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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923231/congenital-absence-of-the-pericardium-a-systematic-approach-to-diagnosis-and-management
#1
Bo Xu, Jorge Betancor, Craig Asher, Adriana Rosario, Allan Klein
Congenital absence of the pericardium (CAP) is a rare condition. Failure to recognize the clinical features of this condition can lead to incorrect and delayed diagnosis. Limited data are available regarding the optimal approach to diagnose and manage patients with suspected CAP. Due to the rare nature of CAP, this condition can present diagnostic and management dilemmas for clinicians. Using 3 cases of CAP as a framework, a clinically focused review on the diagnosis and management of CAP is presented. Clinicians will be provided with a systematic approach to evaluating patients with suspected CAP, incorporating key history, examination, and multimodality cardiovascular imaging investigations...
December 7, 2016: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923061/comparative-transcriptomic-and-epigenomic-analyses-reveal-new-regulators-of-murine-brown-adipogenesis
#2
Reinhard Brunmeir, Jingyi Wu, Xu Peng, Sun-Yee Kim, Sofi G Julien, Qiongyi Zhang, Wei Xie, Feng Xu
Increasing energy expenditure through brown adipocyte recruitment is a promising approach to combat obesity. We report here the comprehensive profiling of the epigenome and transcriptome throughout the lineage commitment and differentiation of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cell line into brown adipocytes. Through direct comparison to datasets from differentiating white adipocytes, we systematically identify stage- and lineage-specific coding genes, lncRNAs and microRNAs. Utilizing chromatin state maps, we also define stage- and lineage-specific enhancers, including super-enhancers, and their associated transcription factor binding motifs and genes...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923035/biomarkers-in-anal-cancer-from-biological-understanding-to-stratified-treatment
#3
Christopher M Jones, Vicky Goh, David Sebag-Montefiore, Duncan C Gilbert
Squamous cell carcinomas of the anus and anal canal represent a model of a cancer and perhaps the first where level 1 evidence supported primary chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in treating locoregional disease with curative intent. The majority of tumours are associated with infection with oncogenic subtypes of human papilloma virus and this plays a significant role in their sensitivity to treatment. However, not all tumours are cured with CRT and there remain opportunities to improve outcomes in terms of oncological control and also reducing late toxicities...
December 6, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923014/potential-impact-of-integrated-stigma-mitigation-interventions-in-improving-hiv-aids-service-delivery-and-uptake-for-key-populations-in-senegal
#4
Carrie E Lyons, Sosthenes Ketende, Daouda Diouf, Fatou M Drame, Benjamin Liestman, Karleen Coly, Cheikh Ndour, Gnilane Turpin, Souleymane Mboup, Karim Diop, Coumba Toure-Kane, Delivette Castor, Nafissatou Leye-Diouf, Stefan Baral
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW) are consistently shown to have a higher burden of HIV compared with other adults in Senegal. This study, HIV Prevention 2.0, evaluates the impact of the 3-tiered integrated stigma mitigation interventions (ISMIs) approach to optimizing HIV service delivery for key populations in Senegal. METHODS: Baseline assessment includes a questionnaire and biological testing for HIV. A proportion of participants enrolled into a 24-month longitudinal cohort with questionnaires and biological testing every 3 months...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923010/effective-interpersonal-health-communication-for-linkage-to-care-after-hiv-diagnosis-in-south-africa
#5
Tonderai Mabuto, Salome Charalambous, Christopher J Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Early in the global response to HIV, health communication was focused toward HIV prevention. More recently, the role of health communication along the entire HIV care continuum has been highlighted. We sought to describe how a strategy of interpersonal communication allows for precision health communication to influence behavior regarding care engagement. METHODS: We analyzed 1 to 5 transcripts from clients participating in longitudinal counseling sessions from a communication strategy arm of a randomized trial to accelerate entry into care in South Africa...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922912/the-current-overuse-and-misuse-of-meta-analyses-on-sublingual-immunotherapy-the-case-of-grass-pollen-allergy
#6
Erminia Ridolo, Cristoforo Incorvaia, Bruna Luciana Gritti, Giovanni Passalacqua
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Meta-analysis provides the highest level of evidence-based efficacy of a medical treatment or intervention. Allergen immunotherapy in its two forms of subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is an effective treatment of respiratory allergy as shown by meta-analyses, but in recent years there has been an overflow of meta-analyses on SLIT, with contrasting results that may generate confusion among physicians. RECENT FINDINGS: It can be observed that flaws are often present in meta-analyses including: incorrect selection of trials, inappropriate use of evaluation parameters for the analysis, and unsuitable analyses...
