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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220904/recent-advances-in-occupational-and-environmental-health-hazards-of-workers-exposed-to-gasoline-compounds
#1
REVIEW
Christopher E Ekpenyong, Asuquo E Asuquo
The impact of health and environmental hazards, associated with the constituents of gasoline, on occupationally exposed workers has been recorded over the past few decades. However, the scientific literature on their pathogenic potential remains incomplete, which could affect the current understanding of the associated health risks. This review provides current information based on recently improved research techniques to evaluate gasoline toxicity profiles for humans. Our current knowledge provides insight into the intricate mechanism of gasoline-induced adverse effects, including the formation of reactive metabolites via bio-activation and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, which are involved in multiple mechanisms that are central to the aetiology of gasoline-induced toxicity...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220227/prediction-of-pediatric-sepsis-mortality-within-1%C3%A2-h-of-intensive-care-admission
#2
Luregn J Schlapbach, Graeme MacLaren, Marino Festa, Janet Alexander, Simon Erickson, John Beca, Anthony Slater, Andreas Schibler, David Pilcher, Johnny Millar, Lahn Straney
PURPOSE: The definitions of sepsis and septic shock have recently been revised in adults, but contemporary data are needed to inform similar approaches in children. METHODS: Multicenter cohort study including children <16 years admitted with sepsis or septic shock to ICUs in Australia and New Zealand in the period 2012-2015. We assessed septic shock criteria at ICU admission to define sepsis severity, using 30-day mortality as outcome. Through multivariable logistic regression, a pediatric sepsis score was derived using variables available within 60 min of ICU admission...
February 20, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219767/the-biochemical-alterations-underlying-post-burn-hypermetabolism
#3
REVIEW
Christopher Auger, Osai Samadi, Marc G Jeschke
A severe burn can trigger a hypermetabolic state which lasts for years following the injury, to the detriment of the patient. The drastic increase in metabolic demands during this phase renders it difficult to meet the body's nutritional requirements, thus increasing muscle, bone and adipose catabolism and predisposing the patient to a host of disorders such as multi-organ dysfunction and sepsis, or even death. Despite advances in burn care over the last 50 years, due to the multifactorial nature of the hypermetabolic phenomenon it is difficult if not impossible to precisely identify and pharmacologically modulate the biological mediators contributing to this substantial metabolic derangement...
February 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217453/erectile-dysfunction-in-fit-and-healthy-young-men-psychological-or-pathological
#4
REVIEW
Giulia Rastrelli, Mario Maggi
Epidemiological studies consistently show that prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) increases with ageing. Nonetheless, complaints of ED even in younger men are becoming more and more frequent. Healthcare professionals working in Sexual Medicine but even those operating in different clinical contexts might be adequately prepared to answer this increasing requirement. ED in younger men is likely to be overlooked and dismissed without performing any medical assessment, even the most basic ones, such as collection of medical history and physical exam...
February 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216451/ureteric-obstruction-from-malignant-melanoma-in-both-right-double-moiety-and-left-single-moiety-ureters
#5
Brayden March, Ross John Spero Calopedos, Edward Latif, Rupert Ouyang
We report the first documented case of malignant melanoma obstructing ureters of both moieties of a duplex kidney and contralateral single moiety ureter in a 51-year-old male. The patient presented with fever, coryzal symptoms and liver function test derangement several years after two superficial spreading melanomas were excised with clear margins. Ultrasonography demonstrated hydronephroureter in both moieties of a complete right-sided duplex kidney. Retrograde pyelograms showed bilateral hydronephroureter and filling defects in all three ureters...
February 16, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213770/myosin-heavy-chain-and-cardiac-troponin-t-damage-is-associated-with-impaired-myofibrillar-atpase-activity-contributing-to-sarcomeric-dysfunction-in-ca-2-paradox-rat-hearts
#6
Árpád Kovács, Judit Kalász, Enikő T Pásztor, Attila Tóth, Zoltán Papp, Naranjan S Dhalla, Judit Barta
This study aimed to explore the potential contribution of myofibrils to contractile dysfunction in Ca(2+)-paradox hearts. Isolated rat hearts were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution (Control), followed by Ca(2+)-depletion, and then Ca(2+)-repletion after Ca(2+)-depletion (Ca(2+)-paradox) by Langendorff method. During heart perfusion left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), rate of pressure development (+ dP/dt), and pressure decay (-dP/dt) were registered. Control LVDP (127...
