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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152027/design-considerations-for-open-well-microfluidic-platforms-for-hypoxic-cell-studies
#1
Matthew B Byrne, Matthew T Leslie, Heeral S Patel, H Rex Gaskins, Paul J A Kenis
Regions of hypoxia are common in solid tumors and are associated with enhanced malignancy, metastasis, and chemo/radio resistance. Real-time hypoxic cellular experimentation is challenging due to the constant need for oxygen control. Most microfluidic platforms developed thus far for hypoxic cell studies are burdened by complex design parameters and are difficult to use for uninitiated investigators. However, open-well microfluidic platforms enable short and long term hypoxic cell studies with an ease of use workflow...
September 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148752/substituent-effects-on-the-reactivity-of-cyclic-tertiary-sulfamidates
#2
Claudio D Navo, Nuria Mazo, Alberto Avenoza, Jesús H Busto, Jesús M Peregrina, Gonzalo Jiménez-Osés
The reactivity of cyclic tertiary sulfamidates derived from α-methylisoserine strongly depends on the substitution at the C and N termini. These substrates are one of the very few examples able to undergo nucleophilic ring-opening at a quaternary carbon with complete inversion of the configuration, as demonstrated both experimentally and computationally. When the sulfonamide is unprotected, the characteristic ring-opening reaction is completely silenced, which explains that the majority of the ring-opening reactions reported in the literature invoke N-alkyl or N-acyl-protected sulfamidates...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141989/analysis-of-copy-number-variants-on-chromosome-21-in-down-syndrome-associated-congenital-heart-defects
#3
Benjamin L Rambo-Martin, Jennifer G Mulle, David J Cutler, Lora J H Bean, Tracie C Rosser, Kenneth J Dooley, Clifford Cua, George Capone, Cheryl L Maslen, Roger H Reeves, Stephanie L Sherman, Michael E Zwick
One in five people with Down syndrome (DS) are born with an atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD), an incidence 2,000 times higher than in the euploid population. The genetic loci that contribute to this risk are poorly understood. In this study, we tested two hypotheses: 1) individuals with DS carrying chromosome 21 copy number variants (CNVs) that interrupt exons may be protected from AVSD, because these CNVs return AVSD susceptibility loci back to disomy, and 2) individuals with DS carrying chromosome 21 genes spanned by microduplications are at greater risk for AVSD because these microduplications boost the dosage of AVSD susceptibility loci beyond a tolerable threshold...
November 15, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140680/helicity-inversion-of-supramolecular-hydrogels-induced-by-achiral-substituents
#4
Guofeng Liu, Xin Li, Jianhui Sheng, Pei-Zhou Li, Wee Kong Ong, Soo Zeng Fiona Phua, Hans Ågren, Liangliang Zhu, Yanli Zhao
Probing the supramolecular chirality of assemblies and controlling their handedness are closely related to the origin of chirality at the supramolecular level and the development of smart materials with desired handedness. However, it remains unclear how achiral residues covalently bonded to chiral amino acids can function in the chirality inversion of supramolecular assemblies. Herein, we report macroscopic chirality and dynamic manipulation of chiroptical activity of hydrogels self-assembled from phenylalanine derivatives, together with the inversion of their handedness achieved solely by exchanging achiral substituents between oligo(ethylene glycol) and carboxylic acid groups...
November 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139245/evaluation-of-a-pointwise-microcirculation-assessment-method-using-liquid-and-multilayered-tissue-simulating-phantoms
#5
Ingemar Fredriksson, Rolf B Saager, Anthony J Durkin, Tomas Strömberg
A fiber-optic probe-based instrument, designed for assessment of parameters related to microcirculation, red blood cell tissue fraction (fRBC), oxygen saturation (SO2), and speed resolved perfusion, has been evaluated using state-of-the-art tissue phantoms. The probe integrates diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) at two source-detector separations and laser Doppler flowmetry, using an inverse Monte Carlo method for identifying the parameters of a multilayered tissue model. Here, we characterize the accuracy of the DRS aspect of the instrument using (1) liquid blood phantoms containing yeast and (2) epidermis-dermis mimicking solid-layered phantoms fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane, titanium oxide, hemoglobin, and coffee...
