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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245144/the-myorobot-a-novel-automated-biomechatronics-system-to-assess-voltage-ca2-biosensors-and-active-passive-biomechanics-in-muscle-and-biomaterials
#1
M Haug, B Reischl, G Prölß, C Pollmann, T Buckert, C Keidel, S Schürmann, M Hock, S Rupitsch, M Heckel, T Pöschel, T Scheibel, C Haynl, L Kiriaev, S I Head, O Friedrich
We engineered an automated biomechatronics system, MyoRobot, for robust objective and versatile assessment of muscle or polymer materials (bio-)mechanics. It covers multiple levels of muscle biosensor assessment, e.g. membrane voltage or contractile apparatus Ca2+ ion responses (force resolution 1µN, 0-10mN for the given sensor; [Ca2+] range ~ 100nM-25µM). It replaces previously tedious manual protocols to obtain exhaustive information on active/passive biomechanical properties across various morphological tissue levels...
December 7, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244818/postural-control-during-quiet-bipedal-standing-in-rats
#2
Tetsuro Funato, Yota Sato, Soichiro Fujiki, Yamato Sato, Shinya Aoi, Kazuo Tsuchiya, Dai Yanagihara
The control of bipedal posture in humans is subject to non-ideal conditions such as delayed sensation and heartbeat noise. However, the controller achieves a high level of functionality by utilizing body dynamics dexterously. In order to elucidate the neural mechanism responsible for postural control, the present study made use of an experimental setup involving rats because they have more accessible neural structures. The experimental design requires rats to stand bipedally in order to obtain a water reward placed in a water supplier above them...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244636/event-related-electroencephalographic-lateralizations-mark-individual-differences-in-spatial-and-nonspatial-visual-selection
#3
Iris Wiegand, Natan Napiorkowski, Thomas Töllner, Anders Petersen, Thomas Habekost, Hermann J Müller, Kathrin Finke
Selective attention controls the distribution of our visual system's limited processing resources to stimuli in the visual field. Two independent parameters of visual selection can be quantified by modeling an individual's performance in a partial-report task based on the computational theory of visual attention (TVA): (i) top-down control α, the relative attentional weighting of relevant over irrelevant stimuli, and (ii) spatial bias wλ, the relative attentional weighting of stimuli in the left versus right hemifield...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243662/long-range-of-indirect-exchange-interaction-on-the-edges-of-mos-sub-2-sub-flakes
#4
Oscar Rodrigo Avalos-Ovando, D Mastrogiuseppe, Sergio E Ulloa
We study the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction between two magnetic impurities connected to the edges of zigzag-terminated MoS<sub>2</sub> flakes. When the impurities lie on the edges of the flake, the effective exchange interaction exhibits sizable noncollinear Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya character that competes with a strong Ising coupling. We analyze the characteristic decay exponent for doping levels inside the band gap of the infinite layer, corresponding to edge states of the flake at the Fermi level...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243295/extended-phase-graph-formalism-for-systems-with-magnetization-transfer-and-exchange
#5
Shaihan J Malik, Rui Pedro A G Teixeira, Joseph V Hajnal
PURPOSE: An extended phase graph framework (EPG-X) for modeling systems with exchange or magnetization transfer (MT) is proposed. THEORY: EPG-X models coupled two-compartment systems by describing each compartment with separate phase graphs that exchange during evolution periods. There are two variants: EPG-X(BM) for systems governed by the Bloch-McConnell equations, and EPG-X(MT) for the pulsed MT formalism. For the MT case, the "bound" protons have no transverse components, so their phase graph consists of only longitudinal states...
December 15, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242340/anomalous-spin-correlations-and-excitonic-instability-of-interacting-2d-weyl-fermions
#6
Michihiro Hirata, Kyohei Ishikawa, Genki Matsuno, Akito Kobayashi, Kazuya Miyagawa, Masafumi Tamura, Claude Berthier, Kazushi Kanoda
The Coulomb interaction in systems of quasi-relativistic massless electrons has an unscreened long-range component at variance with conventional correlated metals. We used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements to reveal unusual spin correlations of two-dimensional Weyl fermions in an organic material, causing a divergent increase of the Korringa ratio by a factor of 1000 upon cooling, in marked contrast to conventional metallic behavior. Combined with model calculations, we show that this divergence stems from an interaction-driven velocity renormalization that almost exclusively suppresses zero-momentum spin fluctuations...
