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Karishma K Mehra, Daniel P Petrylak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Rudolph M Navari
The approach to the treatment of nausea and vomiting in a cancer patient should begin with a complete assessment, including the frequency, duration, and intensity of the nausea/vomiting; associated activities; and whether anorexia or cachexia is present. It is important to determine whether the nausea and vomiting is related to treatment (chemotherapy, radiation) or is independent of cancer treatment. Nausea/vomiting unrelated to chemotherapy and/or radiation may have an etiology for which there is a specific and potentially successful intervention...
March 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Amar Patel, Lawrence Fong
Immunotherapies have emerged as a revolutionary modality for cancer treatment, and a variety of immune-based approaches are currently being investigated in the field of prostate cancer. Despite the 2010 approval of sipuleucel-T, subsequent progress in prostate cancer immunotherapy development has been limited by disappointing results with novel vaccination approaches and by prostate cancer's general resistance to immune checkpoint blockade. Nevertheless, there remains strong preclinical and clinical evidence to suggest that prostate cancer is a susceptible target for immune therapies...
March 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Pauline Funchain, Ahmad A Tarhini
Rapidly advancing genomic sequencing technologies are changing all areas of cancer, from diagnosis to surveillance, and prognostication to treatment. The role of genomic testing in melanoma is expanding, and multiple genomically based tests are available, including somatic tumor sequencing for actionable genetic alterations and tumor mutational burden, prognostic gene expression profiling from tumor tissue, and germline genetic testing from blood. The available testing options have varying levels of supporting data, from robust to preliminary...
March 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Anna S Berghoff, Priscilla K Brastianos
Brain metastases (BMs) reflect an area of high clinical need, as up to 40% of patients with metastatic cancer will develop this morbid and highly fatal complication. Historically, treatment strategies have relied on local approaches including radiosurgery, whole-brain radiotherapy, and neurosurgical resection. Recently, targeted and immune-modulating therapies have shown promising responses and have been introduced in the clinical management of patients with BMs. Recent improvements in genomic technologies have enriched our understanding of BMs and have demonstrated that BMs present with significant genetic divergence from the originating primary tumor, such that potentially targetable genetic alterations are detected only in the BMs...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Michael Platten, David A Reardon
Strategies to empower the immune system to successfully attack cancers, including vaccination approaches, adaptive T cell therapies, and immune checkpoint modulators, have recently achieved remarkable success across a spectrum of cancer indications. Nonetheless, with rare exception, only a minority of patients with a given type of cancer respond to an immunotherapeutic when administered as single-agent therapy. Although under extensive laboratory and clinical investigation, the role of these approaches for glioma patients remains to be determined...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Zhi-Peng Qi, Tao Chen, Bing Li, Zhong Ren, Li-Qing Yao, Qiang Shi, Shi-Lun Cai, Yun-Shi Zhong, Ping-Hong Zhou
BACKGROUND: According to the Japanese Esophageal Society (JES) guidelines, early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) involving the muscularis mucosae (M3) or upper submucosal (SM1) layers are relative indications for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Additional esophagectomy or chemoradiotherapy is recommended for patients with relative indications after evaluation. However, elderly patients (≥ 60 years) with relative indications in China often refuse additional treatment because of the debilitating side effects...
March 16, 2018: Endoscopy
Anna Wallerstedt, Peter Strom, Henrik Gronberg, Tobias Nordstrom, Martin Eklund
Background: Studies have shown that 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) decrease the risk for low-grade prostate cancer (PC), but results are conflicting concerning high-grade PCs. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the association between 5-ARI treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms and the risk for PC. Methods: This is a population-based prospective study on all men age 40 years and older with at least one prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test in Stockholm County from January 2007 until December 2015...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Stella Koutros, Petra Lenz, Stephen M Hewitt, Masatoshi Kida, Michael Jones, Alan R Schned, Dalsu Baris, Ruth Pfeiffer, Molly Schwenn, Alison Johnson, Margaret R Karagas, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Nathaniel Rothman, Lee E Moore, Debra T Silverman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Edouard Louis
Biologic treatments have revolutionized the way we treat inflammatory bowel disease patients (IBD). Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) antibodies are superior to conventional therapies to achieve sustained remission without steroids and mucosal healing. The objective of IBD treatment has evolved from symptom alleviation to a combination of absence of symptoms and intestinal healing. Nevertheless, biologics are expensive and are associated with an increased risk of infections and possibly skin cancers. Therefore, the duration of these treatments may be questioned, and stopping them may be contemplated by some patients and clinicians, while it is sometimes even imposed by some jurisdictions across the world...
