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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442847/gastrointestinal-neuroectodermal-tumor-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#1
Keduovinuo K Keditsu, Shraddha Patkar, Munita Bal, Shailesh V Shrikhande, Mahesh Goel
Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (GNET), a rare soft tissue sarcoma, is a recently described distinct clinicopathological entity. With only a few cases reported in literature till date, there is limited knowledge about the behavior as well as diagnosis of this tumor. GNET mimics several other tumors and hence presents as a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and pathologists alike. We report a case of gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumors with liver metastasis.
April 2017: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441858/-development-of-an-eosinophilic-bronchitis-mouse-model-and-the-effects-of-eosinophil-activation-on-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-eosinophilic-bronchitis-mice
#2
L Li, J T Lin
Objective: To develop a mouse model of eosinophilic bronchitis, and explore the effects of eosinophil activation on airway hyperresponsiveness. Methods: A total of 60 female specific pathogen free BALB/c female mice were divided randomly into four groups: polymyxin B group, normal saline group, polymyxin B+ N-methionine leucine phenylalanine (fMLP) group, normal saline+ fMLP group. All the groups were given corresponding nasal drops for 21 days. The former two groups were given 12 μl 0.5% polymyxin B or normal saline once a day by transnasal administration respectively...
April 25, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441064/bacillus-calmette-guerin-alleviates-airway-inflammation-and-remodeling-by-preventing-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#3
Xinrui Tian, Xinli Tian, Rujie Huo, Qin Chang, Guoping Zheng, Yan Du, Yan Chen, Bo Niu
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is a potent agent for the prevention of tuberculosis. Current studies have regarded BCG as an immunomodulator. However, there is little information on whether it can be used to inhibit airway inflammation and airway remodeling caused by asthma. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in airway inflammation and airway remodeling as well as the possible therapeutic mechanism of BCG for the treatment of asthma. Wistar rats were sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin for 2 weeks or 8 weeks...
April 25, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440659/alleviation-of-multiple-asthmatic-pathologic-features-with-orally-available-and-subtype-selective-gabaa-receptor-modulators
#4
Gloria S Forkuo, Amanda N Nieman, Nina Y Yuan, Revathi Kodali, Olivia B Yu, Nicolas M Zahn, Rajwana Jahan, Guanguan Li, Michael Rajesh Stephen, Margaret L Guthrie, Michael M Poe, Benjamin D Hartzler, Ted William Harris, Gene T Yocum, Charles W Emala, Douglas A Steeber, Douglas C Stafford, James M Cook, Leggy A Arnold
We describe pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of two novel oral drug candidates for asthma. Phenolic α4β3γ2 GABAAR selective compound 1 and acidic α5β3γ2 selective GABAAR positive allosteric modulator compound 2 relaxed airway smooth muscle ex vivo and attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a murine model of asthma. Importantly, compound 2 relaxed acetylcholine contracted human tracheal airway smooth muscle strips. Oral treatment of compound 1 and 2 decreased eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in ovalbumin sensitized and challenged mice, thus exhibiting anti-inflammatory properties...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439933/effect-of-anti-ige-in-occupational-asthma-caused-by-exposure-to-low-molecular-weight-agents
#5
M Ollé-Monge, M J Cruz, S Gomez-Ollés, I Ojanguren, J Vanoirbeek, X Muñoz
BACKGROUND: The role of immunoglobulin (Ig)-E in occupational asthma (OA) due to low molecular weight (LMW) agents is not well established compared to classical atopic asthma. In the present study we evaluate whether anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (mAb) has an effect in a mouse model of OA, using persulfate salts. METHODS: On days 1 and 8, BALB/C mice were dermally sensitized with 5% ammonium persulfate (AP) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). On days 15, 18 and 21 animals were injected intraperitoneally with anti-IgE mAb or PBS 6 hours before challenge with AP or saline...
