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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433705/maternal-immunisation-collaborating-with-mother-nature
#1
REVIEW
Arnaud Marchant, Manish Sadarangani, Mathieu Garand, Nicolas Dauby, Valerie Verhasselt, Lenore Pereira, Gordean Bjornson, Christine E Jones, Scott A Halperin, Kathryn M Edwards, Paul Heath, Peter J Openshaw, David W Scheifele, Tobias R Kollmann
Maternal immunisation has the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases after birth. The success of tetanus, influenza, and pertussis immunisation during pregnancy has led to consideration of additional maternal immunisation strategies to prevent group B streptococcus and respiratory syncytial virus infections, among others. However, many gaps in knowledge regarding the immunobiology of maternal immunisation prevent the optimal design and application of this successful public health intervention...
April 19, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433704/pertussis-and-influenza-immunisation-during-pregnancy-a-landscape-review
#2
REVIEW
Bahaa Abu Raya, Kathryn M Edwards, David W Scheifele, Scott A Halperin
Immunisation during pregnancy is a relatively new strategy, and is currently limited to tetanus, pertussis, and influenza vaccines. None of these vaccines were developed specifically for use in pregnancy, but they provide an effective method of protecting mothers and young infants. In response to increases in pertussis morbidity and mortality among young infants, several countries have recommended universal tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis immunisation during pregnancy. Similarly, many countries recommend influenza immunisation during pregnancy to reduce the risk of disease for mother and infant...
April 19, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431124/childhood-vaccinations-and-risk-of-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-in-children
#3
Signe Holst Søegaard, Klaus Rostgaard, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Mads Kamper-Jørgensen, Marie Hargreave, Henrik Hjalgrim, Anders Hviid
Background: It has been proposed that childhood vaccinations protect against acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children by modulation of future responses to common infections in childhood. However, the available studies provide inconsistent findings, and population-based cohort studies with longitudinal information on vaccinations are lacking. Methods: In a register-based cohort of all children born in Denmark from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2008, followed up until age 15 years or 31 December 2009 ( n  = 1 225 404), we evaluated exposure to childhood vaccination and risk of childhood ALL, including information on ALL subtypes...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430750/elevated-immune-response-among-children-4-years-of-age-with-pronounced-local-adverse-events-after-the-fifth-dtap-vaccination
#4
Saskia van der Lee, Jeanet M Kemmeren, Lia G H de Rond, Kemal Öztürk, Anneke Westerhof, Hester E de Melker, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Guy A M Berbers, Nicoline A T van der Maas, Hans C Rümke, Anne-Marie Buisman
BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, acellular pertussis vaccines replaced the more reactogenic whole-cell pertussis vaccines. This replacement in the primary immunization schedule of infants coincided with a significant increase in pronounced local adverse events (AEs) in 4 years old children shortly after the administration of a fifth diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated polio (DTaP-IPV) vaccine. The objective of this study was to investigate possible differences in vaccine antigen-specific immune responses between children with and without a pronounced local AE after the fifth DTaP-IPV vaccination...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429891/comparison-of-immunization-rates-of-adults-ages-65-years-and-older-managed-within-two-nurse-practitioner-owned-clinics-with-national-immunization-rates
#5
Wendy L Wright, Elise Morrell, Jennie Lee, Norma Graciela Cuellar, Patricia White
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adults ages ≥65 years are at increased risk for infectious diseases. Ensuring these individuals are fully vaccinated is imperative. The purpose of this study was to assess the immunization rates of adults ages ≥65 years managed by nurse practitioners (NPs) and compare the results with national immunization rates and Healthy People 2020 goals. METHODS: A convenience sample of adults ages ≥65 years was obtained from two NP-managed clinics...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429619/addressing-parental-health-in-pediatrics-physician-perceptions-of-relevance-and-responsibility
#6
Maya Venkataramani, Tina L Cheng, Barry S Solomon, Craig Evan Pollack
Pediatric guidelines recommend that providers address a range of parental health issues; however, adherence to these guidelines has been suboptimal. Drawing on a nationally-representative sample of children's primary care physicians, we examined whether providers view parental issues as relevant to child health and whether they believe it is their personal responsibility to address them. Issues included maternal depression, tobacco use, intimate partner violence, Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis) immunization, family planning, and health insurance...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429116/dutch-national-immunization-schedule-compliance-and-associated-characteristics-for-the-primary-series
#7
Elsemieke D Scheepers, Alies van Lier, Ingrid H Drijfhout, Guy Berbers, Nicoline A T van der Maas, Hester E de Melker, Mirjam J Knol
In the Netherlands, the recommended priming immunization schedule for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio (DTaP-IPV) is at 2, 3 and 4 months of age. We evaluated the compliance with the recommended schedule, as well as its characteristics. We included all infants born between 2007 and 2012 who received minimally one DTaP-IPV vaccination (n = 1,061,578). Infants complied with the schedule if they received the first vaccination between 6 and 9 weeks of age, and the second and third vaccination 2-6 weeks after the first and second vaccination...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412075/vaccine-preferences-and-acceptance-of-older-adults
#8
R Eilers, H E de Melker, J Veldwijk, P F M Krabbe
BACKGROUND: Expanding vaccination programs for the older population might be important as older adults are becoming a larger proportion of the general population. The aim of this study is to determine the relative importance of vaccine and disease specific characteristics and acceptance for Dutch older adults, including pneumococcal disease, herpes zoster, pertussis vaccination, and influenza vaccination. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment was conducted to generate choice data that was analyzed using a mixed multinomial logit statistical model...
