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Prostaglandin D2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747052/oleanolic-acid-protects-against-cognitive-decline-and-neuroinflammation-mediated-neurotoxicity-by-blocking-secretory-phospholipase-a2-iia-activated-calcium-signals
#1
Leguo Zhang, Ruixue Xia, Jianpu Jia, Lixuan Wang, Kuo Li, Yanhua Li, Junling Zhang
Neuroinflammation causes neurotoxic injury and underlies the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Astrocytes are the predominant immunoregulatory cells in AD. Oleanolic acid (OA) is a promising anti-inflammatory therapeutic agent that can ameliorate cerebral damage in ischemic environments, but its role in AD remains poorly elucidated. Here, preconditioning with OA inhibited the transcription and secretion of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ)-activated astrocytes...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743346/pgd2-dp2-receptor-activation-promotes-severe-viral-bronchiolitis-by-suppressing-ifn-%C3%AE-production
#2
Rhiannon B Werder, Jason P Lynch, Jennifer C Simpson, Vivian Zhang, Nick H Hodge, Matthew Poh, Elizabeth Forbes-Blom, Christina Kulis, Mark L Smythe, John W Upham, Kirsten Spann, Mark L Everard, Simon Phipps
Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) signals through PGD2 receptor 2 (DP2, also known as CRTH2) on type 2 effector cells to promote asthma pathogenesis; however, little is known about its role during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis, a major risk factor for asthma development. We show that RSV infection up-regulated hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase expression and increased PGD2 release by cultured human primary airway epithelial cells (AECs). Moreover, PGD2 production was elevated in nasopharyngeal samples from young infants hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis compared to healthy controls...
May 9, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701897/sirt1-attenuates-murine-allergic-rhinitis-by-downregulated-hmgb-1-tlr4-pathway
#3
Yong Yuan, Qin-Song Liu, Jing Zhao, Hua-Ping Tang, Jie Sun
Conventional allergic rhinitis (AR) treatments have limitations due to the lack of safety and complete cure strategy. We evaluated the effects of Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), a multifunctional molecule involved in a variety of inflammatory pathways, on murine AR model. Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model was constructed, and recombinant SIRT1 was administered into the nostril continuously. The expression of SIRT1 was measured at mRNA and protein levels, and the allergic symptoms were evaluated. Protein levels of OVA-specific IgE, leukotriene C4 (LTC4), eosinophil cation protein (ECP), Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), as well as different inflammatory cytokine mediators in the serum and nasal lavage fluid (NLF) were assessed by ELISA...
April 27, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698923/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-in-m1-like-macrophages-are-associated-with-enhanced-production-of-oxylipins-from-%C3%AE-linolenic-and-linoleic-acid
#4
Samantha D Pauls, Lisa A Rodway, Tanja Winter, Carla G Taylor, Peter Zahradka, Harold M Aukema
Chronic inflammation, mediated in large part by proinflammatory macrophage populations, contributes directly to the induction and perpetuation of metabolic diseases, including obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can have profound effects on inflammation through the formation of bioactive oxygenated metabolites called oxylipins. The objective of this study was to determine if exposure to the dietary omega-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (ALA) can dampen the inflammatory properties of classically activated (M1-like) macrophages derived from the human THP-1 cell line and to examine the accompanying alterations in oxylipin secretion...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671869/regulation-of-vascular-permeability-in-anaphylaxis
#5
REVIEW
Tatsuro Nakamura, Takahisa Murata
Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening type I allergic reaction. Antigen-antibody complexes lead mast cells, basophils, and neutrophils to release large amounts of histamine and/or platelet activating factor (PAF). These mediators induce hypotension and vascular hyperpermeability and subsequent anaphylaxis dependent on the endothelial production of NO. Here, we have summarised previous studies reporting the mechanisms underlying the functional changes within the vasculature, specifically focusing on vascular permeability triggered by histamine or PAF...
