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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937268/real-time-intra-procedural-18f-fdg-pet-ct-guided-biopsy-using-automated-robotic-biopsy-arm-ara-in-the-evaluation-of-thoracic-lesions-with-prior-inconclusive-biopsy-results
#1
Renjith Kalathoorakathu Radhakrishnan, Bhagwant Rai Mittal, Arun Kumar Reddy Gorla, Rajender Kumar Basher, Ashwani Sood, Amanjit Bal, Naveen Kalra, Niranjan Khandelwal, Navneet Singh, Digambar Behera
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and appraise the diagnostic utility of real time 18F-FDG PET/CT guided biopsy under automated robotic biopsy arm (ARA) guidance for the evaluation of thoracic lesions with prior inconclusive biopsy results. METHODS: PET/CT guided biopsy of thoracic lesions was performed in patients who had at least one previous inconclusive biopsy. A total of 25 patients (Male: Female- 18 males, 7 females; Age: Range- 13-75; mean- 53...
September 20, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937238/effects-of-roflumilast-a-phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor-on-the-lung-functions-in-a-saline-lavage-induced-model-of-acute-lung-injury
#2
P Kosutova, P Mikolka, M Kolomaznik, S Rezakova, A Calkovska, D Mokra
Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with deterioration of alveolar-capillary lining and transmigration and activation of inflammatory cells. Whereas a selective phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor roflumilast has exerted potent anti-inflammatory properties, this study evaluated if its intravenous delivery can influence inflammation, edema formation, and respiratory parameters in rabbits with a lavage-induced model of ALI. ALI was induced by repetitive saline lung lavage (30 ml/kg). Animals were divided into 3 groups: ALI without therapy (ALI), ALI treated with roflumilast i...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937237/selective-inhibition-of-nf-kappab-and-surfactant-therapy-in-experimental-meconium-induced-lung-injury
#3
J Kopincova, P Mikolka, M Kolomaznik, P Kosutova, A Calkovska, D Mokra
Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) in newborns is characterized mainly by respiratory failure due to surfactant dysfunction and inflammation. Previous meta-analyses did not prove any effect of exogenous surfactant treatment nor glucocorticoid administration on final outcome of children with MAS despite oxygenation improvement. As we supposed there is the need to intervene in both these fields simultaneously, we evaluated therapeutic effect of combination of exogenous surfactant and selective inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IKK-NBD peptide)...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936122/depletion-of-club-cells-attenuates-bleomycin-induced-lung-injury-and-fibrosis-in-mice
#4
Tetsuya Yokoyama, Toyoshi Yanagihara, Kunihiro Suzuki, Naoki Hamada, Kazuya Tsubouchi, Saiko Ogata-Suetsugu, Hironori Mikumo, Chika Ikeda-Harada, Takashige Maeyama, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Yoichi Nakanishi
BACKGROUND: The role of bronchiolar epithelial cells in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis has not been clarified. We previously demonstrated DNA damage in murine bronchioles in the early stages of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis that subsequently extended to alveolar cells at the advanced stages of the disease. Club cells are progenitor cells for bronchioles and are known to play protective roles against lung inflammation and damage. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of club cells in the development of pulmonary fibrosis...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936069/prehospital-management-of-acute-stroke-in-rural-versus-urban-responders
#5
Gregory Hansen, Simerpreet Bal, Kerri Lynn Schellenberg, Susan Alcock, Esseddeeg Ghrooda
OBJECTIVE: Stroke guideline compliance of rural Canadian prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) care in acute stroke is unknown. In this quality assurance study, we sought to compare rural and urban care by prehospital EMS evaluation/management indicators from patients assessed at an urban Canadian stroke center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred adult patients were randomly selected from the stroke registry. Patients were transported through Rural EMS bypass protocols or urban EMS protocols (both bypass and direct) to our stroke center between January and December 2013...