December 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922834/complexity-of-generic-biochemical-circuits-topology-versus-strength-of-interactions
#7
Mikhail Tikhonov, William Bialek
The historical focus on network topology as a determinant of biological function is still largely maintained today, illustrated by the rise of structure-only approaches to network analysis. However, biochemical circuits and genetic regulatory networks are defined both by their topology and by a multitude of continuously adjustable parameters, such as the strength of interactions between nodes, also recognized as important. Here we present a class of simple perceptron-based Boolean models within which comparing the relative importance of topology versus interaction strengths becomes a quantitatively well-posed problem...
December 6, 2016: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922833/x-ray-photoelectron-spectroscopy-and-transmission-electron-microscopy-analysis-of-silver-coated-gold-nanorods-designed-for-bionanotechnology-applications
#8
Fumiya Watanabe, Zeid A Nima, Takumi Honda, Masatoshi Mitsuhara, Minoru Nishida, Alexandru S Biris
Multicomponent nano-agents were designed and built via a core-shell approach to enhance their surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. These nano-agents had 36 nm × 12 nm gold nanorod cores coated by 4 nm thick silver shell films and a subsequent thin bifunctional thiolated polyethylene glycol (HS-PEG-COOH) layer. Ambient time-lapsed SERS signal measurements of these functionalized nanorods taken over a two-week period indicated no signal degradation, suggesting that large portions of the silver shells remained in pure metallic form...
December 6, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922727/measuring-learning-gain-comparing-anatomy-drawing-screencasts-and-paper-based-resources
#9
James D Pickering
The use of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) resources is now a common tool across a variety of healthcare programs. Despite this popular approach to curriculum delivery there remains a paucity in empirical evidence that quantifies the change in learning gain. The aim of the study was to measure the changes in learning gain observed with anatomy drawing screencasts in comparison to a traditional paper-based resource. Learning gain is a widely used term to describe the tangible changes in learning outcomes that have been achieved after a specific intervention...
December 6, 2016: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922656/wearable-therapy-detecting-information-from-wearables-and-mobiles-that-are-relevant-to-clinical-and-self-directed-therapy
#10
Bert Arnrich, Cem Ersoy, Oscar Mayora, Anind Dey, Nadia Berthouze, Kai Kunze
BACKGROUND: This accompanying editorial provides a brief introduction into the focus theme "Wearable Therapy". OBJECTIVES: The focus theme "Wearable Therapy" aims to present contributions which target wearable and mobile technologies to support clinical and self-directed therapy. METHODS: A call for papers was announced to all participants of the "9th International Conference on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare" and was published in November 2015...
December 6, 2016: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922640/brain-network-reorganization-differs-in-response-to-stress-in-rats-genetically-predisposed-to-depression-and-stress-resilient-rats
#11
N Gass, R Becker, A J Schwarz, W Weber-Fahr, C Clemm von Hohenberg, B Vollmayr, A Sartorius
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) remains a pressing clinical problem. Optimizing treatment requires better definition of the specificity of the involved brain circuits. The rat strain bred for negative cognitive state (NC) represents a genetic animal model of TRD with high face, construct and predictive validity. Vice versa, the positive cognitive state (PC) strain represents a stress-resilient phenotype. Although NC rats show depressive-like behavior, some symptoms such as anhedonia require an external trigger, i...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922533/a-propensity-score-based-fine-stratification-approach-for-confounding-adjustment-when-exposure-is-infrequent
#12
Rishi J Desai, Kenneth J Rothman, Brian T Bateman, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz, Krista F Huybrechts
BACKGROUND: When exposure is infrequent, propensity score matching results in reduced precision because it discards a large proportion of unexposed patients. To our knowledge, the relative performance of propensity score stratification in these circumstances has not been examined. METHODS: Using an empirical example of the association of first-trimester statin exposure (prevalence=0.04%) with risk of congenital malformations and 1,000 simulated cohorts (n=20,000) with eight combinations of exposure prevalence (0...
