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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351604/evaluation-of-results-based-financing-in-the-republic-of-the-congo-a-comparison-group-pre-post-study
#1
Wu Zeng, Donald S Shepard, Jean de Dieu Rusatira, Aaron P Blaakman, Bernice M Nsitou
Results-based financing (RBF) has been advocated and increasingly scaled up in low- and middle-income countries to increase utilization and quality of key primary care services, thereby reducing maternal and child mortality rates. This pilot RBF study in the Republic of the Congo from 2012 to 2014 used a quasi-experimental research design. The authors conducted pre- and post-household surveys and gathered health facility services data from both intervention and comparison groups. Using a difference-in-differences approach, the study evaluated the impact of RBF on maternal and child health services...
January 16, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351594/sero-efficacy-of-vi-polysaccharide-tetanus-toxoid-typhoid-conjugate-vaccine-typbar-tcv
#2
Merryn Voysey, Andrew J Pollard
Background: Salmonella Typhi is the major cause of enteric fever in lower income countries. New conjugate vaccines show promise as public health interventions, however there are no efficacy data available from endemic areas. Methods: Data were obtained from a previously published phase 3 randomised controlled trial comparing Vi-polysaccharide tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Typbar-TCV; Bharat Biotech Intl Ltd, India): (Vi-TT) with Vi-polysaccharide (Typbar; Bharat Biotech Intl Ltd, India): (Vi-PS) in participants aged 2- 45 years...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351569/neighborhood-disadvantage-and-body-mass-index-a-study-of-residential-relocation
#3
Jerome N Rachele, Anne Kavanagh, Wendy J Brown, Aislinn M Healy, Gavin Turrell
Natural experiments, such as longitudinal observational studies which follow-up residents as they relocate, provide a strong basis to infer causation between the neighborhood environment and health. This study examined whether changes in the level of neighborhood disadvantage were associated with changes in body mass index (BMI) following residential relocation. This analysis included data from 928 residents who relocated between 2007 and 2013, across four waves of the HABITAT study in Brisbane, Australia. Neighborhood disadvantage was measured using a census-derived composite index...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351349/survey-research-with-a-random-digit-dial-national-mobile-phone-sample-in-ghana-methods-and-sample-quality
#4
Kelly L'Engle, Eunice Sefa, Edward Akolgo Adimazoya, Emmanuel Yartey, Rachel Lenzi, Cindy Tarpo, Nii Lante Heward-Mills, Katherine Lew, Yvonne Ampeh
INTRODUCTION: Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351286/socio-economic-determinants-of-physical-activity-across-the-life-course-a-determinants-of-diet-and-physical-activity-dedipac-umbrella-literature-review
#5
Grainne O'Donoghue, Aileen Kennedy, Anna Puggina, Katina Aleksovska, Christoph Buck, Con Burns, Greet Cardon, Angela Carlin, Donatella Ciarapica, Marco Colotto, Giancarlo Condello, Tara Coppinger, Cristina Cortis, Sara D'Haese, Marieke De Craemer, Andrea Di Blasio, Sylvia Hansen, Licia Iacoviello, Johann Issartel, Pascal Izzicupo, Lina Jaeschke, Martina Kanning, Fiona Ling, Agnes Luzak, Giorgio Napolitano, Julie-Anne Nazare, Camille Perchoux, Caterina Pesce, Tobias Pischon, Angela Polito, Alessandra Sannella, Holger Schulz, Chantal Simon, Rhoda Sohun, Astrid Steinbrecher, Wolfgang Schlicht, Ciaran MacDonncha, Laura Capranica, Stefania Boccia
BACKGROUND: To date, the scientific literature on socioeconomic correlates and determinants of physical activity behaviours has been dispersed throughout a number of systematic reviews, often focusing on one factor (e.g. education or parental income) in one specific age group (e.g. pre-school children or adults). The aim of this umbrella review is to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of the scientific literature from previously conducted research by summarising and synthesising the importance and strength of the evidence related to socioeconomic correlates and determinants of PA behaviours across the life course...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351139/a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-phone-based-intervention-for-smoking-cessation-and-relapse-prevention-in-the-postpartum-period
#6
Victoria H Coleman-Cowger, Katrina S Mark, Zachary R Rosenberry, Bartosz Koszowski, Mishka Terplan
OBJECTIVES: To pilot-test a Phone-based Postpartum Continuing Care (PPCC) protocol developed from existing evidence-based approaches to address both postpartum smoking relapse among low-income women who quit smoking during pregnancy and postpartum smoking increase among those who had cut down. METHODS: One hundred thirty low-income pregnant women who were current or recently quit tobacco smokers were recruited at their first prenatal appointment and randomized to either a Control (standard care) or Experimental (standard care + PPCC) group...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350768/diet-affects-gut-microbiota-and-modulates-hospitalization-risk-differentially-in-an-international-cirrhosis-cohort
#7
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Ramazan Idilman, Leila Mabudian, Matthew Hood, Andrew Fagan, Dilara Turan, Melanie B White, Fatih Karakaya, Jessica Wang, Rengül Atalay, Phillip B Hylemon, Edith A Gavis, Robert Brown, Leroy R Thacker, Chathur Acharya, Douglas M Heuman, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet
The relative ranking of cirrhosis-related deaths differs between high/middle-income countries. Gut microbiome is affected in cirrhosis and related to diet. Our aim was to determine the effect of differing dietary habits on gut microbiota and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Outpatient compensated/decompensated cirrhotics and controls from Turkey and USA underwent dietary and stool microbiota analysis. Cirrhotics were followed till 90-day hospitalizations. Shannon diversity and multi-variable determinants (Cox and binary logistic) of microbial diversity and hospitalizations were studied within/between groups...
