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Samid M Farooqui, Houssein Youness
Background: Pulmonary sporotrichosis is a rare disease caused by a dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii . It is rarely found in association with malignancy. We present a case of pulmonary sporotrichosis recurrence after chemotherapy. Case Presentation: A 44-year-old man, treated for pulmonary sporotrichosis in the past, presented with dysphagia and was found to have squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. After undergoing chemotherapy, extensive cavitary lesions were observed on thoracic computed tomography scan...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
Ummi Ammarah, Amit Kumar, Rajesh Pal, Naresh C Bal, Gauri Misra
Microtubule associated serine/threonine kinase (MASTL) is an important Ser/Thr kinase belonging to the family of AGC kinases. It is the human orthologue of Greatwall kinase (Gwl) that plays a significant role in mitotic progression and cell cycle regulation. Upregulation of MASTL in various cancers and its association with poor patient survival establishes it as an important drug target in cancer therapy. Nevertheless, the target remains unexplored with the paucity of studies focused on identification of inhibitors against MASTL, which emphasizes the relevance of our present study...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Julie Balch Samora, Philip E Blazar, Scott D Lifchez, B Sonny Bal, Brian C Drolet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: JBJS Reviews
Kristof M Bal, Erik C Neyts
A number of recent computational material design studies based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations have put forward a new class of materials with electrically switchable chemical characteristics that can be exploited in the development of tunable gas storage and electrocatalytic applications. We find systematic flaws in almost every computational study of gas adsorption on polarized or charged surfaces, stemming from an improper and unreproducible treatment of periodicity, leading to very large errors of up to 3 eV in some cases...
March 20, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Tariq A Bhat, Suresh Gopi Kalathil, Paul N Bogner, Austin Miller, Paul V Lehmann, Thomas H Thatcher, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime, Yasmin Thanavala
Despite advocacy to reduce smoking-related diseases, >1 billion people worldwide continue to smoke. Smoking is immunosuppressive and an important etiological factor in the development of several human disorders including respiratory diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, there is a critical gap in the knowledge of the role of secondhand smoke (SHS) in inflammation and immunity. We therefore studied the influence of SHS on pulmonary inflammation and immune responses to respiratory infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) recurrently found in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Omar Khabour, Karem H Alzoubi, Nour Al-Sawalha, Mohammad Bani Ahmad, Alan Shihadeh, Thomas Eissenberg
PURPOSE: Acute exposure of experimental animals to waterpipe tobacco smoke has been shown to induce lung inflammation and injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic exposure to waterpipe smoke on inflammatory markers and oxidative stress in the mouse lung. METHOD: Using a whole-body exposure system, animals were exposed to waterpipe smoke for 6 weeks with a one-hour daily exposure for 5 days a week. RESULTS: Exposure to waterpipe tobacco smoke induced the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the airway...
March 16, 2018: Life Sciences
Adriana Correa Melo, Isabella Cattani-Cavalieri, Marina Valente Barroso, Nicolas Quesnot, Lycia Brito Gitirana, Manuella Lanzetti, Samuel Santos Valença
Emphysema results in a proteinase - antiproteinase imbalance, inflammation and oxidative stress. Our objective was to investigate whether atorvastatin could repair mouse lungs after elastase-induced emphysema. Vehicle (50 μL) or porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) was administered on day 1, 3, 5 and 7 at 0.6 U intranasally. Male mice were divided into a control group (sham), PPE 32d (sacrificed 24 h after 32 days), PPE 64d (sacrificed 24 h after 64 days), and atorvastatin 1, 5 and 20 mg treated from day 33 until day 64 and sacrificed 24 h later (A1 mg, A5 mg and A20 mg, respectively)...
March 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Xiwen Gao, Peiyu Qian, Dong Cen, Weijun Hong, Qing Peng, Min Xue
In mammals, oleic acid (OA) induces pulmonary edema (PE), which can initiate acute lung injury (ALI) and lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Pulmonary surfactant (PS) plays a key role in a broad range of treatments for ARDS. The aim of the present investigation was to assess changes in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) from choline and determine the effect of exogenous PS on its de novo synthesis in rats with OA-induced PE. Experimental rats were randomized into three groups, including a control group, OA-induced PE group, and OA-induced group treated with exogenous PS (OA-PS)...
