Reassessments were conducted for 93%-85% of mothers at 2-weeks, 6-, 18-, and 36-months postbirth...
March 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Stephanie A Torres, Catherine DeCarlo Santiago, Katherine Kaufka Walts, Maryse H Richards
Currently, 15 million Mexican and Central American individuals live in the United States, with this number projected to rise in the next few decades (Lesser & Batalova, 2017; Zong & Batalova, 2017). Research has begun to investigate the impact of the nation's immigration practices and policies on immigrant Latino/a families and youth. Current immigration policies can create vulnerabilities, including fear and mistrust, discrimination, limited access to services, parent-child separation, and poverty...
March 5, 2018: American Psychologist
Holly Thurston, Sheridan Miyamoto
Child welfare agencies are tasked with investigating allegations of child maltreatment and intervening when necessary. Researchers are turning to the field of predictive analytics to optimize data analysis and data-driven decision making. To demonstrate the utility of statistical algorithms that preceded the current predictive analytics, we used Model Based (MOB) recursive partitioning, a variant of regression analysis known as decision trees, on a dataset of cases and controls with a binary outcome of serious maltreatment (defined as hospitalization or death)...
February 28, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Carol McDonald Connor, Michèle M M Mazzocco, Terri Kurz, Elizabeth C Crowe, Elizabeth L Tighe, Taffeta S Wood, Frederick J Morrison
Accumulating evidence suggests that assessment-informed personalized instruction, tailored to students' individual skills and abilities, is more effective than more one-size-fits-all approaches. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of Individualizing Student Instruction in Mathematics (ISI-Math) compared to Reading (ISI-Reading) where classrooms were randomly assigned to ISI-Math or ISI-Reading. The literature on child characteristics X instruction or skill X treatment interaction effects point to the complexities of tailoring instruction for individual students who present with constellations of skills...
February 2018: Journal of School Psychology
Idia B Thurston, Kathryn H Howell, Rebecca C Kamody, Courtney Maclin-Akinyemi, Jessica Mandell
Physical and emotional adversities in mothers have rippling effects across the family system. While an association between individual maternal adversities and problematic mental health outcomes has been established, less is known about co-existing adversities in mothers. Consistent with the syndemic conceptual framework, we examined the co-occurrence of Substance Abuse, Violence, and AIDS/HIV (i.e., SAVA), which are three adversities that uniquely affect racial/ethnic minorities, individuals living in poverty, and people in urban communities...
March 2, 2018: AIDS Care
Björn Gustafsson, Torun Österberg
This article presents new research on income-based child indicators for immigrant children from 17 different national backgrounds and children of parents born in Sweden observed during the 3-year periods 1983-85, 1995-97 and 2008-10. This research examines mean household income, representation at the top of the income distribution and relative poverty differ for immigrant children from the corresponding levels among children with native born parents. Most of the analysis is concentrated on the second generation of immigrant children...
2018: Child Indicators Research
Whitney M Moret
INTRODUCTION: Economic strengthening practitioners are increasingly seeking data collection tools that will help them target households vulnerable to HIV and poor child well-being outcomes, match households to appropriate interventions, monitor their status, and determine readiness for graduation from project support. This article discusses efforts in 3 countries to develop simple, valid tools to quantify and classify economic vulnerability status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In Côte d'Ivoire, we conducted a cross-sectional survey with 3,749 households to develop a scale based on the definition of HIV-related economic vulnerability from the U...
March 1, 2018: Global Health, Science and Practice
Jamie Cage
Decades of research have consistently shown a link between foster care and low rates of high school completion. Despite the overwhelming knowledge surrounding this association, it remains unclear whether the low rates of high school completion are due to placement in foster care or the maltreatment and other contextual factors that foster care youth have experienced. This study examined the extent to which (a) maltreatment type and (b) foster care placement were associated with the educational attainment of 337 maltreated adolescents...
February 24, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
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