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inversion probes

Gang Wang, Yu-Sheng Wang, Emily Kay Huang, Weilun Hung, Kai-Lin Chao, Ping-Yeh Wu, Yi-Hsin Chen, Ite A Yu
We present high-contrast electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) spectra in a heated vapor cell of single isotope 87 Rb atoms. The EIT spectrum has both high resonant transmission up to 67% and narrow linewidth of 1.1 MHz. We get rid of the possible amplification resulted from the effects of amplification without population inversion and four-wave mixing. Therefore, this high transmitted light is not artificial. The theoretical prediction of the probe transmission agrees well with the data and the experimental parameters can be derived reasonably from the model...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Benjamin Tadsen, Franko Greiner, Alexander Piel
A cloud of nanodust particles is created in a reactive argon-acetylene plasma. It is then transformed into a dusty magnetized argon plasma. Plasma parameters are obtained with the dust-density wave diagnostic introduced by Tadsen et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 113701 (2015)10.1063/1.4934927]. A change from an open to a cylindrically enclosed nanodust cloud, which was observed earlier, can now be explained by a stronger electric confinement if a vertical magnetic field is present. Using two-dimensional extinction measurements and the inverse Abel transform to determine the dust density, a redistribution of the dust with increasing magnetic induction is found...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Elaheh Sedghamiz, Majid Moosavi
The surface properties of three symmetric linear tricationic ionic liquids (LTILs) with the common anion, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([NTf2]-), were studied using atomistic molecular dynamics simulation and identification of the truly interfacial molecules (ITIM) analysis. A refined version of the CL&P force field with the partial charges based on quantum calculations for isolated ion quartets was used to calculate the number densities, orientation of the cations, charge densities and surface tensions...
May 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Tal Heilpern, Manoj Manjare, Alexander O Govorov, Gary P Wiederrecht, Stephen K Gray, Hayk Harutyunyan
Developing a fundamental understanding of ultrafast non-thermal processes in metallic nanosystems will lead to applications in photodetection, photochemistry and photonic circuitry. Typically, non-thermal and thermal carrier populations in plasmonic systems are inferred either by making assumptions about the functional form of the initial energy distribution or using indirect sensors like localized plasmon frequency shifts. Here we directly determine non-thermal and thermal distributions and dynamics in thin films by applying a double inversion procedure to optical pump-probe data that relates the reflectivity changes around Fermi energy to the changes in the dielectric function and in the single-electron energy band occupancies...
May 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Papu Samanta, Sonal Rane, Pratap Bahadur, Sharmistha Dutta Choudhury, Haridas Pal
Detailed photophysical investigations have been carried out using a probe dye, Coumarin-153 (C153), to understand the microenvironments of micelles formed by the newly introduced Tetronic star block copolymers, T1304 and T1307, having the same polypropylene oxide (PPO) block size but different polyethylene oxide (PEO) block sizes. Ground state absorption, steady-state fluorescence and time-resolved fluorescence measurements have been used to estimate the micropolarity, microviscosity and solvation dynamics within the two micelles...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
(no author information available yet)
Large experimental programmes in the fields of nuclear and particle physics search for evidence of physics beyond that explained by current theories. The observation of the Higgs boson completed the set of particles predicted by the standard model, which currently provides the best description of fundamental particles and forces. However, this theory's limitations include a failure to predict fundamental parameters, such as the mass of the Higgs boson, and the inability to account for dark matter and energy, gravity, and the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe, among other phenomena...
May 2018: Nature
María I Pérez Millán, Sebastian A Vishnopolska, Alexandre Z Daly, Juan P Bustamante, Adriana Seilicovich, Ignacio Bergadá, Débora Braslavsky, Ana C Keselman, Rosemary M Lemons, Amanda H Mortensen, Marcelo A Marti, Sally A Camper, Jacob O Kitzman
BACKGROUND: Congenital Hypopituitarism is caused by genetic and environmental factors. Over 30 genes have been implicated in isolated and/or combined pituitary hormone deficiency. The etiology remains unknown for up to 80% of the patients, but most cases have been analyzed by limited candidate gene screening. Mutations in the PROP1 gene are the most common known cause, and the frequency of mutations in this gene varies greatly by ethnicity. We designed a custom array to assess the frequency of mutations in known hypopituitarism genes and new candidates, using single molecule molecular inversion probes sequencing (smMIPS)...