November 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137168/origin-and-evolution-of-the-neo-sex-chromosomes-in-pamphagidae-grasshoppers-through-chromosome-fusion-and-following-heteromorphization
#6
Ilyas Yerkinovich Jetybayev, Alexander Gennadievich Bugrov, Olesya Georgievna Buleu, Anton Gennadievich Bogomolov, Nikolay Borisovich Rubtsov
In most phylogenetic lineages, the evolution of sex chromosomes is accompanied by their heteromorphization and degradation of one of them. The neo-sex chromosomes are useful model for studying early stages of these processes. Recently two lineages of the neo-sex chromosomes on different stages of heteromorphization was discovered in Pamphagidae family. The neo-sex chromosome heteromorphization was analyzed by generation of DNA probes derived from the neo-Xs and neo-Ys followed with chromosome painting in nineteen species of Pamphagidae family...
November 13, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136113/the-laminar-organization-of-piriform-cortex-follows-a-selective-developmental-and-migratory-program-established-by-cell-lineage
#7
Eduardo Martin-Lopez, Kimiko Ishiguro, Charles A Greer
Piriform cortex (PC) is a 3-layer paleocortex receiving primary afferent input from the olfactory bulb. The past decade has seen significant progress in understanding the synaptic, cellular and functional organization of PC, but PC embryogenesis continues to be enigmatic. Here, using birthdating strategies and clonal analyses, we probed the early development and laminar specificity of neurogenesis/gliogenesis as it relates to the organization of the PC. Our data demonstrate a temporal sequence of laminar-specific neurogenesis following the canonical "inside-out" pattern, with the notable exception of PC Layer II which exhibited an inverse "outside-in" temporal neurogenic pattern...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116264/dynamic-sandwich-type-electrochemical-assay-for-protein-quantification-and-protein-protein-interaction
#8
Chao Li, Yaqin Tao, Yi Yang, Chang Feng, Yang Xiang, Genxi Li
The study of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) plays an important role in the understanding of biological systems; however, the established methods for PPI analysis often involve cumbersome sample preparation, multiple detecting steps, and costly instruments. Here we report a versatile and sensitive electrochemical method based on PPI-induced distinctive migration behavior of DNA deoxyribozyme (DNAzyme) on an electrode surface. In this method, the cleavage activity of DNAzyme toward the substrate DNA modified on the electrode surface is inversely correlated with the hydrodynamic diameter of the macromolecule attached to it...
November 8, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095635/optical-contactless-measurement-of-electric-field-induced-tensile-stress-in-diamond-nanoscale-needles
#9
L Rigutti, L Venturi, J Houard, A Normand, E P Silaeva, M Borz, S A Malykhin, A N Obraztsov, A Vella
The application of a high electrostatic field at the apex of monocrystalline diamond nanoscale needles induces an energy splitting of the photoluminescence lines of color centers. In particular, the splitting of the zero-phonon line of the neutral nitrogen-vacancy complex (NV(0)) has been studied within a laser-assisted tomographic atom probe equipped with an in situ microphotoluminescence bench. The measured quadratic dependence of the energy splitting on the applied voltage corresponds to the stress generated on the metal-like apex surface by the electrostatic field...
November 8, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080259/counting-ovarian-antral-follicles-by-ultrasound-a-practical-guide
#10
Marcela A Coelho Neto, Artur Ludwin, Antoni Borrell, Beryl Benacerraf, Didier Dewailly, Fabricio da Silva Costa, George Condous, Juan L Alcazar, Ligita Jokubkiene, Stefano Guerriero, Thierry Van den Bosch, Wellington P Martins
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the main aspects of several available techniques to perform ovarian antral follicle count (AFC), to propose a standardized report and to draw perspectives for future research on this subject. METHODS: This is a consensus paper from a group of clinicians and sonologists. The initial manuscript was written by three authors and then submitted to all the other authors asking for comments/corrections. After three versions incorporating suggestions, the fourth version of the manuscript was approved by all the authors...