August 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935575/non-pathological-infection-of-macaques-by-an-attenuated-mycobacterial-vaccine-is-not-reactivated-in-the-setting-of-hiv-coinfection
#6
Taylor Wayne Foreman, Ashley Victoria Veatch, Denae Nadine LoBato, Peter John Didier, Lara Angela Doyle-Meyers, Kasi Elizabeth Russell-Lodrigue, Andrew Alan Lackner, Konstantin Gus Kousoulas, Shabaana Abdul Khader, Deepak Kaushal, Smriti Mehra
Failure to replace BCG with efficacious anti-TB vaccines have prompted out-of-the-box thinking, including pulmonary vaccination in order to elicit local immunity. MtbΔsigH, a stress-response attenuated strain, protected against lethal TB when used to vaccinate macaques via inhalation. While live mycobacterial vaccines show promising efficacy, HIV co-infection and the resulting immunodeficiency prompts safety concerns about their use. We assessed the persistence and safety of MtbΔsigH, delivered directly to the lungs, in the setting of HIV coinfection...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935409/-which-technique-should-be-used-in-the-phenotyping-of-lymphocytic-alveolitis-immunocytochemistry-or-flow-cytometry
#7
Mona Mlika, Rihem Kasmi, Ines Safra, Emna Braham, Chokri Chebbi, Faouzi El Mezni
BACKGROUND: Diffuse interstitial pneumonias are considered as a group of multiple affections characterized by challenging diagnoses because of the lack of specific clinical signs. Radiologic investigations highlight the diagnoses in most of the cases but bronchoalveolar lavage plays a key role in the diagnostic diagram. We aim to compare the immunocytochemical technique and the flow cytometry in the phenotyping of lymphocytic alveolitis. METHODS: We described a series of 32 lymphocytic alveolitis, which were analyzed using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry...
September 18, 2017: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934917/sparse-supervised-classification-methods-predict-and-characterize-nanomaterial-exposures-independent-markers-of-mwcnt-exposures
#8
Naveena Yanamala, Marlene S Orandle, Vamsi K Kodali, Lindsey Bishop, Patti C Zeidler-Erdely, Jenny R Roberts, Vincent Castranova, Aaron Erdely
Recent experimental evidence indicates significant pulmonary toxicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), such as inflammation, interstitial fibrosis, granuloma formation, and carcinogenicity. Although numerous studies explored the adverse potential of various CNTs, their comparability is often limited. This is due to differences in administered dose, physicochemical characteristics, exposure methods, and end points monitored. Here, we addressed the problem through sparse classification method, a supervised machine learning approach that can reduce the noise contained in redundant variables for discriminating among MWCNT-exposed and MWCNT-unexposed groups...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933920/multi-tissue-transcriptomics-delineates-the-diversity-of-airway-t-cell-functions-in-asthma
#9
Akul Singhania, Joshua C Wallington, Caroline G Smith, Daniel Horowitz, Karl J Staples, Peter H Howarth, Stephan D Gadola, Ratko Djukanović, Christopher H Woelk, Timothy Sc Hinks
Asthma arises from the complex interplay of inflammatory pathways in diverse cell types and tissues. We sought to undertake a comprehensive transcriptomic assessment of the epithelium and airway T cells that remain understudied in asthma, and investigate interactions between multiple cells and tissues. Epithelial brushings and flow-sorted CD3+ T cells from sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage were obtained from healthy subjects (N=19) and asthmatic patients (mild, moderate and severe asthma; N=46). Gene expression was assessed using Affymetrix HT HG-U133+ PM GeneChips and results were validated by real-time quantitative PCR...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932614/acute-low-dose-hydralazine-induced-lupus-pneumonitis
#10
Sarah K Holman, Donique Parris, Sarah Meyers, Jason Ramirez
A 35-year-old female was started on hydralazine 10 mg orally three times a day for treatment of postpartum hypertension. Three months later, after multiple unsuccessful courses of prednisone and antibiotics for presumed pneumonia and asthma exacerbations, her respiratory symptoms progressed in severity and she developed resting hypoxia. Previous diagnostic work-up included spirometry with a restrictive pattern, chest CT showing bilateral basilar consolidation, negative BAL, and nonspecific findings on lung biopsy of mild inflammatory cells...
