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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677628/circulating-metabolomic-profile-can-predict-dyslipidemia-in-hiv-patients-undergoing-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Esther Rodríguez-Gallego, Josep Gómez, Pere Domingo, Sara Ferrando-Martínez, Joaquim Peraire, Consuelo Viladés, Sergi Veloso, Miguel López-Dupla, Raúl Beltrán-Debón, Verónica Alba, Montserrat Vargas, Alfonso J Castellano, Manuel Leal, Yolanda María Pacheco, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Félix Gutiérrez, Francesc Vidal, Anna Rull
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients is unique and pathophysiologically associated with host factors, HIV itself and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The use of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) provides additional data to conventional lipid measurements concerning the number of lipoprotein subclasses and particle sizes. METHODS: To investigate the ability of lipoprotein profile, we used a circulating metabolomic approach in a cohort of 103 ART-naive HIV-infected patients, who were initiating non-nucleoside analogue transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART, and we subsequently followed up these patients for 36 months...
April 9, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673380/a-standardized-approach-to-treat-complex-aortic-valve-endocarditis-a-case-series
#2
Anna Gomes, Jayant S Jainandunsing, Sander van Assen, Peter Paul van Geel, Bhanu Sinha, Sandro Gelsomino, Daniel M Johnson, Ehsan Natour
BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment of complicated aortic valve endocarditis often is challenging, even for experienced surgeons. We aim at demonstrating a standardized surgical approach by stentless bioprostheses for the treatment of aortic valve endocarditis complicated by paravalvular abscess formation. METHODS: Sixteen patients presenting with aortic valve endocarditis (4 native and 12 prosthetic valves) and paravalvular abscess formation at various localizations and to different extents were treated by a standardized approach using stentless bioprostheses...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671622/changes-in-kidney-tissue-and-effects-of-erythropoietin-after-acute-heart-failure
#3
A Güven Bağla, M Içkin Gülen, F Ercan, F Aşgün, E Ercan, C Bakar
Impairment of cardiac function causes renal damage. Renal failure after heart failure is attributed to hemodynamic derangement including reduced renal perfusion and increased venous pressure. One mechanism involves apoptosis and is defined as cardiorenal syndrome type 1. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a cytokine that induces erythropoiesis under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) plays a regulatory role in cellular response to hypoxia. Protective effects of EPO on heart, kidney and nervous system are unrelated to red blood cell production...
April 19, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671031/short-term-decreased-physical-activity-with-increased-sedentary-behaviour-causes-metabolic-derangements-and-altered-body-composition-effects-in-individuals-with-and-without-a-first-degree-relative-with-type-2-diabetes
#4
Kelly A Bowden Davies, Victoria S Sprung, Juliette A Norman, Andrew Thompson, Katie L Mitchell, Jason C G Halford, Jo A Harrold, John P H Wilding, Graham J Kemp, Daniel J Cuthbertson
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Low physical activity levels and sedentary behaviour are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effects of a short-term reduction in physical activity with increased sedentary behaviour on metabolic profiles and body composition, comparing the effects in individuals with first-degree relatives with type 2 diabetes (FDR+ve) vs those without (FDR-ve). METHODS: Forty-five habitually active participants (16 FDR+ve [10 female, 6 male] and 29 FDR-ve [18 female, 11 male]; age 36 ± 14 years) were assessed at baseline, after 14 days of step reduction and 14 days after resuming normal activity...
April 18, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669555/the-role-of-dipeptidylpeptidase-4-inhibitors-in-management-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-diabetes-focus-on-linagliptin
#5
REVIEW
Annayya R Aroor, Camila Manrique-Acevedo, Vincent G DeMarco
Multiple population based analyses have demonstrated a high incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in subjects with T2DM that reduces life expectancy by as much as 15 years. Importantly, the CV system is particularly sensitive to the metabolic and immune derangements present in obese pre-diabetic and diabetic individuals; consequently, CV dysfunction is often the initial CV derangement to occur and promotes the progression to end organ/tissue damage in T2DM. Specifically, diabetic CVD can manifest as microvascular complications, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, as well as, macrovascular impairments, including ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease...
April 18, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667225/activation-of-central-gaba-b-receptors-offsets-the-cyclosporine-counteraction-of-endotoxic-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-conscious-rats
#6
Marwa Y Sallam, Sahar M El-Gowilly, Abdel-Galil A Abdel-Galil, Mahmoud M El-Mas
We have previously shown that cyclosporine (CSA) counteracts cardiovascular manifestations induced by endotoxemia (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) such as hypotension and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in conscious rats. In this study we investigated whether the facilitation of central γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission blunts these favorable influences of CSA. The LPS-CSA interaction was determined in the absence and presence of drugs that activate GABAA or GABAB receptors or elevate synaptic GABA levels in the central nervous system...