April 19, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668081/lipocalin-type-prostaglandin-d-synthase-is-a-novel-phytocannabinoid-binding-protein
#6
Matthew W Elmes, Anthony D Volpe, Simon d'Oelsnitz, Joseph M Sweeney, Martin Kaczocha
Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS; EC:5.3.99.2) is an enzyme with dual functional roles as a prostaglandin D2 -synthesizing enzyme and as an extracellular transporter for diverse lipophilic compounds in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Transport of hydrophobic endocannabinoids is mediated by serum albumin in the blood and intracellularly by the fatty acid binding proteins, but no analogous transport mechanism has yet been described in CSF. L-PGDS has been reported to promiscuously bind a wide variety of lipophilic ligands and is among the most abundant proteins found in the CSF...
April 18, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607536/dp1-receptor-signaling-prevents-the-onset-of-intrinsic-apoptosis-in-eosinophils-and-functions-as-a-transcriptional-modulator
#7
Miriam Peinhaupt, David Roula, Anna Theiler, Miriam Sedej, Rudolf Schicho, Gunther Marsche, Eva M Sturm, Ian Sabroe, Marc E Rothenberg, Akos Heinemann
Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is the ligand for the G-protein coupled receptors DP1 (D-type prostanoid receptor 1) and DP2 (also known as chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule, expressed on Th2 cells; CRTH2). Both, DP1 and DP2 are expressed on the cellular surface of eosinophils; although it has become quite clear that PGD2 induces eosinophil migration mainly via DP2 receptors, the role of DP1 in eosinophil responses has remained elusive. In this study, we addressed how DP1 receptor signaling complements the pro-inflammatory effects of DP2...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604141/pgd2-ptgdr2-signaling-restricts-the-self-renewal-and-tumorigenesis-of-gastric-cancer
#8
Bin Zhang, Qingli Bie, Peipei Wu, Jie Zhang, Benshuai You, Hui Shi, Hui Qian, Wenrong Xu
The antitumor effect of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) on gastric cancer (GC) has been known for decades. However, the mechanism of PGD2's control of GC growth is unclear. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are implicated in tumor neovascularization, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. Herein, we discovered that signaling between PGD2 and its receptor (PTGDR2) has the ability to restrict the self-renewal of GC cells in vitro and suppress tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. To obtain these findings, we first determined that PGD2 synthase (L-PTGDS) and PTGDR2 expression were lower in GC tissues than adjacent tissues and was associated with the patients' prognosis...
March 31, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582462/omeprazole-induced-hypertrichosis-in-two-children
#9
Marta Elosua-González, Minia Campos-Domínguez, Daniel Bancalari, Lucero Noguera-Morel, Angela Hernández-Martín, Jorge Huerta-Aragonés, Antonio Torrelo
Omeprazole significantly increases duodenal prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Prostaglandins are involved in hair growth regulation: prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2 alpha stimulate hair growth, and prostaglandin D2 has an inhibitory effect. The use of omeprazole can cause acquired generalized hypertrichosis by increasing prostaglandin E2 levels.
March 26, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560440/chronic-voluntary-oral-methamphetamine-induces-deficits-in-spatial-learning-and-hippocampal-protein-kinase-mzeta-with-enhanced-astrogliosis-and-cyclooxygenase-2-levels
#10
Jorge A Avila, Roseanna M Zanca, Denis Shor, Nicholas Paleologos, Amber A Alliger, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Peter A Serrano
Methamphetamine (MA) is an addictive drug with neurotoxic effects on the brain producing cognitive impairment and increasing the risk for neurodegenerative disease. Research has focused largely on examining the neurochemical and behavioral deficits induced by injecting relatively high doses of MA [30 mg/kg of body weight (bw)] identifying the upper limits of MA-induced neurotoxicity. Accordingly, we have developed an appetitive mouse model of voluntary oral MA administration (VOMA) based on the consumption of a palatable sweetened oatmeal mash containing a known amount of MA...
