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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448764/mechanistic-insights-into-osteoporosis-in-patients-with-lipodystrophy-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Lanhui Huang, Hong Shi, Xinli Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the underlying pathogenesis of osteoporosis occurring in patients with lipodystrophy. METHODS: MEDLINE was searched using the following key terms: lipodystrophy, osteoporosis and reduced bone mineral density. Additional studies were obtained from the bibliographies of reports and reviews above by manual search. RESULTS: Lipodystrophy is a very rare disease characterized by pathologic alterations in the distribution of adipose tissues in association with a diverse range of metabolic derangements such as hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, diabetes and abnormal bone formation...
April 27, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447413/laboratory-measurement-of-the-direct-oral-anticoagulants-indications-and-impact-on-management-in-clinical-practice
#2
REVIEW
C Wright, R Brown, A Cuker
Although the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) do not require routine laboratory monitoring, there may be special situations in which measurement of drug levels is desirable. There is a paucity of information on how measurement of DOAC levels is used in clinical practice. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban levels measured at our institution. Of 9793 patients with an active prescription for dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban in the electronic medical record during the 2...
May 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446077/expression-of-mmp-13-in-human-temporomandibular-joint-disc-derangement-and-osteoarthritis
#3
Juliano Henrique Perotto, Flavio de Alcantara Camejo, Andrea Duarte Doetzer, Luis Eduardo Almeida, Marina Azevedo, Márcia Olandoski, Lucia Noronha, Paula Cristina Trevilatto
OBJECTIVE: MMP-13 performs digestion of collagen, which is a primary component of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) articular disc. This study evaluated the expression of MMP-13 in patients with anterior disc displacement with (ADDwR) and without reduction (ADDwoR), and in the presence of TMJ osteoarthrosis. METHODS: Thirty-nine human temporomandibular joint disc samples were collected and divided in two ways: ADDwR (21 samples), ADDwoR (10 samples), and a control group (8 samples); and with osteoarthrosis (10 samples) and without osteoarthrosis (29 samples)...
April 26, 2017: Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442545/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-agonists-attenuate-biofilm-formation-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#4
Brahmchetna Bedi, Nicholas M Maurice, Vincent T Ciavatta, K Sabrina Lynn, Zhihong Yuan, Samuel A Molina, Myungsoo Joo, William R Tyor, Joanna B Goldberg, Michael H Koval, C Michael Hart, Ruxana T Sadikot
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a significant contributor to recalcitrant multidrug- resistant infections, especially in immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. The pathogenic profile of P. aeruginosa is related to its ability to secrete a variety of virulence factors and to promote biofilm formation. Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism wherein P. aeruginosa secretes small diffusible molecules, specifically acyl homo serine lactones, such as N-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3O-C12-HSL), that promote biofilm formation and virulence via interbacterial communication...
April 25, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437748/rational-and-timely-haemostatic-interventions-following-cardiac-surgery-coagulation-factor-concentrates-or-blood-bank-products
#5
Mariann Tang, Christian Fenger-Eriksen, Per Wierup, Jacob Greisen, Jørgen Ingerslev, Vibeke Hjortdal, Benny Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery may cause a serious coagulopathy leading to increased risk of bleeding and transfusion demands. Blood bank products are commonly first line haemostatic intervention, but has been associated with hazardous side effect. Coagulation factor concentrates may be a more efficient, predictable, and potentially a safer treatment, although prospective clinical trials are needed to further explore these hypotheses. This study investigated the haemostatic potential of ex vivo supplementation of coagulation factor concentrates versus blood bank products on blood samples drawn from patients undergoing cardiac surgery...
April 5, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434676/meta-analysis-of-results-of-testosterone-therapy-on-sexual-function-based-on-international-index-of-erectile-function-scores
#6
Giovanni Corona, Giulia Rastrelli, Abraham Morgentaler, Alessandra Sforza, Edoardo Mannucci, Mario Maggi
CONTEXT: The interpretation of available clinical evidence related to the effect of testosterone (T) treatment (TTh) on sexual function has been inconsistent, in part due to the use of different and self-reported measures to assess outcomes. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) is the most frequently used validated tool to assess male sexual function. OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis of available data evaluating the effect of TTh on male sexual function using IIEF as the primary outcome...