April 25, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438898/cytotoxic-t-cell-functions-accumulate-when-cd4-is-downregulated-by-cd4-t-cells-in-african-green-monkeys
#6
Carol L Vinton, Alexandra M Ortiz, Nina Calantone, Joseph C Mudd, Claire Deleage, David R Morcock, Sonya Whitted, Jacob D Estes, Vanessa M Hirsch, Jason M Brenchley
African green monkeys (AGMs) are a natural host of SIV that do not develop simian AIDS. Adult AGMs naturally have low numbers of CD4(+) T cells and a large population of MHC class II-restricted CD8αα T cells that are generated through CD4 downregulation in CD4(+) T cells. In this article, we study the functional profiles and SIV infection status in vivo of CD4(+) T cells, CD8αα T cells, and CD8αβ T cells in lymph nodes, peripheral blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of AGMs and rhesus macaques (in which CD4 downregulation is not observed)...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438507/cardiothoracic-transplant-recipient-mycoplasma-hominis-an-uncommon-infection-with-probable-donor-transmission
#7
Rahul Sampath, Robin Patel, Scott A Cunningham, Sana Arif, Richard C Daly, Andrew D Badley, Mark E Wylam
The role of infection with Mycoplasma hominis following cardiothoracic organ transplantation and its source of transmission have not been well-defined. Here, we identify and describe infection with M. hominis in patients following cardiothoracic organ transplantation after reviewing all cardiothoracic transplantations performed at our center between 1998 and July 2015. We found seven previously unreported cases of M. hominis culture positive infection all of whom presented with pleuritis, surgical site infection, and/or mediastinitis...
April 19, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438162/targeting-of-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-enzymatic-activity-ameliorates-lung-damage-induced-by-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats
#8
Geng-Chin Wu, Wen-I Liao, Shu-Yu Wu, Hsin-Ping Pao, Shih-En Tang, Min-Hui Li, Kun-Lun Huang, Shi-Jye Chu
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence reveals that nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) has a significant role in the pathophysiology of the inflammatory process. NAMPT inhibition has a beneficial effect in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases. However, it remains unclear whether NAMPT inhibition has an impact on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute lung injury. In this study, we examined whether NAMPT inhibition provided protection against I/R lung injury in rats...
April 24, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437857/influence-of-inflammation-and-nitric-oxide-upon-platelet-aggregation-following-deposition-of-diesel-exhaust-particles-in-the-airways
#9
E Smyth, A Solomon, M A Birrell, M J Smallwood, P G Winyard, T D Tetley, M Emerson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Exposure to nanoparticulate pollution has been implicated in platelet-driven thrombotic events such as myocardial infarction. Inflammation and impairment of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability have been proposed as potential causative mechanisms. It is unclear, however, whether airways exposure to combustion-derived nanoparticles such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP) or carbon black (CB) can augment platelet aggregation in vivo and the underlying mechanisms remain undefined...
April 24, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435267/the-acute-pulmonary-and-thrombotic-effects-of-cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-after-intratracheal-instillation-in-mice
#10
Abderrahim Nemmar, Suhail Al-Salam, Sumaya Beegam, Priya Yuvaraju, Badreldin H Ali
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs), used as a diesel fuel catalyst, can be emitted into the ambient air, resulting in exposure to humans by inhalation. Recent studies have reported the development of lung toxicity after pulmonary exposure to CeO2 NPs. However, little is known about the possible thrombotic effects of these NPs. The present study investigated the acute (24 hours) effect of intratracheal (IT) instillation of either CeO2 NPs (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg) or saline (control) on pulmonary and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress and thrombosis in mice...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433709/pulmonary-pathobiology-induced-by-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-in-mice-a-24-hour-and-28-day-follow-up-study
#11
Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Kai-Jen Chuang, Jen-Kun Chen, His-En Hua, Yen-Ling Shen, Wei-Neng Liao, Chii-Hong Lee, Chih-Hong Pan, Kuan-Yuan Chen, Kang-Yun Lee, Ta-Chih Hsiao, Tsun-Jen Cheng
Inhaled zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) have high deposition rates in the alveolar region of the lungs; however, the adverse health effects of ZnONPs on the respiratory system are unclear. Herein, pathobiological responses of the respiratory system of mice that received intratracheal administration of ZnONPs were investigated by a combination of molecular and imaging (SPECT and CT) approaches. Also, normal BEAS-2B and adenocarcinoma A549 cells were used to confirm the results in mice. First, female BALB/c mice were administrated a series of doses of 20-nm ZnONPs and were compared to the phosphate-buffered saline control for 24-h and 28-day follow-up observations...