February 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555597/oxygenation-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-oxidative-stress-within-blood-platelets
#11
REVIEW
Michel Lagarde, Michel Guichardant, Nathalie Bernoud-Hubac, Catherine Calzada, Evelyne Véricel
The oxygenation metabolism of arachidonic acid (ArA) has been early described in blood platelets, in particular with its conversion into the potent labile thromboxane A2 that induces platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cells contraction. In addition, the primary prostaglandins D2 and E2 have been mainly reported as inhibitors of platelet function. The platelet 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) product, i.e. the hydroperoxide 12-HpETE, appears to stimulate platelet ArA metabolism at the level of its release from membrane phospholipids through phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 ) and cyclooxygenase (COX-1) activities, the first enzymes in prostanoid production cascade...
March 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518425/leukotriene-e-4-induces-airflow-obstruction-and-mast-cell-activation-via-the-cyslt-1-receptor
#12
Nikolaos Lazarinis, Johan Bood, Cristina Gomez, Johan Kolmert, Ann-Sofie Lantz, Pär Gyllfors, Andy Davis, Craig E Wheelock, Sven-Erik Dahlén, Barbro Dahlén
BACKGROUND: Leukotriene E4 (LTE4 ) is the final active metabolite among the cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs). Animal studies have identified a distinct LTE4 receptor, suggesting that current CysLT1 receptor antagonists may provide incomplete inhibition of CysLT responses. OBJECTIVE: We tested this hypothesis by assessing the influence of the CysLT1 antagonist montelukast on responses induced by inhalation of LTE4 in asthmatic subjects. METHODS: Fourteen subjects with mild intermittent asthma and two subjects with aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) received montelukast 20 mg bid and placebo for 5-7 days in a randomized, double blind, crossover study (NCT01841164)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518421/mast-cell-activation-test-in-the-diagnosis-of-allergic-disease-and-anaphylaxis
#13
Rajia Bahri, Adnan Custovic, Peter Korosec, Marina Tsoumani, Martin Barron, Jiakai Wu, Rebekah Sayers, Alf Weimann, Monica Ruiz-Garcia, Nandinee Patel, Abigail Robb, Mohamed H Shamji, Sara Fontanella, Mira Silar, E N Clare Mills, Angela Simpson, Paul J Turner, Silvia Bulfone-Paus
BACKGROUND: Food allergy is an increasing public health issue and the most common cause of life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Conventional allergy tests assess for the presence of allergen-specific IgE, significantly overestimating the rate of true clinical allergy and resulting in overdiagnosis and adverse effect on health-related quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To undertake initial validation and assessment of a novel diagnostic tool, we used the mast cell activation test (MAT)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483912/infective-larvae-of-brugia-malayi-induce-polarization-of-host-macrophages-that-helps-in-immune-evasion
#14
Aditi Sharma, Pankaj Sharma, Laxmi Ganga, Neha Satoeya, Shikha Mishra, Achchhe Lal Vishwakarma, Mrigank Srivastava
Filarial parasites suppress, divert, or polarize the host immune response to aid their survival. However, mechanisms that govern the polarization of host MΦs during early filarial infection are not completely understood. In this study, we infected BALB/c mice with infective larvae stage-3 of Brugia malayi (Bm-L3) and studied their effect on the polarization of splenic MΦs. Results showed that MΦs displayed M2-phenotype by day 3 p.i. characterized by upregulated IL-4, but reduced IL-12 and Prostaglandin-D2 secretion...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463843/prostaglandin-d-2-amplifies-lupus-disease-through-basophil-accumulation-in-lymphoid-organs
#15
Christophe Pellefigues, Barbara Dema, Yasmine Lamri, Fanny Saidoune, Nathalie Chavarot, Charlotte Lohéac, Emeline Pacreau, Michael Dussiot, Caroline Bidault, Florian Marquet, Mathieu Jablonski, Jonathan M Chemouny, Fanny Jouan, Antoine Dossier, Marie-Paule Chauveheid, Delphine Gobert, Thomas Papo, Hajime Karasuyama, Karim Sacré, Eric Daugas, Nicolas Charles
In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), autoantibody production can lead to kidney damage and failure, known as lupus nephritis. Basophils amplify the synthesis of autoantibodies by accumulating in secondary lymphoid organs. Here, we show a role for prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 ) in the pathophysiology of SLE. Patients with SLE have increased expression of PGD2 receptors (PTGDR) on blood basophils and increased concentration of PGD2 metabolites in plasma. Through an autocrine mechanism dependent on both PTGDRs, PGD2 induces the externalization of CXCR4 on basophils, both in humans and mice, driving accumulation in secondary lymphoid organs...
