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Tuberculosis, antimicrobial drug resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422273/automated-broth-based-systems-versus-the-mycotb-plate-for-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-challenges-in-interpretation
#1
Isabella W Martin, Kim Dionne, Sharon M Deml, Nancy L Wengenack, Nicole M Parrish
We examined categorical agreement between automated mycobacterial susceptibility testing methods (Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube [MGIT] 960 System and the VersaTREK Mycobacteria Detection and Susceptibility System) which are based on single critical concentration (CC) "breakpoints" and a commercial microbroth dilution method (Sensititre Mycobacterium tuberculosis MIC Plate [MYCOTB]) which provides an MIC value. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates (n=355) were tested against three first-line antimycobacterial agents (ethambutol [EMB], isoniazid [INH], rifampin [RIF]) using the MYCOTB plate and either the MGIT 960 (site 1, n=142) or VersaTREK (site 2, n=213) systems...
January 6, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382097/nigella-damascena-l-essential-oil-a-valuable-source-of-%C3%AE-elemene-for-antimicrobial-testing
#2
Elwira Sieniawska, Rafal Sawicki, Joanna Golus, Marta Swatko-Ossor, Grazyna Ginalska, Krystyna Skalicka-Wozniak
The most commonly used plant source of β-elemene is Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen & C. Ling (syn. of Curcuma aromatic Salisb.) with its content in supercritical CO₂ extract up to 27.83%. However, the other rich source of this compound is Nigella damascena L. essential oil, in which β-elemene accounts for 47%. In this work, the effective protocol for preparative isolation of β-elemene from a new source-N. damascena essential oil-using high performance counter-current chromatography HPCCC was elaborated...
January 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376490/targeting-dna-repair-systems-in-antitubercular-drug-development
#3
Alina Minias, Anna Brzostek, Jaroslaw Dziadek
Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, are difficult to treat using currently available chemotherapeutics. Clinicians agree on the urgent need for novel drugs to treat tuberculosis. In this mini review, we summarize data that prompts the consideration of DNA repair-associated proteins as targets for the development of new antitubercular compounds. We discuss data, including gene expression data, that highlight the importance of DNA repair genes during the pathogenic cycle as well as after exposure to antimicrobials currently in use...
January 28, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367740/combined-chemical-genetics-and-data-driven-bioinformatics-approach-identifies-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-as-host-directed-antimicrobials
#4
Cornelis J Korbee, Matthias T Heemskerk, Dragi Kocev, Elisabeth van Strijen, Omid Rabiee, Kees L M C Franken, Louis Wilson, Nigel D L Savage, Sašo Džeroski, Mariëlle C Haks, Tom H M Ottenhoff
Antibiotic resistance poses rapidly increasing global problems in combatting multidrug-resistant (MDR) infectious diseases like MDR tuberculosis, prompting for novel approaches including host-directed therapies (HDT). Intracellular pathogens like Salmonellae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) exploit host pathways to survive. Only very few HDT compounds targeting host pathways are currently known. In a library of pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC)-based drug-repurposing screen, we identify multiple compounds, which target receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and inhibit intracellular Mtb and Salmonellae more potently than currently known HDT compounds...
January 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348586/analogues-of-disulfides-from-allium-stipitatum-demonstrate-potent-anti-tubercular-activities-through-drug-efflux-pump-and-biofilm-inhibition
#5
Cynthia A Danquah, Eleftheria Kakagianni, Proma Khondkar, Arundhati Maitra, Mukhlesur Rahman, Dimitrios Evangelopoulos, Timothy D McHugh, Paul Stapleton, John Malkinson, Sanjib Bhakta, Simon Gibbons
Disulfides from Allium stipitatum, commonly known as Persian shallot, were previously reported to possess antibacterial properties. Analogues of these compounds, produced by S-methylthiolation of appropriate thiols using S-methyl methanethiosulfonate, exhibited antimicrobial activity, with one compound inhibiting the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at 17 µM (4 mg L-1) and other compounds inhibiting Escherichia coli and multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus at concentrations ranging between 32-138 µM (8-32 mg L-1)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322464/transcriptional-profiling-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-patient-sputa
#6
Leticia Muraro Wildner, Katherine A Gould, Simon J Waddell
The emergence of drug resistance threatens to destroy tuberculosis control programs worldwide, with resistance to all first-line drugs and most second-line drugs detected. Drug tolerance (or phenotypic drug resistance) is also likely to be clinically relevant over the 6-month long standard treatment for drug-sensitive tuberculosis. Transcriptional profiling the response of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antimicrobial drugs offers a novel interpretation of drug efficacy and mycobacterial drug-susceptibility that likely varies in dynamic microenvironments, such as the lung...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319341/emerging-mechanisms-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-bacteria-and-fungi-advances-in-the-era-of-genomics
#7
John Osei Sekyere, Jonathan Asante
Bacteria and fungi continue to develop new ways to adapt and survive the lethal or biostatic effects of antimicrobials through myriad mechanisms. Novel antibiotic resistance genes such as lsa(C), erm(44), VCC-1, mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-4, bla KLUC-3 and bla KLUC-4 were discovered through comparative genomics and further functional studies. As well, mutations in genes that hitherto were unknown to confer resistance to antimicrobials, such as trm, PP2C, rpsJ, HSC82, FKS2 and Rv2887, were shown by genomics and transcomplementation assays to mediate antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida glabrata and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively...