November 29, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922502/the-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophies-and-the-dystrophinopathies
#13
Stanley Jones P Iyadurai, John T Kissel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The classic approach to identifying and accurately diagnosing limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) relied heavily on phenotypic characterization and ancillary studies including muscle biopsy. Because of rapid advances in genetic sequencing methodologies, several additional LGMDs have been molecularly characterized, and the diagnostic approach to these disorders has been simplified. This article summarizes the epidemiology, clinical features, and genetic defects underlying the LGMDs...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922501/an-overview-of-congenital-myopathies
#14
Jean K Mah, Jeffrey T Joseph
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article uses a case-based approach to highlight the clinical features as well as recent advances in molecular genetics, muscle imaging, and pathophysiology of the congenital myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: Congenital myopathies refer to a heterogeneous group of genetic neuromuscular disorders characterized by early-onset muscle weakness, hypotonia, and developmental delay. Congenital myopathies are further classified into core myopathies, centronuclear myopathies, nemaline myopathies, and congenital fiber-type disproportion based on the key pathologic features found in muscle biopsies...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922494/approach-to-the-patient-with-hyperckemia
#15
Shannon L Venance
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurologists commonly receive consultation requests regarding the evaluation of patients with an elevated serum creatine kinase (CK), a condition known as hyperCKemia. This article outlines an approach to the history and examination of patients with hyperCKemia in order to narrow the localization and differential of an elevated CK and guide possible next steps. This article aims to help clinicians identify treatable or reversible etiologies as well as those that will change management...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922482/evolution-of-quality-assurance-for-clinical-immunohistochemistry-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine-part-1-fit-for-purpose-approach-to-classification-of-clinical-immunohistochemistry-biomarkers
#16
Carol C Cheung, Corrado D'Arrigo, Manfred Dietel, Glenn D Francis, C Blake Gilks, Jacqueline A Hall, Jason L Hornick, Merdol Ibrahim, Antonio Marchetti, Keith Miller, J Han van Krieken, Soren Nielsen, Paul E Swanson, Clive R Taylor, Mogens Vyberg, Xiaoge Zhou, Emina E Torlakovic
Technical progress in immunohistochemistry (IHC) as well as the increased utility of IHC for biomarker testing in precision medicine avails us of the opportunity to reassess clinical IHC as a laboratory test and its proper characterization as a special type of immunoassay. IHC, as used in current clinical applications, is a descriptive, qualitative, cell-based, usually nonlinear, in situ protein immunoassay, for which the readout of the results is principally performed by pathologists rather than by the instruments on which the immunoassay is performed...
January 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922335/nutritional-rickets-around-the-world-an-update
#17
Ana L Creo, Tom D Thacher, John M Pettifor, Mark A Strand, Philip R Fischer
Worldwide, nutritional rickets continues to be an evolving problem with several causes. This paper provides an updated literature review characterising the prevalence, aetiology, pathophysiology and treatment of nutritional rickets worldwide. A systematic review of articles on nutritional rickets from various geographical regions was undertaken. For each region, key information was extracted, including prevalence, cause of rickets specific to the region, methods of confirming the diagnosis and current treatment and preventive measures...
December 6, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922230/consensus-statement-on-diagnosis-treatment-and-follow-up-of-cow-s-milk-protein-allergy-among-infants-and-children-in-turkey
#18
Aydan Kansu, Aysel Yüce, Buket Dalgıç, Bülent Enis Şekerel, Fügen Çullu-Çokuğraş, Haluk Çokuğraş
The present paper aims to provide experts' consensus on diagnosis and management of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) among infants and children in Turkey, based on review of available evidence-based guidelines, publications and experts' clinical experience. The experts agreed that CMPA diagnosis should be based on symptomatic evaluation and diagnostic elimination diet as followed by implementation of an open challenge test after disappearance of symptoms and confirmation of CMPA diagnosis in re-appearance of symptoms...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922128/space-geodetic-monitoring-of-engineered-structures-the-ongoing-destabilization-of-the-mosul-dam-iraq
#19
Pietro Milillo, Roland Bürgmann, Paul Lundgren, Jacqueline Salzer, Daniele Perissin, Eric Fielding, Filippo Biondi, Giovanni Milillo
We present a detailed survey of the ongoing destabilization process of the Mosul dam. The dam is located on the Tigris river and is the biggest hydraulic structure in Iraq. From a geological point of view the dam foundation is poor due to a site geology formed by alternating strata of highly soluble materials including gypsum, anhydrite, marl and limestone. Here we present the first multi-sensor cumulative deformation map for the dam generated from space-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements from the Italian constellation COSMO-SkyMed and the European sensor Sentinel-1a over the period 2014-2016 that we compare to an older dataset spanning 2004-2010 acquired with the European Envisat satellite...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922077/mast-cell-phenotype-tnf%C3%AE-expression-and-degranulation-status-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
A Shikotra, C M Ohri, R H Green, D A Waller, P Bradding
Mast cell infiltration of tumour islets represents a survival advantage in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The phenotype and activation status of these mast cells is unknown. We investigated the mast cell phenotype in terms of protease content (tryptase-only [MCT], tryptase + chymase [MCTC]) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) expression, and extent of degranulation, in NSCLC tumour stroma and islets. Surgically resected tumours from 24 patients with extended survival (ES; mean survival 86.5 months) were compared with 25 patients with poor survival (PS; mean survival 8...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
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