February 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212403/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-of-infantile-congenital-hydrocephalus
#7
David D Limbrick, Brandon Baksh, Clinton D Morgan, Gakwaya Habiyaremye, James P McAllister, Terrie E Inder, Deanna Mercer, David M Holtzman, Jennifer Strahle, Michael J Wallendorf, Diego M Morales
INTRODUCTION: Hydrocephalus is a complex neurological disorder with a pervasive impact on the central nervous system. Previous work has demonstrated derangements in the biochemical profile of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in hydrocephalus, particularly in infants and children, in whom neurodevelopment is progressing in parallel with concomitant neurological injury. The objective of this study was to examine the CSF of children with congenital hydrocephalus (CHC) to gain insight into the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus and identify candidate biomarkers of CHC with potential diagnostic and therapeutic value...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212261/passage-of-gallstones-into-common-bile-duct-during-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-is-it-surgeon-s-responsibility
#8
Mohammed Bani Hani, Abdel Rahman Al Manasra, Haitham Qandeel
PURPOSE: Gallstones patients without preoperative history of jaundice, deranged liver function tests, or dilated bile ducts (BD) are unlikely to have BD stones. However, some of these patients in our series underwent endoscopic stone(s) removal after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). We aim to find the incidence, possible intraoperative risk factors, and if the Surgeon can be blamed for this event. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied LC cases over 12-year period at our university hospital and identified patients who did not have preoperative risk factors for BD stones but developed postoperative jaundice and/or persistent abdominal pain...
February 16, 2017: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211883/the-inflammatory-state-provokes-sexual-dimorphism-in-left-ventricular-and-electrocardiographic-effects-of-chronic-cyclosporine-in-rats
#9
Hany M El-Bassossy, Zainy M Banjar, Mahmoud M El-Mas
Although cardiotoxicity has been recognized as an adverse effect of cyclosporine A (CSA), no information exists regarding sex specificity of CSA cardiotoxicity. We tested the hypothesis that left ventricular (LV) and electrocardiographic (ECG) effects of CSA and related inflammatory/histopathological derangements are sex related. CSA reduced the LV slope of end-systolic pressure volume relationship and increased isovolumic relaxation constant. These effects were more pronounced in male compared to female rats, suggesting LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211128/staged-intraperitoneal-brachytherapy-and-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-in-an-adolescent-novel-anesthetic-challenges-for-pediatric-anesthetists
#10
Andrew D Weatherall, Tristan R Bennett, Mark Lovell, Winnie Fung, Jonathan de Lima
Newer techniques that have found a place in cancer management in adults are offered far less commonly in pediatric patients. We present a case of a patient with recurrent Wilms' tumor managed with a novel combination of cytoreductive surgery, intraperitoneal brachytherapy, and subsequent hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Each stage presents challenges that the pediatric anesthetist is unlikely to have faced before. Such cases require flexibility and thorough planning to manage the combination of major surgery, remote anesthesia with brachytherapy and hyperthermic chemotherapy with its potential for metabolic derangement, significant fluid shifts, analgesic care, and potential exposure of staff to cytotoxic agents...
February 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208708/the-interplay-between-inflammation-coagulation-and-endothelial-injury-in-the-early-phase-of-acute-pancreatitis-clinical-implications
#11
REVIEW
Paulina Dumnicka, Dawid Maduzia, Piotr Ceranowicz, Rafał Olszanecki, Ryszard Drożdż, Beata Kuśnierz-Cabala
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease with varied severity, ranging from mild local inflammation to severe systemic involvement resulting in substantial mortality. Early pathologic events in AP, both local and systemic, are associated with vascular derangements, including endothelial activation and injury, dysregulation of vasomotor tone, increased vascular permeability, increased leukocyte migration to tissues, and activation of coagulation. The purpose of the review was to summarize current evidence regarding the interplay between inflammation, coagulation and endothelial dysfunction in the early phase of AP...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205125/does-hyperbilirubinemia-contribute-to-adverse-patient-outcomes-following-pancreatoduodenectomy
#12
Scott Dolejs, Ben L Zarzaur, Nicholas J Zyromski, Henry A Pitt, Taylor S Riall, Bruce L Hall, Stephen W Behrman
BACKGROUND: Jaundice due to biliary obstruction leads to multiple physiologic derangements and a decline in performance status that may result in unfavorable intra- and postoperative outcomes following a Whipple procedure. While preoperative biliary decompression may improve synthetic function, this strategy has been reported to increase the incidence of infectious complications following surgery. We hypothesized that hyperbilirubinemia at the time of pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) would be a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality postoperatively...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203146/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-at-the-crossroads-of-brain-development-and-aging
#13
REVIEW
Sarah Wrigley, Donia Arafa, Daniela Tropea
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is a polypeptide hormone structurally similar to insulin. It is central to the somatotropic axis, acting downstream of growth hormone (GH). It activates both the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and PI3K signaling pathways, acting in almost every tissue in the body to promote tissue growth and maturation through upregulation of anabolic processes. Overall GH and IGF1 signaling falls with age, suggesting that it is this reduced IGF1 activity that leads to age-related changes in organisms...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202686/simvastatin-pre-treatment-improves-survival-and-mitochondrial-function-in-a-three-day-fluid-resuscitated-rat-model-of-sepsis
#14
Jerome Morel, Iain Hargreaves, David Brealey, Viruna Neergheen, Janne T Backman, Sandro Lindig, Marcus Bläss, Michael Bauer, Daniel F McAuley, Mervyn Singer
Statins may offer protective effects in sepsis through anti-inflammatory, mitochondrial protection and other actions. We thus evaluated the effects of simvastatin on survival, organ and mitochondrial function, tissue and plasma ubiquinone levels and liver transcriptomics in a 3-day rat model of sepsis. Comparisons of rat plasma simvastatin and ubiquinone levels were made against levels sampled in blood from patients with acute lung injury (ALI) enrolled into a trial of statin therapy. Animals received simvastatin by gavage either pre- or post-induction of faecal peritonitis...