January 10, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276145/corrigendum-to-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-viewed-from-bacterial-and-host-genomes-international-journal-of-antimicrobial-agents-2016-353-360
#8
Imen Ben-Kahla, Sahal Al-Hajoj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258359/discovery-of-antimicrobial-compounds-targeting-bacterial-type-fad-synthetases
#9
María Sebastián, Ernesto Anoz-Carbonell, Begoña Gracia, Pilar Cossio, José Antonio Aínsa, Isaías Lans, Milagros Medina
The increase of bacterial strains resistant to most of the available antibiotics shows a need to explore novel antibacterial targets to discover antimicrobial drugs. Bifunctional bacterial FAD synthetases (FADSs) synthesise the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). These cofactors act in vital processes as part of flavoproteins, making FADS an essential enzyme. Bacterial FADSs are potential antibacterial targets because of differences to mammalian enzymes, particularly at the FAD producing site...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195272/multivalent-antimicrobial-polymer-nanoparticles-target-mycobacteria-and-gram-negative-bacteria-by-distinct-mechanisms
#10
Sarah-Jane Richards, Klea Isulfi, Laura E Wilkins, Julia Lipecki, Elizabeth Fullam, Matthew I Gibson
Due to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance to traditional small molecule drugs, cationic antimicrobial polymers are appealing targets. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a particular problem, with multi- and total drug resistance spreading and more than a billion latent infections globally. This study reports nanoparticles bearing variable densities of poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and the unexpected and distinct mechanisms of action this multivalent presentation imparts against Escherichia coli verses Mycobacterium smegmatis (model of M...
December 1, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171448/vitamin-d-cell-death-pathways-and-tuberculosis
#11
Manik Retno Wahyunitisari, Ni Made Mertaniasih, Muhammad Amin, Wayan T Artama, Eko B Koendhori
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces cellular necrosis that could promote spread of infection. The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of Vitamin D3 supplementation to improve the effectiveness of 2nd-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug therapy, especially in relation with cell death pathways. METHODS: Mus musculus C3HeB/FeJ was randomly divided into four groups containing eight animals each. The 1st group (G1), consisting of mice that were intratracheally infected with multidrug-resistant strain of M...
October 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163551/host-antimicrobial-peptides-the-promise-of-new-treatment-strategies-against-tuberculosis
#12
REVIEW
Javier Arranz-Trullén, Lu Lu, David Pulido, Sanjib Bhakta, Ester Boix
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a devastating infectious disease and remerges as a global health emergency due to an alarming rise of antimicrobial resistance to its treatment. Despite of the serious effort that has been applied to develop effective antitubercular chemotherapies, the potential of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) remains underexploited. A large amount of literature is now accessible on the AMP mechanisms of action against a diversity of pathogens; nevertheless, research on their activity on mycobacteria is still scarce...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163385/synergistic-response-of-rifampicin-with-hydroperoxides-on-mycobacterium-a-mechanistic-study
#13
Yesha S Patel, Sarika Mehra
Prolonged chemotherapy as well as rapid development of antimicrobial resistance are two of the major concerns for treatment of mycobacterial infections. To enhance the effectiveness of current drug regimens, search for compounds having synergistic interaction with anti-mycobacterial drugs has become indispensable. Here, we have investigated the intervention by oxidative stress, a major factor in mycobacterial pathogenesis, in combination with rifampicin (RIF), a first-line drug used against Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151652/antimicrobial-efficacy-of-synthetic-pyranochromenones-and-coumarinyloxy-acetamides
#14
Abhishek K Singh, Suchita Prasad, Bipul Kumar, Shiv Kumar, Amitesh Anand, Shashank S Kamble, Sunil K Sharma, Hemant K Gautam
Four (1, 2, 4 and 6) synthetic quaternary ammonium derivatives of pyranochromenones and (coumarinyloxy)acetamides were synthesized and investigated for their antimicrobial efficacy on MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), and multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain. One of the four compounds screened i.e. N,N,N-triethyl-10-((4,8,8-trimethyl-2-oxo-2,6,7,8-tetrahydropyrano[3,2-g]chromen-10-yl)oxy)decan-1-aminium bromide (1), demonstrated significant activity against S...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151338/genotype-distribution-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-theaegean-region-and-associated-demographic-factors
#15
Cengiz Çavuşoğlu, Fethiye Ferda Yılmaz, İsabel Raika Durusoy Onmuş, Tuğba Bozdemir, Hüseyin Taşlı, Mine Hoşgör Limoncu
Background/aim: The Aegean Region is the second-ranking region in Turkey according to the Human Development Index and population density and it hosts 1/8 of Turkey's population. İzmir is the largest city of the region, receiving internal migration both from inside and outside the region. The tuberculosis incidence in İzmir is lower than overall in Turkey: 17.7/100,000 in 2011. Our aims were to determine genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates; to explore possible associations between genotypes with case-demographic data, clinical presentation, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns; and to determine variations in genotype distribution of strains isolated in Ege University Hospital, İzmir...