December 15, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241663/model-selection-for-integrated-pest-management-with-stochasticity
#7
Olcay Akman, Timothy D Comar, Daniel Hrozencik
In [X. Song and Z. Xiang, 2006. The prey-dependent consumption two-prey one-predator models with stage structure for the predator and impulsive effects. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 242, 683-698.], an integrated pest management model with periodically varying climatic conditions was introduced. In order to address a wider range of environmental effects, the authors here have embarked upon a series of studies resulting in a more flexible modeling approach. In [O. Akman, T.D. Comar, and D. Hrozencik, 2013...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240421/photochemistry-of-fe-h2o-adducts-in-argon-matrices-a-combined-experimental-and-theoretical-study-in-the-mid-ir-and-uv-visible-regions
#8
Vincent Deguin, Joëlle Mascetti, Aude Simon, Nadia Ben Amor, Christian Aupetit, Sandra Latournerie, Jennifer Anna Noble
The photochemistry of Fe:H2O adducts is of interest in fields as diverse as catalysis and astrochemistry. Industrially, iron can be used as a catalyst to convert H2O to H2, while in the interstellar medium it may be an important component of dust grains, influencing the chemistry on their icy surfaces. This study consisted of the deposition and spectral characterisation of binary systems of atomic iron with H2O in cryogenic argon matrices. In this way, we were able to obtain information about the interaction of the two species; we observed the formation of adducts of iron monomers and dimers with water molecules in the mid-IR and UV-visible spectral domains...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239517/nanoparticulate-delivery-of-cancer-cell-membrane-elicits-multiantigenic-antitumor-immunity
#9
Ashley V Kroll, Ronnie H Fang, Yao Jiang, Jiarong Zhou, Xiaoli Wei, Chun Lai Yu, Jie Gao, Brian T Luk, Diana Dehaini, Weiwei Gao, Liangfang Zhang
Anticancer vaccines train the body's own immune system to recognize and eliminate malignant cells based on differential antigen expression. While conceptually attractive, clinical efficacy is lacking given several key challenges stemming from the similarities between cancerous and healthy tissue. Ideally, an effective vaccine formulation would deliver multiple tumor antigens in a fashion that potently stimulates endogenous immune responses against those antigens. Here, it is reported on the fabrication of a biomimetic, nanoparticulate anticancer vaccine that is capable of delivering autologously derived tumor antigen material together with a highly immunostimulatory adjuvant...
December 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239100/insulin-like-growth-factor-2-expression-in-prostate-cancer-is-regulated-by-specific-promoter-methylation
#10
Stefan Küffer, Tobias Gutting, Djeda Belharazem, Christian Sauer, M S Michel, Alexander Marx, Lutz Trojan, Philipp Ströbel
Deregulation of the Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) axis and dysbalance of components of the IGF system as potential therapeutic targets have been described in different tumor types. IGF2 is a major embryonic growth factor and an important activator of IGF signaling. It is regulated by imprinting in a development- and tissue-dependent manner and has been implicated in a broad range of malignancies including prostate cancer (PCa). Loss of imprinting (LOI) usually results in bi-allelic gene expression and increased levels of IGF2...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239091/extra-corporeal-normothermic-machine-perfusion-of-the-porcine-kidney-working-towards-future-utilization-in-australasia
#11
Ahmer M Hameed, Ray Miraziz, David B Lu, Neil Warwick, Ali El-Ayoubi, Heather Burns, Yi Vee Chew, Ross Matthews, Greg O'Grady, Lawrence Yuen, Natasha Rogers, Henry C Pleass, Wayne J Hawthorne
BACKGROUND: The ongoing supply-demand gap with respect to donor kidneys for transplantation necessitates the increased use of higher kidney donor profile index and/or donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidneys. Machine perfusion (MP) preservation has become increasingly popular as a means to preserve such organs. Human data regarding normothermic kidney MP (NMP) is in its infancy, and such a system has not been established in the Australasian clinical setting. METHODS: Modified cardio-pulmonary bypass technology was utilized to develop a viable NMP kidney perfusion system using a porcine DCD model...
