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Tuberculosis, antimicrobial drug resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344011/the-epidemiology-pathogenesis-transmission-diagnosis-and-management-of-multidrug-resistant-extensively-drug-resistant-and-incurable-tuberculosis
#1
REVIEW
Keertan Dheda, Tawanda Gumbo, Gary Maartens, Kelly E Dooley, Ruth McNerney, Megan Murray, Jennifer Furin, Edward A Nardell, Leslie London, Erica Lessem, Grant Theron, Paul van Helden, Stefan Niemann, Matthias Merker, David Dowdy, Annelies Van Rie, Gilman K H Siu, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Camilla Rodrigues, Taane G Clark, Frik A Sirgel, Aliasgar Esmail, Hsien-Ho Lin, Sachin R Atre, H Simon Schaaf, Kwok Chiu Chang, Christoph Lange, Payam Nahid, Zarir F Udwadia, C Robert Horsburgh, Gavin J Churchyard, Dick Menzies, Anneke C Hesseling, Eric Nuermberger, Helen McIlleron, Kevin P Fennelly, Eric Goemaere, Ernesto Jaramillo, Marcus Low, Carolina Morán Jara, Nesri Padayatchi, Robin M Warren
Global tuberculosis incidence has declined marginally over the past decade, and tuberculosis remains out of control in several parts of the world including Africa and Asia. Although tuberculosis control has been effective in some regions of the world, these gains are threatened by the increasing burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. XDR tuberculosis has evolved in several tuberculosis-endemic countries to drug-incurable or programmatically incurable tuberculosis (totally drug-resistant tuberculosis)...
March 15, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340510/the-diverse-family-of-mmpl-transporters-in-mycobacteria-from-regulation-to-antimicrobial-developments
#2
REVIEW
Albertus Viljoen, Violaine Dubois, Fabienne Girard-Misguich, Mickael Blaise, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Laurent Kremer
Mycobacterial genomes contain large sets of loci encoding membrane proteins that belong to a family of multidrug resistance pumps designated Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division (RND) permeases. Mycobacterial membrane protein Large (MmpL) transporters represent a subclass of RND transporters known to participate in the export of lipid components across the cell envelope. These surface-exposed lipids with unusual structures play key roles in the physiology of mycobacteria and/or can act as virulence factors and immunomodulators...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338408/clofazimine-encapsulation-in-nanoporous-silica-particles-for-the-oral-treatment-of-antibiotic-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infections
#3
Sabrina Valetti, Xin Xia, Joana Costa-Gouveia, Priscille Brodin, Marie-Françoise Bernet-Camard, Margareta Andersson, Adam Feiler
AIM: First extensive reformulation of clofazimine (CLZ) in nanoporous silica particles (NSPs) for tackling antibiotic-resistant tuberculosis (TB) infections. MATERIALS & METHODS: Solid-state characterization of several CLZ-encapsulated NSP formulations was followed by in vitro drug solubility, Caco-2 intestinal cells drug permeability and TB antibacterial activity. RESULTS: NSPs stabilize the amorphous state of CLZ (shelf stability >6 months) and dramatically increase the drug solubility in simulated gastric fluid (up to 20-fold) with different dissolution kinetics depending on the NSPs used...
March 24, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331043/world-health-organization-treatment-guidelines-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-2016-update
#4
Dennis Falzon, Holger J Schünemann, Elizabeth Harausz, Licé González-Angulo, Christian Lienhardt, Ernesto Jaramillo, Karin Weyer
Antimicrobial resistance is a major global concern. Tuberculosis (TB) strains resistant to rifampicin and other TB medicines challenge patient survival and public health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has published treatment guidelines for drug-resistant TB since 1997 and last updated them in 2016 based on reviews of aggregated and individual patient data from published and unpublished studies. An international expert panel formulated recommendations following the GRADE approach. The new WHO guidelines recommend a standardised 9-12 months shorter treatment regimen as first choice in patients with multidrug- or rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB) strains not resistant to fluoroquinolones or second-line injectable agents; resistance to these two classes of core second-line medicines is rapidly detectable with molecular diagnostics also approved by WHO in 2016...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327043/handwashing
#5
Erin Dean
Essential facts Antimicrobial resistance develops when medicines are used inappropriately. Global estimates suggest that every year more than 700,000 people die from drug-resistant strains of common bacterial and viral infections, such as tuberculosis, malaria and HIV. If antimicrobial resistance continues to increase, this number could rise to 10 million a year by 2050.