October 28, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077059/network-driven-proteogenomics-unveils-an-aging-related-imbalance-in-the-olfactory-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%AE-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-complex-functionality-in-tg2576-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#11
Maialen Palomino-Alonso, Mercedes Lachén-Montes, Andrea González-Morales, Karina Ausín, Alberto Pérez-Mediavilla, Joaquín Fernández-Irigoyen, Enrique Santamaría
Olfaction is often deregulated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and is also impaired in transgenic Tg2576 AD mice, which overexpress the Swedish mutated form of human amyloid precursor protein (APP). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that accompany the neurodegeneration of olfactory structures in aged Tg2576 mice. For that, we have applied proteome- and transcriptome-wide approaches to probe molecular disturbances in the olfactory bulb (OB) dissected from aged Tg2576 mice (18 months of age) as compared to those of age matched wild-type (WT) littermates...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058513/accurate-detection-of-low-level-mosaic-mutations-in-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-using-single-molecule-tagging-and-deep-sequencing
#12
Jiangyan Yu, Željko Antić, Simon V van Reijmersdal, Alexander Hoischen, Edwin Sonneveld, Esmé Waanders, Roland P Kuiper
Pathogenic mutations in relapse-associated genes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia may improve risk stratification when detected at subclonal levels at primary diagnosis. However, to detect subclonal mutations upfront, a deep-sequencing approach with high specificity and sensitivity is required. Here, we performed a proof-of-principle study to detect low-level mosaic RAS pathway mutations by deep sequencing using random tagging-based single molecule Molecular Inversion Probes (smMIPs). The smMIP-based approach could sensitively detect variants with allele frequency as low as 0...
October 23, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050824/in-vivo-repeatability-of-the-pulse-wave-inverse-problem-in-human-carotid-arteries
#13
Matthew McGarry, Pierre Nauleau, Iason Apostolakis, Elisa Konofagou
Accurate arterial stiffness measurement would improve diagnosis and monitoring for many diseases. Atherosclerotic plaques and aneurysms are expected to involve focal changes in vessel wall properties; therefore, a method to image the stiffness variation would be a valuable clinical tool. The pulse wave inverse problem (PWIP) fits unknown parameters from a computational model of arterial pulse wave propagation to ultrasound-based measurements of vessel wall displacements by minimizing the difference between the model and measured displacements...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048082/high-temperature-ferroelectric-behaviour-in-%C3%AE-mno2-nanorods-realised-through-enriched-oxygen-vacancy-induced-non-stoichiometry
#14
Reenu Elizabeth John, Anoop Chandran, Justin George, Ajai Jose, Gijo Jose, Joshy Jose, N V Unnikrishnan, Marykutty Thomas, K C George
Nanostructuring followed by incorporation of defect induced non-stoichiometry is an emerging field of prominence due to its capacity to introduce unprecedented properties in materials with potential applications. In this work, crystalline α-MnO2 nanorods are synthesised using a facile co-precipitation method to exhibit ferroelectric behaviour for the first time. The evolution mechanism of the nanorods is investigated using XRD, HRTEM and FTIR spectra, while their thermal stability is probed using TGA/DTA. The novel properties observed are the result of structural rearrangements sparked by electrons in mixed valence cations (Mn(3+)/Mn(4+))...
November 1, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044851/a-bifunctional-fluorogenic-rhodamine-probe-for-proximity-induced-bioorthogonal-chemistry
#15
Philipp Werther, Jasper S Möhler, Richard Wombacher
Bioorthogonal reactions have emerged as a versatile tool in life sciences. The inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction (DAinv) stands out due to the availability of reactants with very fast kinetics. However, highly reactive dienophiles suffer the disadvantage of being less stable and prone to side reactions. Here, we evaluate the extent of acceleration of rather unreactive but highly stable dienophiles by DNA-templated proximity. To this end, we developed a modular synthetic route for a novel bifunctional fluorogenic tetrazine rhodamine probe that we used to determine the reaction kinetics of various dienophiles in a fluorescence assay...