November 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114022/hupb-is-a-bacterial-nucleoid-associated-protein-with-an-indispensable-eukaryotic-like-tail
#16
Joanna Hołówka, Damian Trojanowski, Katarzyna Ginda, Bartosz Wojtaś, Bartłomiej Gielniewski, Dagmara Jakimowicz, Jolanta Zakrzewska-Czerwińska
In bacteria, chromosomal DNA must be efficiently compacted to fit inside the small cell compartment while remaining available for the proteins involved in replication, segregation, and transcription. Among the nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) responsible for maintaining this highly organized and yet dynamic chromosome structure, the HU protein is one of the most conserved and highly abundant. HupB, a homologue of HU, was recently identified in mycobacteria. This intriguing mycobacterial NAP is composed of two domains: an N-terminal domain that resembles bacterial HU, and a long and distinctive C-terminal domain that contains several PAKK/KAAK motifs, which are characteristic of the H1/H5 family of eukaryotic histones...
November 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094039/host-directed-therapeutic-strategies-for-tuberculosis
#17
REVIEW
Afsal Kolloli, Selvakumar Subbian
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Currently, the standard treatment for TB involves multiple antibiotics administered for at least 6 months. Although multiple antibiotics therapy is necessary to prevent the development of drug resistance, the prolonged duration of treatment, combined with toxicity of drugs, contributes to patient non-compliance that can leads to the development of drug-resistant Mtb (MDR and XDR) strains...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072097/antimycobacterial-activity-of-nitrogen-heterocycles-derivatives-7-pyridine-4-yl-indolizine-derivatives-part-vii-8-12
#18
Anda-Mihaela Olaru, Violeta Vasilache, Ramona Danac, Ionel I Mangalagiu
A series of 13 compounds having a monoindolizine mono-salt skeleton was designed and synthesised in order to evaluate their antimycobacterial activity. The synthesis is efficient, involving only three steps: two alkylations and one 3 + 2 dipolar cycloaddition. The antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv grown under aerobic conditions was evaluated, eight compounds showing a very good antimycobacterial activity. SAR correlation reveals a certain influence of the R substituent from the para position of benzoyl moiety at position 3 of indolizine...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065539/ureidopyrazine-derivatives-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-as-anti-infectives-and-abiotic-elicitors
#19
Ghada Bouz, Martin Juhás, Pavlína Niklová, Ondřej Janďourek, Pavla Paterová, Jiří Janoušek, Lenka Tůmová, Zuzana Kovalíková, Petr Kastner, Martin Doležal, Jan Zitko
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has become a frequently deadly infection due to increasing antimicrobial resistance. This serious issue has driven efforts worldwide to discover new drugs effective against Mtb. One research area is the synthesis and evaluation of pyrazinamide derivatives as potential anti-TB drugs. In this paper we report the synthesis and biological evaluations of a series of ureidopyrazines. Compounds were synthesized by reacting alkyl/aryl isocyanates with aminopyrazine or with propyl 5-aminopyrazine-2-carboxylate...
October 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050769/prevalence-of-beijing-and-haarlem-genotypes-among-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-iran-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Samira Tarashi, Abolfazl Fateh, Fatemeh Rahimi Jamnani, Seyed Davar Siadat, Farzam Vaziri
Antimicrobial drug resistance creates major problems in the control of tuberculosis (TB). Beijing and Haarlem genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are the prevalent genotypes responsible for multidrug resistant (MDR) TB worldwide. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review using meta-analysis to indicate the prevalence of Beijing and Haarlem genotypes among MDR-TB cases in Iran. Data sources of current study were 311 original articles (2006-2016) that were searched in several databases including Medline, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane library, and Iranian databases...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
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