May 8, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Corina N A M van den Heuvel, Arvid I Das, Tessa de Bitter, Femke Simmer, Thomas Wurdinger, Miguel Angel Molina-Vila, William P J Leenders
Oncogenic membrane receptor tyrosine kinases such as MET and EGFR, or auto-active variants thereof, are important targets for cancer precision therapy. Targeted inhibition of these oncogenic receptors however invariably leads to resistance, resulting from acquisition of resistance-inducing mutations or from selective outgrowth of a priori resistant tumour cells. Most applied molecular protocols cannot distinguish between intracellular and intercellular heterogeneity of oncogene (variant) expression, which may lead to misinterpretation of the molecular make-up of a cancer and suboptimal application of targeted therapies...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tongyun Huang, Tianxing Ma, Li-Gang Wang
We perform a systematic study of the Zitterbewegung effect of fermions, which are described by a Gaussian wave with broken spatial-inversion symmetry in a three-dimensional low-energy Weyl semimetal.
 Our results show that the motion of fermions near the Weyl points is characterized by rectilinear motion and Zitterbewegung oscillation.
 The ZB oscillation is affected by the width of the Gaussian wave packet, the position of the Weyl node, and the chirality and anisotropy of the fermions. By introducing a one-dimensional cosine potential, the new generated massless fermions have lower Fermi Velocities, which results in a robust relativistic oscillation...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Ozkan Aydemir, Mark Janko, Nick J Hathaway, Robert Verity, Melchior Kashamuka Mwandagalirwa, Antoinette K Tshefu, Sofonias K Tessema, Patrick W Marsh, Alice Tran, Thomas Reimonn, Azra C Ghani, Anita Ghansah, Jonathan J Juliano, Bryan R Greenhouse, Michael Emch, Steven R Meshnick, Jeffrey A Bailey
A better understanding of the drivers of the spread of malaria parasites and drug resistance across space and time is needed. These drivers can be elucidated using genetic tools. Here, a novel molecular inversion probe (MIP) panel targeting all major drug resistance mutations and a set of microsatellites was used to genotype Plasmodium falciparum infections of 552 children from the 2013-14 Demographic and Health Survey conducted in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Microsatellite-based analysis of population structure suggests that parasites within the DRC form a homogeneous population...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Christian E Stilp, Michael Kiefte, Keith R Kluender
Natural sounds have substantial acoustic structure (predictability, nonrandomness) in their spectral and temporal compositions. Listeners are expected to exploit this structure to distinguish simultaneous sound sources; however, previous studies confounded acoustic structure and listening experience. Here, sensitivity to acoustic structure in novel sounds was measured in discrimination and identification tasks. Complementary signal-processing strategies independently varied relative acoustic entropy (the inverse of acoustic structure) across frequency or time...
April 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Ichiro Yamada, Norio Yoshino, Keigo Hikishima, Junichiro Sakamoto, Misaki Yokokawa, Yu Oikawa, Hiroyuki Harada, Tohru Kurabayashi, Yukihisa Saida, Ukihide Tateishi, Akane Yukimori, Toshiyuki Izumo, Shun Asahina
PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to determine the usefulness of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) as a noninvasive method for evaluation of the histologic grade and lymph node metastasis in patients with oral carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with oral carcinoma were examined with a 3-T MR system and 16-channel coil. DKI data were obtained by a single-shot echo-planar imaging sequence with repetition time, 10,000 ms; echo time, 94 ms; field of view, 250 × 204...
April 25, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Mathew Britton, Patrick Laferrière, Dong Hyuk Ko, Zhengyan Li, Fanqi Kong, Graham Brown, Andrei Naumov, Chunmei Zhang, Ladan Arissian, P B Corkum
It has been known for many years that during filamentation of femtosecond light pulses in air, gain is observed on the B to X transition in N_{2}^{+}. While the gain mechanism remains unclear, it has been proposed that recollision, a process that is fundamental to much of strong field science, is critical for establishing gain. We probe this hypothesis by directly comparing the influence of the ellipticity of the pump light on gain in air filaments. Then, we decouple filamentation from gain by measuring the gain in a thin gas jet that we also use for high harmonic generation...
March 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
B Hildebrand, T Jaouen, M-L Mottas, G Monney, C Barreteau, E Giannini, D R Bowler, P Aebi
The transition metal dichalcogenide 1T-TiSe_{2}-two-dimensional layered material undergoing a commensurate 2×2×2 charge density wave (CDW) transition with a weak periodic lattice distortion (PLD) below ≈200  K. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) combined with intentionally introduced interstitial Ti atoms allows us to go beyond the usual spatial resolution of STM and to intimately probe the three-dimensional character of the PLD. Furthermore, the inversion-symmetric achiral nature of the CDW in the z direction is revealed, contradicting the claimed existence of helical CDW stacking and associated chiral order...