April 18, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665979/crosstalk-between-yap-taz-and-notch-signaling
#7
REVIEW
Antonio Totaro, Martina Castellan, Daniele Di Biagio, Stefano Piccolo
How the behavior of cells in living tissues is orchestrated according to tissue needs, size, and developmental stage is still poorly understood. Advances in these directions are essential to understand morphogenesis, 'self-organization' phenomena, to build new tissues for regenerative medicine or to reverse the changes in deranged organs, such as in cancer or in genetic disorders. This review outlines a new scenario by which the crosstalk between the Yes-associated protein/transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (YAP/TAZ) transcription factors and Notch signaling influences cell self-renewal, stem cell differentiation, cell fate decisions, epithelial-stromal interactions, inflammation, morphogenesis, and large-scale gene oscillations...
April 14, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663889/necroptosis-signaling-pathways-in-stroke-from-mechanisms-to-therapies
#8
Huang Jun-Long, Li Yi, Zhao Bao-Lian, Li Jia-Si, Zhang Ning, Ye Zhou-Heng, Sun Xue-Jun, Liu Wen-Wu
It has been confirmed that apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis are the three major modes of cell death. For a long time, necrosis is regarded as a deranged or accidental cell demise. In recent years, there is evidence showing that necrotic cell death can be a well regulated and orchestrated event, which is also known as programmed cell death or "necroptosis". Necroptosis can be triggered by a variety of external stimuli and regulated by a caspase-independent pathway. It plays a key role in the pathogenesis of some diseases including neurological diseases...
April 16, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662454/the-biological-clock-a-pivotal-hub-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-pathogenesis
#9
REVIEW
Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Salvatore De Cosmo, Tommaso Mazza
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent hepatic pathology in the Western world and may evolve into steatohepatitis (NASH), increasing the risk of cirrhosis, portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD derives from the accumulation of hepatic fat due to discrepant free fatty acid metabolism. Other factors contributing to this are deranged nutrients and bile acids fluxes as well as alterations in nuclear receptors, hormones, and intermediary metabolites, which impact on signaling pathways involved in metabolism and inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660026/familial-syndromes-involving-meningiomas-provide-mechanistic-insight-into-sporadic-disease
#10
Keith Kerr, Krista Qualmann, Yoshua Esquenazi, John Hagan, Dong H Kim
Currently, there is an incomplete understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of meningiomas, the most common primary brain tumor. Several familial syndromes are characterized by increased meningioma risk, and the genetics of these syndromes provides mechanistic insight into sporadic disease. The best defined of these syndromes is neurofibromatosis type 2, which is caused by a mutation in the NF2 gene and has a meningioma incidence of approximately 50%. This finding led to the subsequent discovery that NF2 loss-of-function occurs in up to 60% of sporadic tumors...
April 11, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655919/endocannabinoid-system-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-first-evidence-for-a-deranged-2-arachidonoylglycerol-metabolism
#11
Luca Navarini, Tiziana Bisogno, Pamela Mozetic, Fabiana Piscitelli, Domenico Paolo Emanuele Margiotta, Fabio Basta, Antonella Afeltra, Mauro Maccarrone
The endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays a key role in many physiological and pathological conditions and its dysregulation has been described in several rheumatological and autoimmune diseases. Yet, its possible alteration in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has never been investigated. Here, we aimed filling this gap in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with SLE and age- and sex- matched healthy subjects (HS). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry quantitation of eCB levels highlighted that plasma levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) were significantly increased in SLE patients compared to HS (p = 0...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655411/functional-disorders-of-the-temporomandibular-joints-internal-derangement-of-the-temporomandibular-joint
#12
REVIEW
Chih-Ling Chang, Ding-Han Wang, Mu-Chen Yang, Wun-Eng Hsu, Ming-Lun Hsu
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is one of the most complex joints of the human body. Due to its unique movement, in terms of combination of rotation and translator movement, disc of the joint plays an important role to maintain its normal function. In order to sustain the normal function of the TMJ, disc must be kept in proper position as well as maintain normal shape in all circumstances. Once the disc is not any more in its normal position during function of the joint, disturbance of the joint can be occurred which will lead to subsequent distortion of the disc...
April 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653143/phenotypic-characterization-of-the-sirc-statens-seruminstitut-rabbit-cornea-cell-line-reveals-a-mixed-epithelial-and-fibroblastic-nature
#13
Melania Olivieri, Martina Cristaldi, Salvatore Pezzino, Dario Rusciano, Barbara Tomasello, Carmelina Daniela Anfuso, Gabriella Lupo
The aim of the present study was to investigate, in the Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea (SIRC) cell line, the presence of epithelial and fibroblastic markers, comparing their levels with those of the human Retinal Pigmented Epithelial (ARPE-19) cell line, and the Human Keratocyte (HK) cell line, respectively. SIRC cells, often described as of epithelial origin, are used as a corneal epithelial barrier model to study the permeability of ophthalmic drugs. However, they show a morphology that is more consistent with a fibroblastic cell phenotype, similar to corneal keratocytes...