October 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040662/molecular-subtyping-of-tumors-from-patients-with-familial-glioma
#16
Vanessa Y Ruiz, Corinne E Praska, Georgina Armstrong, Thomas M Kollmeyer, Seiji Yamada, Paul A Decker, Matthew L Kosel, Jeanette E Eckel-Passow, The Gliogene Consortium, Daniel H Lachance, Matthew N Bainbridge, Beatrice S Melin, Melissa L Bondy, Robert B Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Single-gene mutation syndromes account for some familial glioma (FG); however, they make up only a small fraction of glioma families. Gliomas can be classified into 3 major molecular subtypes based on IDH mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion. We hypothesized that the prevalence of molecular subtypes might differ in familial versus sporadic gliomas, and that tumors in the same family should have the same molecular subtype. METHODS: Participants in the FG study (Gliogene) provided samples for germline DNA analysis...
October 10, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037373/fast-inverse-prediction-of-the-freezing-front-in-cryosurgery
#17
REVIEW
Mohamed Hafid, Marcel Lacroix
Cryosurgery has become a well-established technique for the ablation of undesirable tissues such as tumors and cancers. The motivation for this study is to improve the efficacy and safety of this technique. This study presents an inverse heat transfer method for monitoring the motion of the freezing front from a cryoprobe. With the help of a thermocouple inserted into the layer of diseased tissue, the inverse heat transfer method estimates simultaneously the blood perfusion rate and the thermal conductivities of both frozen and unfrozen tissues...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037353/shortened-protocol-for-radiofrequency-ablation-of-perforator%C3%A2-veins
#18
Afsha Aurshina, Anil Hingorani, Sheila Blumberg, Ahmad Alsheekh, Natalie Marks, Amrit Hingorani, Eleanor Iadagarova, Enrico Ascher
BACKGROUND: Routine radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of an incompetent perforator vein (IPV) using the standard treatment protocol at 85°C has a treatment time of 6 minutes. To make treatment time more efficient, we sought to determine the effect of a shortened protocol for radiofrequency stylet (RFS) ablation by comparing the early success using three different temperatures: 85°C, 90°C, and 95°C. METHODS: A retrospective study examined 642 procedures of IPV closures in 255 patients with varying degrees of venous insufficiency treated with RFA from 2009 to 2015...
November 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028502/dota-tetrazine-probes-with-modified-linkers-for-tumor-pretargeting
#19
Tilman Läppchen, Raffaella Rossin, Tiemen R van Mourik, Guillaume Gruntz, Freek J M Hoeben, Ron M Versteegen, Henk M Janssen, Johan Lub, Marc S Robillard
INTRODUCTION: Pretargeted radioimmunoimaging and -therapy approaches building on the bioorthogonal inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) reaction between strained trans-cyclooctenes (TCO) and electron-deficient tetrazines (Tz) have yielded impressive results in recent years and have proven a vital alternative to biological pretargeting systems. After improvement of the TCO-antibody conjugates, we here report on our evaluation of a new series of radiolabeled Tz-probes. METHODS: Four new Tz-probes were synthesized, radiolabeled with lutetium-177, and characterized in vitro in terms of lipophilicity, reactivity, and stability in PBS and mouse serum...
September 14, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020391/association-between-mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-and-sudden-cardiac-death-findings-from-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study-aric
#20
Yiyi Zhang, Eliseo Guallar, Foram N Ashar, Ryan J Longchamps, Christina A Castellani, John Lane, Megan L Grove, Josef Coresh, Nona Sotoodehnia, Leonard Ilkhanoff, Eric Boerwinkle, Nathan Pankratz, Dan E Arking
Aims: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major public health burden. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in a wide range of cardiovascular diseases including cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and arrhythmias, but it is unknown if it also contributes to SCD risk. We sought to examine the prospective association between mtDNA copy number (mtDNA-CN), a surrogate marker of mitochondrial function, and SCD risk. Methods and results: We measured baseline mtDNA-CN in 11 093 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study...
June 30, 2017: European Heart Journal
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