March 14, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Xu Chen, Stefan Gustafsson, Thomas Whitington, Yan Borné, Erik Lorentzen, Jitong Sun, Peter Almgren, Jun Su, Robert Karlsson, Jie Song, Yi Lu, Yiqiang Zhan, Sara Hägg, Per Svensson, Karin E Smedby, Susan L Slager, Erik Ingelsson, Cecilia M Lindgren, Andrew P Morris, Olle Melander, Thomas Karlsson, Ulf de Faire, Kenneth Caidahl, Gunnar Engström, Lars Lind, Mikael C I Karlsson, Nancy L Pedersen, Johan Frostegård, Patrik K E Magnusson
Phosphorylcholine (PC) is an epitope on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), apoptotic cells and several pathogens like Streptococcus pneumoniae. Immunoglobulin M against PC (IgM anti-PC) has the ability to inhibit uptake of oxLDL by macrophages and increase clearance of apoptotic cells. From our genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in four European-ancestry cohorts, six SNPs in 11q24.1 were discovered (in 3002 individuals) and replicated (in 646 individuals) to be associated with serum level of IgM anti-PC (the leading SNP rs35923643-G, combined beta=0...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Matthew T Koroscil, Andrew Skabelund
Introduction: Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungus endemic to the Mississippi River valley. We describe a rare case of chronic pulmonary blastomycosis complicated by large pulmonary cavitation in a young service member who was misdiagnosed with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Case Presentation: A 25-year-old active duty male presented to his primary care provider with complaints of hemoptysis, fatigue, weight loss, and fever. Computed tomography chest with contrast identified a large cavitary lesion in the right upper lobe (RUL)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
P D Tar, N A Thacker, M Babur, Y Watson, S Cheung, R A Little, R G Gieling, K J Williams, J P B O'Connor
Motivation: Imaging demonstrates that preclinical and human tumors are heterogeneous, i.e. a single tumor can exhibit multiple regions that behave differently during both normal development and also in response to treatment. The large variations observed in control group tumors can obscure detection of significant therapeutic effects due to the ambiguity in attributing causes of change. This can hinder development of effective therapies due to limitations in experimental design, rather than due to therapeutic failure...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Douglas P Beall, M R Chambers, Sam Thomas, John Amburgy, James R Webb, Bradly S Goodman, Devin K Datta, Richard W Easton, Douglas Linville, Sanjay Talati, John B Tillman
BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic and neoplastic vertebral compression fractures (VCF) are common and painful, threatening quality of life and increasing risk of morbidity and mortality. Balloon kyphoplasty is a percutaneous option for treating painful cancer- and osteoporosis-related VCFs, supported by 2 randomized trials demonstrating efficacy benefits of BKP over nonsurgical care. OBJECTIVE: To investigate 12-mo disability, quality of life, and safety outcomes specifically in a Medicare-eligible population, representing characteristic patients seen in routine clinical practice...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Jiang He, Yuzu Zhao, Erhu Zhao, Xianxing Wang, Zhen Dong, Yibiao Chen, Liqun Yang, Hongjuan Cui
Background: The cancer-testis specific gene Opa interacting protein 5 (OIP5) is a testis-specific gene that is reactivated in many human cancers, but its functions in glioblastoma remain unclear. Here, we assessed the significance of OIP5 in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of glioblastoma for the first time. Methods: An immunohistochemistry assay was performed to detect OIP5 expression changes in glioblastoma patients. Overall survival analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic significance of OIP5...
March 14, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Christos Dimitrakopoulos, Sravanth Kumar Hindupur, Luca Häfliger, Jonas Behr, Hesam Montazeri, Michael N Hall, Niko Beerenwinkel
Motivation: Several molecular events are known to be cancer-related, including genomic aberrations, hypermethylation of gene promoter regions, and differential expression of microRNAs. These aberration events are very heterogeneous across tumors and it is poorly understood how they affect the molecular makeup of the cell, including the transcriptome and proteome. Protein interaction networks can help decode the functional relationship between aberration events and changes in gene and protein expression...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Shana J Kim, Tomasz Huzarski, Jacek Gronwald, Christian F Singer, Pål Møller, Henry T Lynch, Susan Armel, Beth Y Karlan, William D Foulkes, Susan L Neuhausen, Leigha Senter, Andrea Eisen, Charis Eng, Seema Panchal, Tuya Pal, Olufunmilayo Olopade, Dana Zakalik, Jan Lubinski, Steven A Narod, Joanne Kotsopoulos
Background: Although evidence suggests that larger body size in early life confers lifelong protection from developing breast cancer, few studies have investigated the relationship between body size and breast cancer risk among BRCA mutation carriers. Therefore, we conducted a prospective evaluation of body size and the risk of breast cancer among BRCA mutation carriers. Methods: Current height and body mass index (BMI) at age 18 were determined from baseline questionnaires...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Bríd M Ryan
Compared with all other racial and ethnic groups in the U.S., African Americans are disproportionally affected by lung cancer, both in terms of incidence and survival. It is likely that smoking, as the main etiological factor associated with lung cancer, contributes to these disparities, but the precise mechanism is still unclear. This paper seeks to explore the history of lung cancer disparities and review to the literature regarding the various factors that contribute to them.
March 14, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Ian Thompson, Phyllis Goodman, Catherine Tangen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Benedikt Hacker, Christoph Schultheiß, Michael Döring, Ursula Kurzik-Dumke
This study provides first insights into the involvement of hNOT/ALG3, the human counterpart of the Drosophila NOT and yeast ALG3 gene, in various putative molecular networks. HNOT/ALG3 encodes two translated transcripts encoding precursor proteins differing in their N-terminus and showing 33% identity with the yeast asparagine-linked glycosylation 3 (ALG3) protein. Experimental evidence for the functional homology of the proteins of fly and man in the N-glycosylation has still to be provided. In this study, using the yeast two-hybrid technique we identify 17 molecular partners of hNOT-1/ALG3-1...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
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