December 14, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238329/relative-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-brucella-abortus-reveals-metabolic-adaptation-to-multiple-environmental-stresses
#12
Xiaodong Zai, Qiaoling Yang, Ying Yin, Ruihua Li, Mengying Qian, Taoran Zhao, Yaohui Li, Jun Zhang, Ling Fu, Junjie Xu, Wei Chen
Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that cause chronic brucellosis in humans and animals. The virulence of Brucella primarily depends on its successful survival and replication in host cells. During invasion of the host tissue, Brucella is simultaneously subjected to a variety of harsh conditions, including nutrient limitation, low pH, antimicrobial defenses, and extreme levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the host immune response. This suggests that Brucella may be able to regulate its metabolic adaptation in response to the distinct stresses encountered during its intracellular infection of the host...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238018/-regulation-of-bone-by-il-17-producing-t-cells
#13
Kazuo Okamoto
  Bone is a component of the skeletal-locomotor system but also functions as an immunological organ that harbors hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Since the immune and skeletal systems are closely related through a number of shared regulatory molecules including cytokines and receptors, bone can be affected in various immune disorders. Rheumatoid arthritis is a typical disease in which the immune system affects the bone metabolism. The enhanced activity of osteoclasts by the activation of Th17 cells causes the joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237840/human-cytomegalovirus-ul111a-and-us27-gene-products-enhance-the-cxcl12-cxcr4-signaling-axis-via-distinct-mechanisms
#14
Carolyn C Tu, Kathleen L Arnolds, Christine M O'Connor, Juliet V Spencer
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a prevalent pathogen that establishes lifelong infection in the host. Virus persistence is aided by extensive manipulation of the host immune system, particularly cytokine and chemokine signaling pathways. The HCMV UL111A gene encodes cmvIL-10, an ortholog of human interleukin-10 that has many immunomodulatory effects. We found that cmvIL-10 increased signaling outcomes from human CXCR4, a chemokine receptor with essential roles in hematopoiesis and immune cell trafficking, in response to its natural ligand CXCL12...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236714/non-invasive-identification-of-protein-biomarkers-for-early-pregnancy-diagnosis-in-the-cheetah-acinonyx-jubatus
#15
Diana C Koester, David E Wildt, Morgan Maly, Pierre Comizzoli, Adrienne E Crosier
Approximately 80% of cheetahs living in typical zoological collections never reproduce. In more than 60% of breedings, the female is confirmed to ovulate, but parturition fails to occur. It is unknown if these non-pregnant intervals of elevated progesterone (deemed luteal phases) are conception failures or a pregnancy terminating in embryonic/fetal loss. There have been recent advances in metabolic profiling and proteome analyses in many species with mass spectrometry used to identify 'biomarkers' and mechanisms indicative of specific physiological states (including pregnancy)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236144/technological-properties-assessment-and-two-component-systems-distribution-of-streptococcus-thermophilus-strains-isolated-from-fermented-milk
#16
Tong Hu, Yishuang Zhang, Yanhua Cui, Chunyu Zhao, Xu Jiang, Xirong Zhu, Yu Wang, Xiaojun Qu
Streptococcus thermophilus is one of the economically most representatives of lactic acid bacteria, which is widely used as a starter to produce fermented milk products. In this study, 22 S. thermophilus strains were isolated from 26 fermented milk samples. Most isolates showed the ability to ferment a broad range of carbohydrates. Interestingly, eight strains are galactose positive, which is a desirable property in various industrial dairy fermentations. Four different nucleotide sequences were found in the galR-galK intergenic regions...
December 13, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236132/brentuximab-vedotin-maintenance-following-chemotherapy-without-irradiation-for-primary-intracranial-embryonal-carcinoma-in-down-syndrome
#17
Mohammad H Abu Arja, Suzanne E Conley, Violeta Salceda, Fahd Al-Sufiani, Daniel R Boué, Jonathan L Finlay
BACKGROUND: Germ cell tumors (GCT) are the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumors in individuals with Down syndrome. Patients with Down syndrome treated with CNS irradiation are at increased risk of developing cerebrovascular complications such as moyamoya disease. Embryonal carcinoma components are recognized to be more resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy and confer a very poor prognosis. CD30 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor-receptor superfamily...
December 13, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236077/a-pilot-study-of-children-s-blood-lead-levels-in-mount-isa-queensland
#18
Donna Green, Marianne Sullivan, Nathan Cooper, Annika Dean, Cielo Marquez
Mount Isa, Queensland, is one of three Australian cities with significant lead emissions due to nonferrous mining and smelting. Unlike the two other cities with lead mines or smelters, Mount Isa currently has no system of annual, systematic, community-wide blood lead level testing; and testing rates among Indigenous children are low. In previous screenings, this group of children has been shown to have higher average blood lead levels than non-Indigenous children. The first aim of this study was to assess whether parents and children would participate in less invasive, rapid point-of-care capillary testing...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236042/single-channel-eeg-artifact-identification-using-two-dimensional-multi-resolution-analysis
#19
Mojtaba Taherisadr, Omid Dehzangi, Hossein Parsaei
As a diagnostic monitoring approach, electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be decoded by signal processing methodologies for various health monitoring purposes. However, EEG recordings are contaminated by other interferences, particularly facial and ocular artifacts generated by the user. This is specifically an issue during continuous EEG recording sessions, and is therefore a key step in using EEG signals for either physiological monitoring and diagnosis or brain-computer interface to identify such artifacts from useful EEG components...
December 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235472/a-ph-gated-conformational-switch-regulates-the-phosphatase-activity-of-bifunctional-hiska-family-histidine-kinases
#20
Yixiang Liu, Joshua Rose, Shaojia Huang, Yangbo Hu, Qiong Wu, Dan Wang, Conggang Li, Maili Liu, Pei Zhou, Ling Jiang
Histidine kinases are key regulators in the bacterial two-component systems that mediate the cellular response to environmental changes. The vast majority of the sensor histidine kinases belong to the bifunctional HisKA family, displaying both kinase and phosphatase activities toward their substrates. The molecular mechanisms regulating the opposing activities of these enzymes are not well understood. Through a combined NMR and crystallographic study on the histidine kinase HK853 and its response regulator RR468 from Thermotoga maritima, here we report a pH-mediated conformational switch of HK853 that shuts off its phosphatase activity under acidic conditions...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
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