April 10, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652744/clinical-pearls-part-3-anaesthetic-management-of-abnormally-invasive-placentation
#14
Vinod Patil, Gamunu Ratnayake, Galina Fastovets, D S Wijayatilake
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Abnormal placentation is a clinical condition seen increasingly in the pregnant population. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, which may be mitigated through robust multidisciplinary care for these patients. The role of maternal critical care for these patients has largely been ignored in the literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in pharmacological management of bleeding with recent publications of large multicentre trials in addition to new technologies in the management of massive obstetric haemorrhage (MOH) have revolutionized the management of abnormal placentation...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652578/mr-imaging-of-the-fetal-face-comprehensive-review
#15
Murali Nagarajan, Kedar G Sharbidre, Sudeep H Bhabad, Sharon E Byrd
The human face is a complex anatomic structure with an equally complex embryologic development. Derangement of the developmental process can result in various structural anomalies, which range from a mainly cosmetic deformity, such as cleft lip, to potentially life-threatening conditions such as arhinia. These anomalies (a) can occur as isolated anomalies; (b) can be associated with intracranial, spinal, or dental anomalies; or (c) can be a part of various syndromes, thus serving as diagnostic clues in such cases...
April 13, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651703/spectrum-of-histopathological-changes-in-patients-with-non-cirrhotic-portal-fibrosis
#16
Abhijit Chougule, Archana Rastogi, Rakhi Maiwall, Chhagan Bihari, Vikrant Sood, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis (NCPF) is a clinical disorder characterized by features of portal hypertension in the absence of significant fibrosis. It is one of the commonest causes of portal hypertension in India. This study aimed to analyze histomorphological spectrum of NCPF in detail. METHODS AND RESULTS: There were 67 specimens from 66 patients which included 43 (65.2%) male and 23 (34.8%) female patients with a mean age of 31 years (range: 7-61 years)...
April 12, 2018: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651216/linear-analysis-of-autonomic-activity-and-its-correlation-with-creatine-kinase-mb-in-overt-thyroid-dysfunctions
#17
Manisha Mavai, Yogendra Raj Singh, R C Gupta, Sandeep K Mathur, Bharti Bhandari
Autonomic activity may be deranged in thyroid dysfunctions and may lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Myopathy is a common manifestation in thyroid disorders and may be associated with raised serum creatine kinase (CK). We hypothesized that cardiovascular abnormality in thyroid dysfunction may manifest as raised CK-MB. This study was designed to investigate the correlation of CK and its isoform CK-MB with thyroid profile and linear parameters of heart rate variability (HRV). The study was conducted on 35 hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients each, and 25 age-matched healthy controls...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650631/the-vasculature-in-prediabetes
#18
REVIEW
David H Wasserman, Thomas J Wang, Nancy J Brown
The frequency of prediabetes is increasing as the prevalence of obesity rises worldwide. In prediabetes, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and inflammation and metabolic derangements associated with concomitant obesity cause endothelial vasodilator and fibrinolytic dysfunction, leading to increased risk of cardiovascular and renal disease. Importantly, the microvasculature affects insulin sensitivity by affecting the delivery of insulin and glucose to skeletal muscle; thus, endothelial dysfunction and extracellular matrix remodeling promote the progression from prediabetes to diabetes mellitus...
April 13, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644781/inpp4b-overexpression-and-c-kit-downregulation-in-human-achalasia
#19
E Bonora, F Bianco, A Stanzani, F Giancola, A Astolfi, V Indio, C Evangelisti, A M Martelli, E Boschetti, M Lugaresi, A Ioannou, F Torresan, V Stanghellini, P Clavenzani, M Seri, A Moonen, K Van Beek, M Wouters, G E Boeckxstaens, G Zaninotto, S Mattioli, R De Giorgio
BACKGROUND: Achalasia is a rare motility disorder characterized by myenteric neuron and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) abnormalities leading to deranged/absent peristalsis and lack of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. The mechanisms contributing to neuronal and ICC changes in achalasia are only partially understood. Our goal was to identify novel molecular features occurring in patients with primary achalasia. METHODS: Esophageal full-thickness biopsies from 42 (22 females; age range: 16-82 years) clinically, radiologically, and manometrically characterized patients with primary achalasia were examined and compared to those obtained from 10 subjects (controls) undergoing surgery for uncomplicated esophageal cancer (or upper stomach disorders)...
April 11, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644395/metabolic-phenotyping-of-malnutrition-during-the-first-1000-days-of-life
#20
REVIEW
Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Jonathan R Swann
Nutritional restrictions during the first 1000 days of life can impair or delay the physical and cognitive development of the individual and have long-term consequences for their health. Metabolic phenotyping (metabolomics/metabonomics) simultaneously measures a diverse range of low molecular weight metabolites in a sample providing a comprehensive assessment of the individual's biochemical status. There are a growing number of studies applying such approaches to characterize the metabolic derangements induced by various forms of early-life malnutrition...
April 11, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
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