2018: PloS One
Wen Tan, Lin Chen, Ya-Xin Wang, Li-Sha Hu, Wei Xiong, You Shang, Shang-Long Yao
Background: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe disease with high mortality and poor prognosis. Protectin DX (PDX), a pro-resolving lipid mediator, exhibits protective effects in ALI. Our experiment aimed to explore the effects and related mechanisms of PDX in mice with ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: BALB/c mice were randomly divided into five groups: sham, LPS, LPS plus 1 ng of PDX (LPS + PDX-1 ng), LPS plus 10 ng of PDX (LPS + PDX-10 ng), and LPS plus 100 ng of PDX (LPS + PDX-100 ng)...
March 19, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Philipp Wohlfarth, Amin T Turki, Joerg Steinmann, Melanie Fiedler, Nina K Steckel, Dietrich W Beelen, Tobias Liebregts
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients frequently develop acute respiratory failure (ARF) with pulmonary infiltrates. Molecular and biomarker-based assays enhance pathogen detection, but data on their yield in this population are scarce. METHODS: Retrospective single-center study in 156 consecutive HSCT recipients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between 05/2013 and 07/2017. Findings of a microbiological diagnostic work-up using currently available methods on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood samples from 66 patients (age: 58 [45-64] years; HSCT to ICU: 176 [85-407] days) with ARF and pulmonary infiltrates were analyzed...
March 14, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Oddvar Myhre, Marit Låg, Gro Villanger, Bente Oftedal, Johan Øvrevik, Jørn A Holme, Heidi Aase, Ragnhild E Paulsen, Anna Bal-Price, Hubert Dirven
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that air pollution particulate matter (PM) and adsorbed toxicants (organic compounds and trace metals) may affect child development already in utero. Recent studies have also indicated that PM may be a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). A pattern of increasing prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested to partly be linked to environmental pollutants exposure, including PM. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between pre- or postnatal exposure to air pollution components and ADHD symptoms...
March 14, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Shahid Husain, Archana Bhaskaran, Coleman Rotstein, Yanhong Li, Alyajahan Bhimji, Rhea Pavan, Deepali Kumar, Atul Humar, Shaf Keshavjee, Lianne G Singer
BACKGROUND: The optimal strategy for prevention of invasive fungal infections in lung transplant recipients remains undetermined. We studied strategies based on bronchoalveolar lavage fungal culture and galactomannan for prevention of invasive aspergillosis in lung transplant recipients. METHODS: Consecutive lung transplant recipients were evaluated during the period January 2010 to September 2014. Rates of invasive aspergillosis and all-cause mortality were recorded at 1 year...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Matthew T Koroscil, Andrew Skabelund
Introduction: Blastomyces dermatitidis is a dimorphic fungus endemic to the Mississippi River valley. We describe a rare case of chronic pulmonary blastomycosis complicated by large pulmonary cavitation in a young service member who was misdiagnosed with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Case Presentation: A 25-year-old active duty male presented to his primary care provider with complaints of hemoptysis, fatigue, weight loss, and fever. Computed tomography chest with contrast identified a large cavitary lesion in the right upper lobe (RUL)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Martin A Bewley, Richard C Budd, Eilise Ryan, Joby Cole, Paul Collini, Jennifer Marshall, Umme Kolsum, Gussie Beech, Richard D Emes, Irina Tcherniaeva, Guy A M Berbers, Sarah R Walmsley, Gavin Donaldson, Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Iain Kilty, William Rumsey, Yolanda Sanchez, Christopher E Brightling, Louise E Donnelly, Peter J Barnes, Dave Singh, Moira K B Whyte, David H Dockrell
RATIONALE: Previous studies have identified defects in bacterial phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages (AM) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the mechanisms and clinical consequences remain incompletely defined. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of COPD on AM phagocytic responses and identify the mechanisms, clinical consequences and potential for therapeutic manipulation of these defects. METHODS: We isolated alveolar macrophages (AM) and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from a cohort of COPD patients and controls within the MRC COPD-MAP consortium and measured phagocytosis of bacteria in relation to opsonic conditions and clinical features...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Renping Liu, Peihong Wang, Caiqing Wu, Juan Chen, Chengxin Li, Yongtao Xie, Qi Wang, Jianming Liu, Huan He, Jing Zhu