February 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198733/clinical-relevance-of-sarcopenia-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
Ranjani N Moorthi, Keith G Avin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we review sarcopenia in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aim to present how definitions of sarcopenia from the general population may pertain to those with CKD, its assessment by clinicians and emerging therapies for sarcopenia in CKD. For this review, we limit our description and recommendations to patients with CKD who are not on dialysis. RECENT FINDINGS: Poorer parameters of lean mass, strength and physical function are associated with worsening patient-centered outcomes such as limiting mobility, falls and mortality in CKD; however, the magnitude of these associations are different in those with and without CKD...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193445/endovascular-management-for-peripheral-arterial-trauma-the-new-norm
#16
Anand Ganapathy, Ahmed F Khouqeer, S Robb Todd, Joseph L Mills, Ramyar Gilani
BACKGROUND: Endovascular therapy is well studied in atraumatic conditions; and there appears to be a growing interest in its application to traumatic injuries. The objective of this study is to compare open and endovascular techniques in the management of peripheral arterial trauma. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of patients admitted to a Level I Trauma Center sustaining injuries to the subclavian, axillary, superficial femoral, and popliteal arteries. Demographics, surgical interventions, complications, and clinical outcomes were evaluated in patients requiring open or endovascular repair between 2009 and 2015...
February 4, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192105/adolescent-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-roles-of-ectopic-fat-accumulation-and-adipose-inflammation
#17
Sonia Caprio, Rachel Perry, Romy Kursawe
As a consequence of the global rise in the prevalence of Adolescent Obesity, an unprecedented phenomenon of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) has emerged in pediatrics. At the heart of T2D development lies a key metabolic derangement: Insulin Resistance (IR) . Despite the widespread occurrence of IR affecting an unmeasurable number of youths worldwide, its pathogenesis remains elusive. IR in obese youth is a complex phenomenon that defies explanation by a single pathway. In this review we first describe recent data on the prevalence, severity, and racial/ethnic differences in Pediatric Obesity...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190445/management-of-neurologic-complications-of-coagulopathies
#18
J D Vanderwerf, M A Kumar
Coagulopathy is common in intensive care units (ICUs). Many physiologic derangements lead to dysfunctional hemostasis; these may be either congenital or acquired. The most devastating outcome of coagulopathy in the critically ill is major bleeding, defined by transfusion requirement, hemodynamic instability, or intracranial hemorrhage. ICU coagulopathy often poses complex management dilemmas, as bleeding risk must be tempered with thrombotic potential. Coagulopathy associated with intracranial hemorrhage bears directly on prognosis and outcome...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187933/clinical-usefulness-of-abdominal-bioimpedance-viscan-in-the-determination-of-visceral-fat-and-its-application-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-obesity-and-its-comorbidities
#19
Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Ignacio González-Crespo, Victoria Catalán, Amaia Rodríguez, Rafael Moncada, Víctor Valentí, Sonia Romero, Beatriz Ramírez, Camilo Silva, María J Gil, Javier Salvador, Alberto Benito, Inmaculada Colina, Gema Frühbeck
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has been shown to be profoundly responsible of most of the obesity-associated metabolic derangements. The measurement of VAT usually implies the use of imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography (CT). Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy of the determination of VAT by means of abdominal bioimpedance (BIA) with the ViScan device in comparison with CT and its clinical usefulness in the management of obesity...
January 28, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185944/lipoprotein-a-and-inflammation-a-dangerous-duet-leading-to-endothelial-loss-of-integrity
#20
REVIEW
Matteo Pirro, Vanessa Bianconi, Francesco Paciullo, Massimo R Mannarino, Francesco Bagaglia, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an enigmatic lipoprotein whose ancestral useful properties have been gradually obscured by its adverse pro-atherogenic and pro-thrombotic effects, that culminate into an increased risk of ischemic cardiovascular events. Although plasma Lp(a) levels are largely determined on a genetic basis, multiple factors have been reported to interfere with its plasma levels. Inflammation is one of these factors and it is believed to promote pro-atherogenic and pro-thrombotic changes leading to increased cardiovascular disease risk...
February 7, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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