March 30, 2018: Physical Review Letters
D Santiago-Gonzalez, K Auranen, M L Avila, A D Ayangeakaa, B B Back, S Bottoni, M P Carpenter, J Chen, C M Deibel, A A Hood, C R Hoffman, R V F Janssens, C L Jiang, B P Kay, S A Kuvin, A Lauer, J P Schiffer, J Sethi, R Talwar, I Wiedenhöver, J Winkelbauer, S Zhu
A beam containing a substantial component of both the J^{π}=5^{+}, T_{1/2}=162  ns isomeric state of ^{18}F and its 1^{+}, 109.77-min ground state is utilized to study members of the ground-state rotational band in ^{19}F through the neutron transfer reaction (d,p) in inverse kinematics. The resulting spectroscopic strengths confirm the single-particle nature of the 13/2^{+} band-terminating state. The agreement between shell-model calculations using an interaction constructed within the sd shell, and our experimental results reinforces the idea of a single-particle-collective duality in the descriptions of the structure of atomic nuclei...
March 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Gleb N Artemov, Semen M Bondarenko, Anastasia N Naumenko, Vladimir N Stegniy, Maria V Sharakhova, Igor V Sharakhov
BACKGROUND: Malaria mosquitoes have had a remarkable stability in the number of chromosomes in their karyotype (2n = 6) during 100 million years of evolution. Moreover, autosomal arms were assumed to maintain their integrity even if their associations with each other changed via whole-arm translocations. Here we use high-coverage comparative physical genome mapping of three Anopheles species to test the extent of evolutionary conservation of chromosomal arms in malaria mosquitoes...
April 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
Robert Serfling, Lisa Seidel, Thore Böttke, Irene Coin
The genetic incorporation of non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) via amber stop codon suppression is a powerful technique to install artificial probes and reactive moieties onto proteins directly in the live cell. Each ncAA is incorporated by a dedicated orthogonal suppressor-tRNA/amino-acyl-tRNA-synthetase (AARS) pair that is imported into the host organism. The incorporation efficiency of different ncAAs can greatly differ, and be unsatisfactory in some cases. Orthogonal pairs can be improved by manipulating either the AARS or the tRNA...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yunpeng Dai, Xueli Chen, Jipeng Yin, Guodong Wang, Bo Wang, Yonghua Zhan, Yongzhan Nie, Kaichun Wu, Jimin Liang
Dynamic optical data from a series of sampling intervals can be used for quantitative analysis to obtain meaningful kinetic parameters of probe in vivo . The sampling schemes may affect the quantification results of dynamic fluorescence imaging. Here, we investigate the influence of different sampling schemes on the quantification of binding potential ( BP ) with theoretically simulated and experimentally measured data. Three groups of sampling schemes are investigated including the sampling starting point, sampling sparsity, and sampling uniformity...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Rafael Kretschmer, Vanusa Lilian Camargo de Lima, Marcelo Santos de Souza, Alice Lemos Costa, Patricia C M O'Brien, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa de Oliveira, Ricardo José Gunski, Analía Del Valle Garnero
In this work we performed comparative chromosome painting using probes from Gallus gallus (GGA) Linnaeus, 1758 and Leucopternis albicollis (LAL) Latham, 1790 in Synallaxis frontalis Pelzeln, 1859 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae), an exclusively Neotropical species, in order to analyze whether the complex pattern of intrachromosomal rearrangements (paracentric and pericentric inversions) proposed for Oscines and Suboscines is shared with more basal species. S. frontalis has 82 chromosomes, similar to most Avian species, with a large number of microchromosomes and a few pairs of macrochromosomes...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Ovidiu C Andronesi, Isabel C Arrillaga-Romany, K Ina Ly, Wolfgang Bogner, Eva M Ratai, Kara Reitz, A John Iafrate, Jorg Dietrich, Elizabeth R Gerstner, Andrew S Chi, Bruce R Rosen, Patrick Y Wen, Daniel P Cahill, Tracy T Batchelor
Inhibitors of the mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) entered recently in clinical trials for glioma treatment. Mutant IDH1 produces high levels of 2-hydroxyglurate (2HG), thought to initiate oncogenesis through epigenetic modifications of gene expression. In this study, we show the initial evidence of the pharmacodynamics of a new mutant IDH1 inhibitor in glioma patients, using non-invasive 3D MR spectroscopic imaging of 2HG. Our results from a Phase 1 clinical trial indicate a rapid decrease of 2HG levels by 70% (CI 13%, P = 0...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
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