2017: Case Reports in Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932196/-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-reduces-cigarette-smoke-induced-airway-neutrophilic-inflammation-and-mucin-hypersecretion-in-rats
#11
Yingmin Liang, Kenneth W K Liu, Sze C Yeung, Xiang Li, Mary S M Ip, Judith C W Mak
Background: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechins in Chinese green tea, has been studied for its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties in cell and animal models. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effects of EGCG on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway inflammation and mucus secretion in the CS-exposed rat model. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into either sham air (SA) or CS exposure...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932061/epidermal-cysts-a-clinicopathological-analysis-with-emphasis-on-unusual-findings
#12
Jitendra Singh Nigam, Jyotsna Naresh Bharti, Vivek Nair, Chitrawati Bal Gargade, Archana Hemant Deshpande, Biswajit Dey, Ashok Singh
BACKGROUND: Epidermoid cysts, one of the common benign intradermal or subcutaneous tumors commonly result from the trauma to the pilosebaceous unit in the hair bearing area. In areas without hair, these cysts are considered implantation and proliferation of squamous epithelium into the dermis due to injury. AIMS: The aim is to evaluate the clinicopathological details with emphasis on unusual findings related to epidermoid cysts. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study carried out over 2 years...
July 2017: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930178/diagnostic-value-of-endotracheal-aspirates-sonication-on-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-microbiologic-diagnosis
#13
Laia Fernández-Barat, Ana Motos, Otavio T Ranzani, Gianluigi Li Bassi, Elisabet Aguilera Xiol, Tarek Senussi, Chiara Travierso, Chiara Chiurazzi, Francesco Idone, Laura Muñoz, Jordi Vila, Miquel Ferrer, Paolo Pelosi, Francesco Blasi, Massimo Antonelli, Antoni Torres
Microorganisms are able to form biofilms within respiratory secretions. Methods to disaggregate such biofilms before utilizing standard, rapid, or high throughput diagnostic technologies may aid in pathogen detection during ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) diagnosis. Our aim was to determine if sonication of endotracheal aspirates (ETA) would increase the sensitivity of qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative bacterial cultures in an animal model of pneumonia caused by Pseudomonasaeruginosa or by methicillin resistant Staphylococcusaureus (MRSA)...
September 20, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930150/detection-of-bacterial-pathogens-from-broncho-alveolar-lavage-by-next-generation-sequencing
#14
Stefano Leo, Nadia Gaïa, Etienne Ruppé, Stephane Emonet, Myriam Girard, Vladimir Lazarevic, Jacques Schrenzel
The applications of whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing (WMGS) in routine clinical analysis are still limited. A combination of a DNA extraction procedure, sequencing, and bioinformatics tools is essential for the removal of human DNA and for improving bacterial species identification in a timely manner. We tackled these issues with a broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) sample from an immunocompromised patient who had developed severe chronic pneumonia. We extracted DNA from the BAL sample with protocols based either on sequential lysis of human and bacterial cells or on the mechanical disruption of all cells...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926576/receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-and-world-trade-center-particulate-induced-lung-function-loss-a-case-cohort-study-and-murine-model-of-acute-particulate-exposure
#15
Erin J Caraher, Sophia Kwon, Syed H Haider, George Crowley, Audrey Lee, Minah Ebrahim, Liqun Zhang, Lung-Chi Chen, Terry Gordon, Mengling Liu, David J Prezant, Ann Marie Schmidt, Anna Nolan
World Trade Center-particulate matter(WTC-PM) exposure and metabolic-risk are associated with WTC-Lung Injury(WTC-LI). The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is most highly expressed in the lung, mediates metabolic risk, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the AGER-locus predict forced expiratory volume(FEV). Our objectives were to test the hypotheses that RAGE is a biomarker of WTC-LI in the FDNY-cohort and that loss of RAGE in a murine model would protect against acute PM-induced lung disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926522/bos-is-associated-with-increased-cytotoxic-proinflammatory-cd8-t-nkt-like-and-nk-cells-in-the-small-airways
#16
Greg Hodge, Sandra Hodge, Aeneas Yeo, Phan Nguyen, Emily Hopkins, Chien-Li Holmes-Liew, Paul N Reynolds, Mark Holmes
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression therapy after lung transplantation fails to prevent bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in many patients, primarily a disease of the small airways. We have reported that BOS is associated with a lack of suppression of cytotoxic mediators, and proinflammatory cytokines, in peripheral blood T, NKT-like (particularly CD8+) and NK cells. We also showed a loss of glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) in proinflammatory lymphocytes after transplant. It is unknown whether these proinflammatory lymphocytes target the small and/or large airways in BOS...