April 19, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433707/genetic-susceptibility-to-toxicologic-lung-responses-among-inbred-mouse-strains-following-exposure-to-carbon-nanotubes-and-profiling-of-underlying-gene-networks
#12
Evan A Frank, Vinicius S Carreira, Kumar Shanmukhappa, Mario Medvedovic, Daniel R Prows, Jagjit S Yadav
The risk of human exposure to fiber nanoparticles has risen in recent years due to increases in the manufacture and utilization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNTs are present as airborne particulates in occupational settings and their hazard potential has been demonstrated in experimental lung exposure studies using inbred mouse strains. However, it is not known whether different inbred strains differ in lung responses to CNTs by virtue of their genetics. In this work, common inbred strains (BALB/c, C57Bl/6, DBA/2, and C3H/He) were exposed to CNTs via oropharyngeal aspiration and lung histology and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were evaluated over 28days with the objective of evaluating sensitivity/resistance among strains...
April 19, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433687/steroid-resistance-of-airway-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-ilc2s-from-severe-asthma-the-role-of-thymic-stromal-cell-lymphopoietin-tslp
#13
Sucai Liu, Mukesh Verma, Lidia Michalec, Weimin Liu, Anand Sripada, Donald Rollins, James Good, Yoko Ito, HongWei Chu, Magdalena M Gorska, Richard J Martin, Rafeul Alam
BACKGROUND: ILC2s represent an important type 2 immune cell. Glucocorticoid regulation of human ILC2s is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess steroid resistance of human blood and airway ILC2s from asthmatic patients and examine its mechanism of induction. METHODS: We studied human blood and lung ILC2s from asthmatic and control subjects by flow cytometry and ELISA. RESULTS: Dexamethasone (Dex) inhibited (P=0.04) CRTH2 and type 2 cytokine expression by blood ILC2s stimulated with IL25 and IL33...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432455/dual-activation-of-toll-like-receptors-7-and-9-impairs-the-efficacy-of-antitumor-vaccines-in-murine-models-of-metastatic-breast-cancer
#14
Mariela A Moreno Ayala, María Florencia Gottardo, María Soledad Gori, Alejandro Javier Nicola Candia, Carla Caruso, Andrea De Laurentiis, Mercedes Imsen, Slobodanka Klein, Elisa Bal de Kier Joffé, Gabriela Salamone, Maria G Castro, Adriana Seilicovich, Marianela Candolfi
PURPOSE: Since combination of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands could boost antitumor immunity, we evaluated the efficacy of dendritic cell (DC) vaccines upon dual activation of TLR9 and TLR7 in breast cancer models. METHODS: DCs were generated from mouse bone marrow or peripheral blood from healthy human donors and stimulated with CpG1826 (mouse TLR9 agonist), CpG2006 or IMT504 (human TLR9 agonists) and R848 (TLR7 agonist). Efficacy of antitumor vaccines was evaluated in BALB/c mice bearing metastatic mammary adenocarcinomas...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432297/high-probability-of-comorbidities-in-bronchial-asthma-in-germany
#15
S Heck, S Al-Shobash, D Rapp, D D Le, A Omlor, A Bekhit, M Flaig, B Al-Kadah, W Herian, R Bals, S Wagenpfeil, Q T Dinh
Clinical experience has shown that allergic and non-allergic respiratory, metabolic, mental, and cardiovascular disorders sometimes coexist with bronchial asthma. However, no study has been carried out that calculates the chance of manifestation of these disorders with bronchial asthma in Saarland and Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Using ICD10 diagnoses from health care institutions, the present study systematically analyzed the co-prevalence and odds ratios of comorbidities in the asthma population in Germany...