April 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407060/role-of-osteoblast-gi-signaling-in-age-related-bone-loss-in-female-mice
#9
Susan M Millard, Liping Wang, Lalita Wattanachanya, Dylan O'Carroll, Aaron J Fields, Joyce Pang, Galateia Kazakia, Jeffrey C Lotz, Robert A Nissenson
Age-related bone loss is an important risk factor for fractures in the elderly, resulting from an imbalance in bone remodeling mainly due to decreased bone formation. We have previously demonstrated that endogenous G protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-driven Gi signaling in osteoblasts (Obs) restrains bone formation in mice during growth. Here, we launched a longitudinal study to test the hypothesis that Gi signaling in Obs restrains bone formation in aging mice, thereby promoting bone loss. Our approach was to block Gi signaling in maturing Obs by the induced expression of the catalytic subunit of pertussis toxin (PTX) after the achievement of peak bone mass...
April 12, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404464/density-of-day-cares-in-relation-to-reported-pertussis-incidence-in-philadelphia
#10
N D Goldstein, E C Newbern, L P Tabb, S L Welles
OBJECTIVES: Reported pertussis incidence has increased markedly in recent years. In addition to the documented increase in under-immunization and waning immunity, the increase may be related to the more frequent use of child care services by parents over the last few decades. Additionally, clustering of outbreaks may be related to neighborhood characteristics not previously identified. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a citywide case-control study of children in Philadelphia aged birth through six years, between 2001 and 2013...
February 16, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404461/experiences-and-perspectives-of-mothers-of-the-pertussis-vaccination-programme-in-london
#11
C G Winslade, C M Heffernan, C J Atchison
BACKGROUND: In 2012, a pertussis outbreak prompted a national vaccination programme for pregnant women, which provides passive protection for infants. Vaccine uptake in London is consistently lower than elsewhere in the UK. There are few studies looking at the reasons why pregnant women accept or refuse pertussis vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to gain a better understanding of London women's views and experiences, to identify how services might be improved. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional qualitative semi-structured interviews study...
February 1, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403204/improving-specificity-of-bordetella-pertussis-detection-using-a-four-target-real-time-pcr
#12
Helena Martini, Liselot Detemmerman, Oriane Soetens, Erlangga Yusuf, Denis Piérard
The incidence of whooping cough, a contagious respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis, is on the rise despite existing vaccination programmes. Similar, though usually milder, respiratory symptoms may be caused by other members of the Bordetella genus: B. parapertussis, B. holmesii, and B. bronchiseptica. Pertussis diagnosis is mostly done using PCR, but the use of multiple targets is necessary in order to differentiate the different Bordetella spp. with sufficient sensitivity and specificity. In this study we evaluate a multiplex PCR assay for the differentiation of B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403056/risk-of-pertussis-in-relation-to-degree-of-prematurity-in-children-less-than-2-years-of-age
#13
Øystein Rolandsen Riise, Ida Laake, Didrik Vestrheim, Elmira Flem, Dag Moster, Marianne Adeleide Riise Bergsaker, Jann Storsæter
BACKGROUND: A few previous studies reported increased risk of pertussis in children with birth weight less than 2500 g. The risk of pertussis by degree of prematurity has not been determined in a cohort study. The vaccine effectiveness (VE) against reported pertussis in preterm infants is unknown. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (1998-2010) and linked to other national registries. In total, 713,166 children were included in our study and followed until 2 years of age...
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403055/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-10-valent-pneumococcal-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-protein-d-conjugate-vaccine-phid-cv-administered-to-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-between-8-weeks-and-2-years-of-age-a-phase-iii-open-controlled-study
#14
Sodiomon B Sirima, Alfred Tiono, Zakaria Gansané, Mohamadou Siribié, Angèle Zongo, Alphonse Ouédraogo, Nancy François, Ana Strezova, Kurt Dobbelaere, Dorota Borys
BACKGROUND: Immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) were evaluated in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), who are at increased risk for infections. METHODS: In this phase III, open-label, single-center, controlled study in Burkina Faso (NCT01175083), children with SCD (S) or without SCD (NS) were assigned to 6 groups (N = 300): children 8-11 weeks of age (<6 months; <6S and <6NS groups) received 3 primary doses and a booster dose of PHiD-CV coadministered with routine childhood vaccines; children 7-11 months of age (7-11S and 7-11NS groups) received 2 primary doses and a booster dose of PHiD-CV; children 12-23 months of age (12-23S and 12-23NS groups) received 2 catch-up doses of PHiD-CV...