February 20, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449194/prostaglandin-d2-receptor-dp1-antibodies-predict-vaccine-induced-and-spontaneous-narcolepsy-type-1-large-scale-study-of-antibody-profiling
#16
Helle Sadam, Arno Pihlak, Anri Kivil, Susan Pihelgas, Mariliis Jaago, Priit Adler, Jaak Vilo, Olli Vapalahti, Toomas Neuman, Dan Lindholm, Markku Partinen, Antti Vaheri, Kaia Palm
BACKGROUND: Neuropathological findings support an autoimmune etiology as an underlying factor for loss of orexin-producing neurons in spontaneous narcolepsy type 1 (narcolepsy with cataplexy; sNT1) as well as in Pandemrix influenza vaccine-induced narcolepsy type 1 (Pdmx-NT1). The precise molecular target or antigens for the immune response have, however, remained elusive. METHODS: Here we have performed a comprehensive antigenic repertoire analysis of sera using the next-generation phage display method - mimotope variation analysis (MVA)...
March 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439547/prostaglandin-d2-mediated-dp2-and-akt-signal-regulate-the-activation-of-androgen-receptors-in-human-dermal-papilla-cells
#17
Kwan Ho Jeong, Ji Hee Jung, Jung Eun Kim, Hoon Kang
Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 (DP2) is known to be an important factor in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). However, the effect of PGD2 in human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) is not fully understood. The function of PGD2-induced expression of the androgen receptor (AR), DP2, and AKT (protein kinase B) signal were examined by using real time-PCR (qRT-PCR), western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry (ICC), and siRNA transfection system. PGD2 stimulated AR expression and AKT signaling through DP2...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434103/a-simple-and-highly-sensitive-quantitation-of-eicosanoids-in-biological-samples-using-nano-flow-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#18
Ayumi Ando, Yoshinori Satomi
A simple sample preparation method for eicosanoid was developed by the combination of deproteinization and nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS. Eicosanoids are a group of bioactive lipid mediators, present in trace amounts in the body. Therefore, an analytical method for eicosanoids requires superior sensitivity. The method described in this report, which takes advantage of the highly sensitive power of nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS, enabled a simplification of the sample-preparation process. Eicosanoid extraction was performed just by homogenization in methanol with subsequent phospholipid removal, and then the liquid phase was directly subjected to nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis without a condensation process...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427351/allergenicity-of-acrolein-treated-shrimp-tropomyosin-evaluated-using-rbl-2h3-cell-and-mouse-model
#19
Liangtao Lv, Hong Lin, Zhenxing Li, Ishfaq Ahmed, Nasha Mi, Guanzhi Chen
BACKGROUND: Food processing effects can modify protein functional properties. However, protein was oxidized inevitably by lipid peroxidation during food processing. Acrolein, a primary by-product of lipid peroxidation, can modify the structural and functional properties of protein. The aim of the research was to analyze the effect of acrolein on allergenicity of TM, a major allergen in shrimp. RESULTS: The overall allergenic effects of acrolein-treated TM were evaluated using female BALB/c mice and a mediator-releasing RBL-2H3 cell line...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399125/identification-of-potentially-relevant-genes-for-myocardial-infarction-using-rna-sequencing-data-analysis
#20
Qiang Zhao, Ke Wu, Nannan Li, Zhengmei Li, Fenglin Jin
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a heart disease with high morbidity and mortality rates, thus it is critical to identify genes that serve roles during its pathogenesis. The objective of the present study was to identify potentially relevant genes during the progression of the disease. Blood samples from patients with MI and normal controls (n=3/group) were obtained, the RNA was extracted and cDNA libraries were established. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on a HiSeq 2500 platform and fragments per kilobase of exon per million fragments mapped was utilized to calculate the gene expression value following preprocessing of the RNA-seq data...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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