April 21, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431555/reduction-of-pulmonary-toxicity-of-metal-oxide-nanoparticles-by-phosphonate-based-surface-passivation
#16
Xiaoming Cai, Anson Lee, Zhaoxia Ji, Cynthia Huang, Chong Hyun Chang, Xiang Wang, Yu-Pei Liao, Tian Xia, Ruibin Li
BACKGROUND: The wide application of engineered nanoparticles has induced increasing exposure to humans and environment, which led to substantial concerns on their biosafety. Some metal oxides (MOx) have shown severe toxicity in cells and animals, thus safe designs of MOx with reduced hazard potential are desired. Currently, there is a lack of a simple yet effective safe design approach for the toxic MOx. In this study, we determined the key physicochemical properties of MOx that lead to cytotoxicity and explored a safe design approach for toxic MOx by modifying their hazard properties...
April 21, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431523/the-utility-of-electron-microscopy-in-detecting-asbestos-fibers-and-particles-in-balf-in-diffuse-lung-diseases
#17
Takashi Kido, Yasuo Morimoto, Kazuhiro Yatera, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Takaaki Ogoshi, Keishi Oda, Kei Yamasaki, Toshinori Kawanami, Shohei Shimajiri, Hiroshi Mukae
BACKGROUND: In patients with diffuse lung diseases, differentiating occupational lung diseases from other diseases is clinically important. However, the value of assessing asbestos and particles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in diffuse lung diseases by electron microscopy (EM) remains unclear. We evaluated the utility of EM in detecting asbestos fibers and particles in patients with diffuse lung diseases. METHODS: The BALF specimens of 107 patients with diffuse lung diseases were evaluated...
April 21, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429971/evidence-based-policy-as-reflexive-practice-what-can-we-learn-from-evidence-based-medicine
#18
Roland Bal
The call for evidence-based policy is often accompanied by rather uncritical references to the success of evidence-based medicine, leading to often unsuccessful translation attempts. In this paper, I reflect on the practice of evidence-based medicine in an attempt to sketch a more productive approach to translating evidence into the practice of policy making. Discussing three episodes in the history of evidence-based medicine - clinical trials, and the production and use of clinical guidelines - I conclude that the success of evidence-based medicine is based on the creation of reflexive practices in which evidence and practice can be combined productively...
April 2017: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429673/hydroxytyrosol-attenuates-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-mice-by-regulating-autophagy-and-sirtuin-expression
#19
X Yang, T Jing, Y Li, Y He, B Wang, W Zhang, Y Xiao, W Wang, J Zhang, J Wei, R Lin
BACKGROUND: Recently, the effects of hydroxytyrosol on autophagy during acute lung injury (ALI) have drawn increasing attention. OBJECTIVE: We explored the underlying molecular mechanisms by which hydroxytyrosol exerts its anti-inflammatory effects in a murine model of ALI by up-regulating autophagy. METHODS: Male BALB/c mice, challenged with intranasal instillations of LPS, were treated with or without hydroxytyrosol (HT, 100 mg/kg, intragastrically) 1 h prior to LPS exposure...
April 21, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429504/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-reduce-neutrophil-chemotaxis-via-activating-grk2-in-endotoxin-induced-acute-lung-injury
#20
Vincent Yi-Fong Su, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Chi-Shiuan Lin, Wei-Chih Chen, Wen-Kuang Yu, Yen-Wen Chen, Cheng-Yu Chen, Kuang-Yao Yang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in moderating neutrophil chemotaxis in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury (ALI). METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice at 8-12 weeks of age were studied. Murine iPSCs were delivered through the tail veins of mice 4 h after intratracheal instillation of endotoxin. Lung histopathological findings, neutrophil counts in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), bone marrow (BM) cell distribution, expression of chemokine receptors and regulatory signalling pathways were analysed after 24 h...
April 21, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
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