March 22, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317028/mycobacterial-caseinolytic-protease-gene-regulator-clgr-is-a-substrate-of-caseinolytic-protease
#6
Yoshiyuki Yamada, Thomas Dick
The mycobacterial caseinolytic protease ClpP1P2 is a degradative protease that recently gained interest as a genetically and pharmacologically validated drug target for tuberculosis. The first whole-cell active ClpP1P2 inhibitor, the human proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, is currently undergoing lead optimization to introduce selectivity for the bacterial target. How inhibition of ClpP1P2 translates into whole-cell antimicrobial activity is little understood. Previous work has shown that the caseinolytic protease gene regulator ClgR is an activator of the clpP1P2 genes and also suggested that this transcription factor may be a substrate of the protease...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292983/origins-of-combination-therapy-for-tuberculosis-lessons-for-future-antimicrobial-development-and-application
#7
REVIEW
Christopher A Kerantzas, William R Jacobs
Tuberculosis is a global health problem that causes the death of approximately 1.5 million people worldwide each year (WHO, p. 1-126, Global Tuberculosis Report, 2015). Treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis requires combination antimicrobial therapy with a minimum of four antimicrobial agents applied over the course of 6 months. The first instance of combination antimicrobial therapy applied to tuberculosis was the joint use of streptomycin and para-aminosalicylic acid as documented by the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom in 1950...
March 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281443/central-nervous-system-tuberculosis
#8
John M Leonard
Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB) takes three clinical forms: meningitis (TBM), intracranial tuberculoma, and spinal arachnoiditis. TBM predominates in the western world and presents as a subacute to chronic meningitis syndrome with a prodrome of malaise, fever, and headache progressing to altered mentation and focal neurologic signs, followed by stupor, coma, and death within five to eight weeks of onset. The CSF formula typically shows a lymphocytic pleocytosis, and low glucose and high protein concentrations...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262051/hand-washing
#9
Erin Dean
Essential facts Antimicrobial resistance develops when the medicines are used inappropriately. Global estimates suggest that every year more than 700,000 people die from drug-resistant strains of common bacterial and viral infections, such as the human immunodeficiency virus, tuberculosis and malaria. If antimicrobial resistance continues to increase, this number could rise to ten million a year by 2050.
March 6, 2017: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180188/imidazoles-induce-reactive-oxygen-species-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-which-is-not-associated-with-cell-death
#10
Heather A Howell Wescott, David M Roberts, Christian L Allebach, Rachel Kokoczka, Tanya Parish
Azoles are a class of antimicrobial drugs used clinically to treat yeast and fungal infections. Against pathogenic yeast and fungi, azoles act by inhibiting the activity of the cytochrome P450 Cyp51, which is involved in the synthesis of a critical component of the yeast and fungal cell membrane. Azoles have antibacterial activity, including against mycobacteria, but the basis for this activity is not well-understood. We demonstrated that imidazoles are bactericidal to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A marked increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed within imidazole-treated M...
January 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174307/a-bioengineered-three-dimensional-cell-culture-platform-integrated-with-microfluidics-to-address-antimicrobial-resistance-in-tuberculosis
#11
Magdalena K Bielecka, Liku B Tezera, Robert Zmijan, Francis Drobniewski, Xunli Zhang, Suwan Jayasinghe, Paul Elkington
Antimicrobial resistance presents one of the most significant threats to human health, with the emergence of totally drug-resistant organisms. We have combined bioengineering, genetically modified bacteria, longitudinal readouts, and fluidics to develop a transformative platform to address the drug development bottleneck, utilizing Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the model organism. We generated microspheres incorporating virulent reporter bacilli, primary human cells, and an extracellular matrix by using bioelectrospray methodology...
February 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167588/prevalence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-and-uninfected-children-in-botswana-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#12
Michael J A Reid, Rebecca S B Fischer, Naledi Mannathoko, Charles Muthoga, Erin McHugh, Heather Essigmann, Eric L Brown, Andrew P Steenhoff
Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). A major risk factor for staphylococcal infection is S. aureus colonization of the anterior nares. We sought to define risk factors for S. aureus carriage and characterize antimicrobial resistance patterns in children in Botswana. A cross-sectional study was conducted at two clinical sites in southern Botswana. Patients under 18 years of age underwent two nasal swabs and brief interviews, 4 weeks apart...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145487/the-antibacterial-activities-of-aditoprim-and-its-efficacy-in-the-treatment-of-swine-streptococcosis
#13
Guyue Cheng, Yamei Xu, Xudong Zhu, Shuyu Xie, Liye Wang, Lingli Huang, Haihong Hao, Zhenli Liu, Yuanhu Pan, Dongmei Chen, Yulian Wang, Zonghui Yuan
Aditoprim (ADP) has potential use as an antimicrobial agent in animals. However, its pharmacodynamic properties have not been systematically studied yet. In this study, the in vitro antibacterial activities of ADP and its main metabolites were assayed, and the in vivo antibacterial efficacy of ADP for the treatment of swine streptococcosis was evaluated. It was shown that Salmonella and Streptococcus from swine, Escherichia coli and Salmonella from chickens, E. coli, Streptococcus, Mannheimia, Pasteurella from calves, Streptococcus and Mannheimia from sheep, and E...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137234/mycobacterial-dna-replication-as-a-target-for-antituberculosis-drug-discovery
#14
Renata Płocińska, Małgorzata Korycka-Machała, Przemysław Płociński, Jarosław Dziadek
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), the causative agent of tuberculosis, is a leading infectious disease organism, causing millions of deaths each year. This serious pathogen has been greatly spread worldwide and recent years have observed an increase in the number of multi-drug resistant and totally drug resistant M. tuberculosis strains (WHO report, 2014). The danger of tuberculosis becoming an incurable disease has emphasized the need for the discovery of a new generation of antimicrobial agents...