January 19, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350513/racial-ethnic-variation-in-devices-used-to-access-patient-portals
#8
Eva Chang, Katherine Blondon, Courtney R Lyles, Luesa Jordan, James D Ralston
OBJECTIVES: We examined racial/ethnic variation in the devices used by patients to access medical records through an online patient portal. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis. METHODS: Using data from 318,700 adults enrolled in an integrated delivery system between December 2012 and November 2013, we examined: 1) online patient portal use that directly engages the electronic health record and 2) portal use over desktops/laptops only, mobile devices only, or both device types...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350097/paternal-perinatal-depression-assessed-by-the-edinburgh-postnatal-depression-scale-and-the-gotland-male-depression-scale-prevalence-and-possible-risk-factors
#9
Magdalena Carlberg, Maigun Edhborg, Lene Lindberg
Several studies have used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), developed to screen new mothers, also for new fathers. This study aimed to further contribute to this knowledge by comparing assessment of possible depression in fathers and associated demographic factors by the EPDS and the Gotland Male Depression Scale (GMDS), developed for "male" depression screening. The study compared EPDS score ≥10 and ≥12, corresponding to minor and major depression, respectively, in relation to GMDS score ≥13...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349939/comparison-of-district-level-smoking-prevalence-and-their-income-gaps-from-two-national-databases-the-national-health-screening-database-and-the-community-health-survey-in-korea-2009-2014
#10
Ikhan Kim, Jinwook Bahk, Yeon Yong Kim, Jeehye Lee, Hee Yeon Kang, Juyeon Lee, Sung Cheol Yun, Jong Heon Park, Soon Ae Shin, Young Ho Khang
BACKGROUND: We compared age-standardized prevalence of cigarette smoking and their income gaps at the district-level in Korea using the National Health Screening Database (NHSD) and the Community Health Survey (CHS). METHODS: Between 2009 and 2014, 39,049,485 subjects participating in the NHSD and 989,292 participants in the CHS were analyzed. The age-standardized prevalence of smoking and their interquintile income differences were calculated for 245 districts of Korea...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349653/exploring-the-experiences-of-middle-income-mothers-in-practicing-exclusive-breastfeeding-in-nairobi-kenya
#11
Caroline W Wainaina, Milka Wanjohi, Frederick Wekesah, Gillian Woolhead, Elizabeth Kimani-Murage
Objectives To establish exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practice, women are encouraged to initiate breastfeeding of their newborns within one hour of delivery and breastfeed exclusively for the first 6 months of the infant's life. Research in Kenya has shown evidence of a reduced rate of EBF with an increase in socio-economic class (SES). This study explores the experiences of middle-income women so as to understand their attitudes and practices of EBF and to contribute toward the Baby Friendly Hospital (BFHI) and Baby Friendly Community Initiatives (BFCI) programs in Kenya...
January 18, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349529/esophageal-cancer-surgery-spontaneous-centralization-in-the-us-contributed-to-reduce-mortality-without-causing-health-disparities
#12
Francisco Schlottmann, Paula D Strassle, Anthony G Charles, Marco G Patti
BACKGROUND: Improvement in mortality has been shown for esophagectomies performed at high-volume centers. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine if centralization of esophageal cancer surgery occurred in the US, and to establish its impact on postoperative mortality. In addition, we aimed to analyze the relationship between regionalization of cancer care and health disparities. METHODS: A retrospective population-based analysis was performed using the National Inpatient Sample for the period 2000-2014...