April 20, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432876/effect-of-pistachio-consumption-on-the-modulation-of-urinary-gut-microbiota-related-metabolites-in-prediabetic-subjects
#7
Pablo Hernández-Alonso, Daniel Cañueto, Simona Giardina, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Nicolau Cañellas, Xavier Correig, Mònica Bulló
The specific nutritional composition of nuts could affect different metabolic pathways involved in a broad range of metabolic diseases. We therefore investigated whether chronic consumption of pistachio nuts modifies the urine metabolome in prediabetic subjects. We designed a randomized crossover clinical trial in 39 prediabetic subjects. They consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50% carbohydrates, 33% fat, including 57 g/d of pistachios daily) and a control diet (CD, 55% carbohydrates, 30% fat) for 4 months each, separated by a 2-week wash-out...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432428/tranexamic-acid-for-treatment-and-prophylaxis-of-bleeding-and-hyperfibrinolysis
#8
Ingrid Pabinger, Dietmar Fries, Herbert Schöchl, Werner Streif, Wolfgang Toller
Uncontrolled massive bleeding with subsequent derangement of the coagulation system is a major challenge in the management of both surgical and seriously injured patients. Under physiological conditions activators and inhibitors of coagulation regulate the sensitive balance between clot formation and fibrinolysis. In some cases, excessive and diffuse bleeding is caused by systemic activation of fibrinolysis, i. e. hyperfibrinolysis (HF). Uncontrolled HF is associated with a high mortality. Polytrauma patients and those undergoing surgical procedures involving organs rich in plasminogen proactivators (e...
April 21, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428966/nutrition-and-metabolism-in-burn-patients
#9
REVIEW
Audra Clark, Jonathan Imran, Tarik Madni, Steven E Wolf
Severe burn causes significant metabolic derangements that make nutritional support uniquely important and challenging for burned patients. Burn injury causes a persistent and prolonged hypermetabolic state and increased catabolism that results in increased muscle wasting and cachexia. Metabolic rates of burn patients can surpass twice normal, and failure to fulfill these energy requirements causes impaired wound healing, organ dysfunction, and susceptibility to infection. Adequate assessment and provision of nutritional needs is imperative to care for these patients...
2017: Burns and trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426835/outcomes-from-a-cohort-of-patients-with-acute-kidney-injury-subjected-to-continuous-venovenous-hemodiafiltration-the-role-of-negative-fluid-balance
#10
Thais Oliveira Claizoni Dos Santos, Marisa Aparecida de Souza Oliveira, Julio Cesar Martins Monte, Marcelo Costa Batista, Virgilio Gonçalves Pereira Junior, Bento Fortunato Cardoso Dos Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão Santos, Marcelino de Souza Durão Junior
BACKGROUND: Several factors influence the outcomes in acute kidney injury (AKI), especially in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In this scenario, continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) are used to control metabolic derangements and blood volume. Knowing this fact, it may be possible to change the course of the disease and decrease the high mortality rate observed. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the main risk factors for death in AKI patients needing CRRT. RESULTS: This was a prospective, observational cohort study of ICU patients (N = 183) with AKI who underwent continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) as their initial dialysis modality choice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425073/molecular-therapy-of-primary-hyperoxaluria
#11
Cristina Martin-Higueras, Armando Torres, Eduardo Salido
During the last few decades, the molecular understanding of the mechanisms involved in primary hyperoxalurias (PHs) has set the stage for novel therapeutic approaches. The availability of PH mouse models has facilitated preclinical studies testing innovative treatments. PHs are autosomal recessive diseases where the enzymatic deficit plays a central pathogenic role. Thus, molecular therapies aimed at restoring such deficit or limiting the consequences of the metabolic derangement could be envisioned, keeping in mind the specific challenges posed by the cell-autonomous nature of the deficiency...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424679/linking-diet-to-colorectal-cancer-the-emerging-role-of-microrna-in-the-communication-between-plant-and-animal-kingdoms
#12
REVIEW
Manuela Del Cornò, Gloria Donninelli, Lucia Conti, Sandra Gessani
Environmental and lifestyle factors, including diet and nutritional habits have been strongly linked to colorectal cancer (CRC). Of note, unhealthy dietary habits leading to adiposity represent a main risk factor for CRC and are associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory status. Inflammation is a hallmark of almost every type of cancer and can be modulated by several food compounds exhibiting either protective or promoting effects. However, in spite of an extensive research, the underlying mechanisms by which dietary patterns or bioactive food components may influence tumor onset and outcome have not been fully clarified yet...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421157/psoriatic-arthritis-is-an-indicator-of-significant-renal-damage-in-patients-with-psoriasis-an-observational-and-epidemiological-study
#13
Abidullah Khan, Iqbal Haider, Maimoona Ayub, Mohammad Humayun
Background. Psoriasis affects joints in around 30% of the patients. Recent studies have demonstrated an increased risk of essential hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and stroke in psoriatic patients. However, the prevalence of renal disease in patients with psoriasis has not been evaluated properly. Objectives. Objectives were to evaluate renal functions in patients with psoriasis and to assess any possible relationship of renal failure with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 30 participants were recruited into the following three groups: group-A, psoriatic arthritis; group-B, psoriasis without arthritis; and group-C, healthy subjects...