January 30, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118738/design-of-potent-fluoro-substituted-chalcones-as-antimicrobial-agents
#15
Serdar Burmaoglu, Oztekin Algul, Arzu Gobek, Derya Aktas Anil, Mahmut Ulger, Busra Gul Erturk, Engin Kaplan, Aylin Dogen, Gönül Aslan
Owing to ever-increasing bacterial and fungal drug resistance, we attempted to develop novel antitubercular and antimicrobial agents. For this purpose, we developed some new fluorine-substituted chalcone analogs (3, 4, 9-15, and 20-23) using a structure-activity relationship approach. Target compounds were evaluated for their antitubercular efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and antimicrobial activity against five common pathogenic bacterial and three common fungal strains. Three derivatives (3, 9, and 10) displayed significant antitubercular activity with IC50 values of ≤16,760...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116106/engagement-of-the-private-pharmaceutical-sector-for-tb-control-rhetoric-or-reality
#16
Niranjan Konduri, Emily Delmotte, Edmund Rutta
BACKGROUND: Private-sector retail drug outlets are often the first point of contact for common health ailments, including tuberculosis (TB). Systematic reviews on public-private mix (PPM) interventions for TB did not perform in-depth reviews specifically on engaging retail drug outlets and related stakeholders in the pharmaceutical sector. Our objective was to better understand the extent to which the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendation on engaging retail drug outlets has been translated into programmatic policy, strategy, and intervention in low- and middle-income countries...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080136/isoniazid-a-review-of-characteristics-properties-and-analytical-methods
#17
Guilherme Felipe Dos Santos Fernandes, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado, Jean Leandro Dos Santos
Isoniazid is a synthetic antimicrobial and one of the most important first-line drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. Since it was introduced in the therapy in 1952, the drug remains at the front line of the antituberculosis treatment mainly due to its potency and high selectivity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pharmaceutical analysis and therapeutic drug monitoring of isoniazid in both, pharmaceuticals and biological samples, plays an important role to comprehend aspects regarding to bioavailability, bioequivalence and therapeutic monitoring during patients following-up...
January 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074051/anti-folates-potentiate-bactericidal-effects-of-other-antimicrobial-agents
#18
Kun Li, Xu-de Wang, Shan-Shan Yang, Jing Gu, Jiao-Yu Deng, Xian-En Zhang
Synergies between sulfonamides and other antimicrobial agents have long been reported, but the reason still remains unclear. Previously, Vilchèze et al. found that, sulfamethoxazole (SMX) could potentiate the bacterialcidal activity of isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To test if this was also the case in other bacteria, the ability to potentiate bactericidal effect of RIF by SMX was evaluated in Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Mycobacterium smegmatis...
March 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062229/new-tuberculosis-drug-leads-from-naturally-occurring-compounds
#19
REVIEW
Diana Quan, Gayathri Nagalingam, Richard Payne, James A Triccas
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a significant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. An estimated 2 billion individuals are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and annually there are approximately 10 million new cases of clinical TB and 1.5 million deaths. Currently available drugs and vaccines have had no significant impact on TB control. In addition, the emergence of drug resistant TB is considered a public health crisis, with some strains now resistant to all available drugs. Unfortunately, the growing burden of antibiotic resistance is coupled with decreased effort in the development of new antibiotics...
March 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057421/preparation-and-biological-evaluation-of-ethionamide-mesoporous-silicon-nanoparticles-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#20
Nuno Vale, Alexandra Correia, Sara Silva, Patrícia Figueiredo, Ermei Mäkilä, Jarno Salonen, Jouni Hirvonen, Jorge Pedrosa, Hélder A Santos, Alexandra Fraga
Ethionamide (ETH) is an important second-line antituberculosis drug used for the treatment of patients infected with multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recently, we reported that the loading of ETH into thermally carbonized-porous silicon (TCPSi) nanoparticles enhanced the solubility and permeability of ETH at different pH-values and also increased its metabolization process. Based on these results, we synthesized carboxylic acid functionalized thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon nanoparticles (UnTHCPSi NPs) conjugated with ETH and its antimicrobial effect was evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv...
December 26, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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