October 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923112/cobalt-nanoparticles-induce-lung-injury-dna-damage-and-mutations-in-mice
#17
Rong Wan, Yiqun Mo, Zhenyu Zhang, Mizu Jiang, Shichuan Tang, Qunwei Zhang
BACKGROUND: We and other groups have demonstrated that exposure to cobalt nanoparticles (Nano-Co) caused oxidative stress and inflammation, which have been shown to be strongly associated with genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. However, few studies have reported Nano-Co-induced genotoxic effects in vivo. Here, we propose that Nano-Co may have high genotoxic effects due to their small size and high surface area, which have high capacity for causing oxidative stress and inflammation. METHODS: gpt delta transgenic mice were used as our in vivo study model...
September 18, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920631/pneumocystis-jirovecii-genotyping-experience-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-northern-italy
#18
Pietro Pini, Carlotta F Orsi, Annunziata La Regina, Samuele Peppoloni, Federica Berrilli, Elisabetta Blasi, David Di Cave
Respiratory samples from Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) cases collected at a tertiary-care university hospital in Modena were analyzed for the presence of specific polymorphisms in the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA (mtLSU-rRNA). Retrospectively, 57 cases were selected in a six-year period and 34 out of the 57 processed BAL samples returned PCR positive results, thus allowing further molecular analysis. The following P.jirovecii genotype distribution was observed: genotype 3 (50%), genotype 2 (23%), genotype 1 (18%), genotypes 1 or 4 (9%)...
July 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920154/pharmacokinetics-of-doripenem-in-plasma-and-epithelial-lining-fluid-elf-comparison-of-two-dosage-regimens
#19
Zoe Oesterreicher, Iris Minichmayr, Robert Sauermann, Daniela Marhofer, Edith Lackner, Walter Jäger, Alexandra Maier-Salamon, Richard Schwameis, Charlotte Kloft, Markus Zeitlinger
PURPOSE: In 2014, FDA released a warning for prescription of doripenem for ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia due to unsatisfactory clinical cure rates. The present study explores if the observed lack of efficacy might be explained by insufficient target site pharmacokinetics in intensive care patients after two different infusion schemes. METHODS: Plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage sampling was performed in 16 intubated patients with pneumonia receiving doripenem either as 1-h or as 4-h infusion...
September 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919220/peucedanum-japonicum-extract-attenuates-allergic-airway-inflammation-by-inhibiting-th2-cell-activation-and-production-of-pro-inflammatory-mediators
#20
Jin Mi Chun, A-Reum Lee, Hyo Seon Kim, A Yeong Lee, Gyo Jeong Gu, Byeong Cheol Moon, Bo-In Kwon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The root of Peucedanum japonicum Thunb is traditionally used to treat coughs, colds, headache and inflammatory diseases in Korea and Japan. Its effects on allergic lung inflammation have not been investigated. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the anti-asthmatic effects of Peucedanum japonicum extract (PJE) using a murine model of asthma and a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cell line. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice underwent two rounds of sensitization with ovalbumin 1 week apart followed by four intranasal ovalbumin challenges on days 13-16...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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