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399054/pneumococcal-immune-response-in-infants-whose-mothers-received-tdap-vaccination-during-pregnancy
#15
Kirsten Maertens, Polly Burbidge, Pierre Van Damme, David Goldblatt, Elke Leuridan
BACKGROUND: Maternal immunization with a tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine may blunt infant pneumococcal immune responses after a primary series of vaccines. METHODS: As part of a prospective controlled cohort trial of Tdap (Boostrix®, GSK Biologicals) vaccination in pregnancy, infants born to vaccinated mothers and controls were immunized at 8 and 16 weeks and 12 months of age with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevenar13®, Pfizer)...
April 10, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398678/maternal-immunization
#16
Helen Y Chu, Janet A Englund
Pregnant women, neonates, and infants are at higher risk for severe infections due to vaccine-preventable diseases. Very young infants rarely respond well to vaccination due to poor immunogenicity and interference from maternal antibody. Maternal immunization protects the mother and fetus from disease and protects the infant through transplacental antibody transfer through the first 6 months of life. Currently, immunizations routinely recommended during pregnancy include inactivated influenza, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines...
March 15, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397465/variation-of-housekeeping-genes-in-clinical-isolates-and-vaccine-strains-of-bordetella-pertussis
#17
Masoumeh Fathi, Faezeh Haghighi, Fereshteh Shahcheraghi, Ebrahim Abbasi, Seyed Saeed Eshraghi, Sedighe Ghourchian, Hojjat Zeraati, Mehdi Yaseri, Masoumeh Douraghi, Fazel Shokri
BACKGROUND: Bordetella pertussis causes serious contagious infections, primarily in childhood. A whole-cell vaccine, diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTwP), has been used to protect against pertussis in children in Iran, but the pertussis cases have been increasing during recent years. We determined the allelic variation level of housekeeping genes in isolates recovered from pertussis patients and vaccine strains used in national vaccination program. METHODS: Five clinical isolates, 2 vaccine strains and a Tohama I strain were studied through multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of housekeeping genes...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396322/camp-elevating-capacity-of-the-adenylate-cyclase-toxin-hemolysin-is-sufficient-for-lung-infection-but-not-for-full-virulence-of-bordetella-pertussis
#18
Karolina Skopova, Barbora Tomalova, Ivan Kanchev, Pavel Rossmann, Martina Svedova, Irena Adkins, Ilona Bibova, Jakub Tomala, Jiri Masin, Nicole Guiso, Radim Osicka, Radislav Sedlacek, Marek Kovar, Peter Sebo
The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA, ACT or AC-Hly) of Bordetella pertussis targets phagocytic cells expressing the complement receptor 3 (CR3, Mac-1, αMβ2 integrin or CD11b/CD18). CyaA delivers into cells an N-terminal adenylyl cyclase (AC) enzyme domain that is activated by cytosolic calmodulin and catalyzes unregulated conversion of cellular ATP into cAMP, a key second messenger subverting bactericidal activities of phagocytes. In parallel, the hemolysin (Hly) moiety of CyaA forms cation-selective hemolytic pores that permeabilize target cell membranes...
April 10, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396321/albumin-in-the-presence-of-calcium-elicits-a-massive-increase-in-extracellular-bordetella-adenylate-cyclase-toxin
#19
Laura A Gonyar, Mary C Gray, Gregory J Christianson, Borna Mehrad, Erik L Hewlett
Pertussis (whooping cough), caused by Bordetella pertussis (Bp), is resurging in the United States and worldwide. Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is a critical factor in establishing infection with Bp and acts by specifically inhibiting the response of myeloid leukocytes to the pathogen. We report here that serum components, as discovered during growth in fetal bovine serum (FBS), elicit a robust increase in the amount of ACT, and ≥90% of this ACT is localized to the supernatant, unlike growth without FBS in which ≥90% is associated with the bacterium...
April 10, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396177/consistent-induction-of-chronic-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-c57bl-6-mice-for-the-longitudinal-study-of-pathology-and-repair
#20
Jonathan P C Hasselmann, Hawra Karim, Anna J Khalaj, Subir Ghosh, Seema K Tiwari-Woodruff
BACKGROUND: While many groups use experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model to uncover therapeutic targets and understand the pathology underlying multiple sclerosis (MS), EAE protocol variability introduces discrepancies in central nervous system (CNS) pathogenesis and clinical disease, limiting the comparability between studies and slowing much-needed translational research. OPTIMIZED METHOD: Here we describe a detailed, reliable protocol for chronic EAE induction in C57BL/6 mice utilizing two injections of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (35-55) peptide mixed with Complete Freund's Adjuvant and paired with pertussis toxin...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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