January 18, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349291/spontaneous-infraslow-fluctuations-modulate-hippocampal-epsp-ps-coupling
#13
Michael B Dash, Stephen Ajayi, Lynde Folsom, Paul E Gold, Donna L Korol
Extensive trial-to-trial variability is a hallmark of most behavioral, cognitive, and physiological processes. Spontaneous brain activity (SBA), a ubiquitous phenomenon that coordinates levels and patterns of neuronal activity throughout the brain, may contribute to this variability by dynamically altering neuronal excitability. In freely-behaving male rats, we observed extensive variability of the hippocampal evoked response across 28-min recording periods despite maintaining constant stimulation parameters of the medial perforant path...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349281/work-disability-in-the-united-states-1968-2015-prevalence-duration-recovery-and-trends
#14
James N Laditka, Sarah B Laditka
The United States workforce is aging. At the same time more people have chronic conditions, for longer periods. Given these trends the importance of work disability, physical or nervous problems that limit a person's type or amount of work, is increasing. No research has examined transitions among multiple levels of work disability, recovery from work disability, or trends. Limited research has focused on work disability among African Americans and Hispanics, or separately for women and men. We examined these areas using data from 30,563 adults in the 1968-2015 Panel Study of Income Dynamics...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349278/machine-learning-approaches-to-the-social-determinants-of-health-in-the-health-and-retirement-study
#15
Benjamin Seligman, Shripad Tuljapurkar, David Rehkopf
Background: Social and economic factors are important predictors of health and of recognized importance for health systems. However, machine learning, used elsewhere in the biomedical literature, has not been extensively applied to study relationships between society and health. We investigate how machine learning may add to our understanding of social determinants of health using data from the Health and Retirement Study. Methods: A linear regression of age and gender, and a parsimonious theory-based regression additionally incorporating income, wealth, and education, were used to predict systolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and telomere length...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349270/breaking-down-the-monolith-understanding-flu-vaccine-uptake-among-african-americans
#16
Sandra Crouse Quinn, Amelia Jamison, Ji An, Vicki S Freimuth, Gregory R Hancock, Donald Musa
Black adults are significantly less likely to be immunized for seasonal influenza when compared to Whites. This persistent disparity contributes to increased influenza-related morbidity and mortality in the African American population. Most scholarship on vaccine disparities has compared Whites and Blacks. Employing Public Health Critical Race Praxis, this study seeks to shift the focus to explore differences within the Black population. Utilizing a nationally-representative 2015 survey of US Black adults (n = 806), we explore differences by gender, age, income, and education across vaccine-related measures (e...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349268/socioeconomic-status-indicators-and-common-mental-disorders-evidence-from-a-study-of-prenatal-depression-in-pakistan
#17
Joanna Maselko, Lisa Bates, Sonia Bhalotra, John A Gallis, Karen O'Donnell, Siham Sikander, Elizabeth L Turner
There is growing interest in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES), poverty, and mental health in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). However, it is not clear whether a gradient approach focused on a wider SES distribution or a binary poverty approach is more salient for mental health in LMIC. Yet this distinction has implications for interventions aimed at improving population health. We contribute to the literature by examining how multiple indicators of socioeconomic status, including gradient SES and binary poverty indicators, contribute to prenatal depression symptoms in a LMIC context...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349263/worldviews-and-trust-of-sources-for-health-information-on-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-effects-on-risk-perceptions-and-use
#18
Scott R Weaver, Amelia Jazwa, Lucy Popova, Paul Slovic, Richard B Rothenberg, Michael P Eriksen
Public health agencies, the news media, and the tobacco/vapor industry have issued contradictory statements about the health effects of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). We investigated the levels of trust that consumers place in different information sources and how trust is associated with cultural worldviews, risk perceptions, ENDS use, and sociodemographic characteristics using a nationally representative sample of 6051 U.S. adults in 2015. Seventeen percent of adults were uncertain about their trust for one or more potential sources...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349256/income-and-the-mental-health-of-canadian-mothers-evidence-from-the-universal-child-care-benefit
#19
Angela Daley
The Universal Child Care Benefit, introduced in 2006, was an income transfer for Canadian families with young children. I exploit this exogenous increase in income to answer the following questions: (1) Is there a relationship between income and mental health among Canadian mothers? (2) Is it corroborated by other measures of well-being (i.e. stress, life satisfaction)? (3) Is the effect different for lone mothers compared to those in two-parent families? I answer these questions using a difference-in-differences model and microdata from the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2003 to 2008...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349251/undiagnosed-depression-a-community-diagnosis
#20
Sharifa Z Williams, Grace S Chung, Peter A Muennig
Many large provider networks are investing heavily in preventing disease within the communities that they serve. We explore the potential benefits and challenges associated with tackling depression at the community level using a unique dataset designed for one such provider network. The economic costs of having depression (increased medical care use, lower quality of life, and decreased workplace productivity) are among the highest of any disease. Depression often goes undiagnosed, yet many believe that depression can be treated or prevented altogether...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
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