Hedyotis diffusa Willd (HDW) is a constituent of several Chinese medicines used clinically to treat inflammatory diseases, including airway inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether HDW serves a protective role in suppressing chronic airway inflammation and its underlying mechanisms. A mouse model of chronic smoking was induced via exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) for 30 days, increasing the exposure time for up to 5 min per day and the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Shujun Zhou, Gui Wang, Wenbin Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)4/myeloid differentiation primary response (MyD)88 signaling pathway on sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in rats, and the involvement of macrophage activation and the inflammatory response. A total of 36 specific pathogen-free male Sprague-Dawley rats were selected to establish the rat model of sepsis-associated ARDS using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Rats were assigned into the Ab (anti-TLR4 monoclonal antibody)-CLP, CLP and Sham groups...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Su Hwan Lee, Ju Hye Shin, Joo Han Song, Ah Young Leem, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Joon Chang, Kyung Soo Chung
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels are known to increase in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Herein, we investigated the role of IGF-1 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. In LPS-treated cells, expressions of receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3) and phosphorylated mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) were decreased in IGF-1 receptor small interfering RNA (siRNA)-treated cells compared to control cells. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-α, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2/C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 in the supernatant were significantly reduced in IGF-1 receptor siRNA-treated cells compared to control cells...
March 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
A J Ullmann, J M Aguado, S Arikan-Akdagli, D W Denning, A H Groll, K Lagrou, C Lass-Flörl, R E Lewis, P Munoz, P E Verweij, A Warris, F Ader, M Akova, M C Arendrup, R A Barnes, C Beigelman-Aubry, S Blot, E Bouza, R J M Brüggemann, D Buchheidt, J Cadranel, E Castagnola, A Chakrabarti, M Cuenca-Estrella, G Dimopoulos, J Fortun, J-P Gangneux, J Garbino, W J Heinz, R Herbrecht, C P Heussel, C C Kibbler, N Klimko, B J Kullberg, C Lange, T Lehrnbecher, J Löffler, O Lortholary, J Maertens, O Marchetti, J F Meis, L Pagano, P Ribaud, M Richardson, E Roilides, M Ruhnke, M Sanguinetti, D C Sheppard, J Sinkó, A Skiada, M J G T Vehreschild, C Viscoli, O A Cornely
The European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, the European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the European Respiratory Society Joint Clinical Guidelines focus on diagnosis and management of aspergillosis. Of the numerous recommendations, a few are summarized here. Chest computed tomography as well as bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with suspicion of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis (IA) are strongly recommended. For diagnosis, direct microscopy, preferably using optical brighteners, histopathology and culture are strongly recommended...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Handan Eren Handan Eren, Nejla Canbulat Sahiner, Meltem Demirgoz Bal, Melike Dissiz
This experimental study was conducted to determine the level of anxiety in women undergoing multiple cesarean section. Sixty multiple cesarean section referrals were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control groups. Data was collected at the Karaman Public Health Hospital in Turkey, from June 2015 to June 2016. Songs chosen earlier by the patients were played during the cesarean section procedure for the experimental group. The control group was studied without music. Data was collected using a questionnaire form, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to determine the anxiety levels...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Guo-Ying Sun, Hui-Hui Yang, Xin-Xin Guan, Wen-Jing Zhong, Yong-Ping Liu, Ming-Yuan Du, Xiao-Qin Luo, Yong Zhou, Cha-Xiang Guan
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the lungs with various biological characters. We have reported that VIP inhibited the expressions of TREM-1 and IL-17A, which are involved in the initiation and amplification of inflammation in acute lung injury (ALI). However, the overall effect of VIP on ALI remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effect of VIP mediated by lentivirus (Lenti-VIP) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine ALI. We found that the expression of intrapulmonary VIP peaked at day7 after the intratracheal injection of Lenti-VIP...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Immunology
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