2017: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413149/association-of-temporomandibular-joint-pain-according-to-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-temporomandibular-disorder-patients
#14
Namiaki Takahara, Satoshi Nakagawa, Kanako Sumikura, Yuji Kabasawa, Ichiro Sakamoto, Hiroyuki Harada
PURPOSE: This study investigated the associations between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and pain in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 646 TMJs of 323 consecutive patients with temporomandibular disorders; of these, 222 (34.4%) had TMJ pain whereas 424 (65.6%) had no TMJ pain. MRI scans were used to evaluate disc position, osteoarthritis, joint fluid, and bone marrow edema. Internal derangement was classified as normal, anterior disc displacement with reduction, and anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDWOR); condylar morphology was classified as normal, moderate bony change, and severe bony change...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413130/arthroscopic-treatment-of-labral-tears-of-the-hip-in-adolescents-patterns-of-clinical-presentation-intra-articular-derangements-radiological-associations-and-minimum-2-year-outcomes
#15
Sivashankar Chandrasekaran, Nader Darwish, Edwin O Chaharbakhshi, Parth Lodhia, Carlos Suarez-Ahedo, Benjamin G Domb
PURPOSE: To report on patterns of clinical presentation, intra-articular derangements, radiological associations, and minimum 2-year outcomes after hip arthroscopy (HA) in patients 18 years or younger. METHODS: This study was a retrospective case series on patients 18 years or younger who had undergone HA for labral tears that had failed nonoperative management from April 2008 to April 2013 with a minimum 2-year follow-up. Exclusion criteria were previous hip conditions or surgery...
April 13, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412875/amino-acid-and-acylcarnitine-profiles-in-perinatal-asphyxia-a-case-control-study
#16
Ola Galal El-Farghali, Mohamed Sami El-Chimi, Heba Salah El-Abd, Eman El-Desouky
OBJECTIVE: To estimate cord blood amino acid and acylcarnitine levels in term newborns exposed to perinatal asphyxia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 45 asphyxiated term newborns (cases) and 20 gestational age-matched healthy newborns (control). Sixteen cases developed HIE according to clinical scoring and amplitude-integrated electroencephalography. Asphyxiated cases were accordingly subdivided into: HIE group (n = 16) and Asphyxia group (n = 29). Amino acid and acylcarnitine levels were measured in cord blood dried spot samples from all newborns using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS)...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411106/mass-spectrometry-imaging-shows-major-derangements-in-neurogranin-and-in-purine-metabolism-in-the-triple-knockout-3%C3%A3-tg-alzheimer-mouse-model
#17
Clara Esteve, Emrys A Jones, Douglas B Kell, Hervé Boutin, Liam A McDonnell
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can simultaneously measure hundreds of biomolecules directly from tissue. Using different sample preparation strategies, proteins and metabolites have been profiled to study the molecular changes in a 3×Tg mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. In comparison with wild-type (WT) control mice MALDI-MSI revealed Alzheimer's disease-specific protein profiles, highlighting dramatic reductions of a protein with m/z 7560, which was assigned to neurogranin and validated by immunohistochemistry...
April 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410154/current-status-of-a-unique-vaccine-preventing-pregnancy
#18
Gursaran P Talwar, Kripa N Nand, Jagdish C Gupta, Atmaram H Bandivdekar, Radhey S Sharma, Nirmal Kumar Lohiya
The ability of a vaccine linking beta hCG to a carrier to generate antibodies against hCG, its reversibility and safety was established by Phase I clinical trials conducted in India, Finland, Sweden, Chile and Brazil. Employing a hetero-species dimer (beta hCG-αoLH) linked to tetanus toxoid further improved the immunogenicity of the vaccine. Phase II clinical trials showed that anti-hCG titres above 50 ng/ml prevented pregnancy of sexually active fertile women without derangement of ovulation and menstrual regularity...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409113/axonal-damage-and-loss-of-connectivity-in-nigrostriatal-and-mesolimbic-dopamine-pathways-in-early-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Silvia Paola Caminiti, Luca Presotto, Damiano Baroncini, Valentina Garibotto, Rosa Maria Moresco, Luigi Gianolli, Maria Antonietta Volonté, Angelo Antonini, Daniela Perani
A progressive loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) is considered the main feature of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent neuropathological evidence however suggests that the axons of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system are the earliest target of α-synuclein accumulation in PD, thus the principal site for vulnerability. Whether this applies to in vivo PD, and also to the mesolimbic system has not been investigated yet. We used [(11)C]FeCIT PET to measure presynaptic dopamine transporter (DAT) activity in both nigrostriatal and mesolimbic systems, in 36 early PD patients (mean disease duration in months ± SD 21...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408961/the-usefulness-of-diagnostic-imaging-for-the-assessment-of-pain-symptoms-in-temporomandibular-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Shigeaki Suenaga, Kunihiro Nagayama, Taisuke Nagasawa, Hiroko Indo, Hideyuki J Majima
The causes of pain symptoms in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and masticatory muscle (MM) regions may not be determined by clinical examination alone. In this review, we document that pain symptoms of the TMJ and MM regions in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are associated with computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) findings of internal derangement, joint effusion, osteoarthritis, and bone marrow edema. However, it is emphasized that these imaging findings must not be regarded as the unique and dominant factors in defining TMJ pain...
November 2016: Japanese Dental Science Review
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