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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325773/how-safe-is-metformin-when-initiated-in-early-pregnancy-a-retrospective-5-year-study-of-pregnant-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-from-india
#1
Vanlalhruaii, Riddhi Dasgupta, Roshna Ramachandran, Jiji E Mathews, Annie Regi, Niranjan Thomas, Vijay Gupta, P Visalakshi, H S Asha, Thomas Paul, Nihal Thomas
BACKGROUND: The initiation of metformin in early pregnancy in Gestational Diabetes mellitus(GDM) remains controversial. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of Metformin on maternal and fetal outcomes when initiated within the first trimester of pregnancy in GDM. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective analysis of 540 women with diabetes complicating pregnancy (IADPSG criteria) over five years(January 2011 to May 2016)was done. The study population comprised of patients initiated on a)metformin within the first trimester (Group A:n=186),b) metformin after the first trimester(Group B:n=203) and c)insulin at any time during their pregnancy(Group C:n=151)...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258756/insulin-antagonises-pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-pedf-induced-modulation-of-lineage-commitment-of-myocytes-and%C3%A2-heterotrophic-ossification
#2
Revathy Carnagarin, Mina Elahy, Arun M Dharmarajan, Crispin R Dass
Extensive bone defects arising as a result of trauma, infection and tumour resection and other bone pathologies necessitates the identification of effective strategies in the form of tissue engineering, gene therapy and osteoinductive agents to enhance the bone repair process. PEDF is a multifunctional glycoprotein which plays an important role in regulating osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation. PEDF treatment of mice and human skeletal myocytes at physiological concentration inhibited myogenic differentiation and activated Erk1/2 MAPK- dependent osteogenic transdifferentiation of myocytes...
December 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240641/low-dose-insulin-as-an-anti-scarring-therapy-in-breast-surgery-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Marc-James Hallam, Elizabeth Pitt, Alexis Thomas, Charles Nduka
BACKGROUND: The role of insulin in expediting wound healing is firmly established within the context of major trauma and burns however only limited clinical evidence exists as to its effects upon scar formation. This study aims to build upon previous laboratory work to examine the potential anti-scarring properties of insulin in a clinical environment. METHODS: 91 patients undergoing bilateral aesthetic breast surgeries were recruited to receive low-dose insulin and placebo injections to the medial 3cm of their sub-mammary incisions within the context of a randomised, intra-patient, placebo controlled trial and scar quality was assessed at 3, 6, and 12-month reviews using the Manchester Scar Scale...
December 13, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178313/association-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-bone-mass-and-inflammation-to-low-energy-distal-radius-fractures-and-fracture-healing-in-elderly-women-attending-emergency-care
#4
Simona I Chisalita, Lee Ti Chong, Maciej Wajda, Lars Adolfsson, Mischa Woisetschläger, Anna Spångeus
OBJECTIVE: Elderly patients suffer fractures through low-energy mechanisms. The distal radius is the most frequent fracture localization. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) plays an important role in the maintenance of bone mass and its levels decline with advancing age and in states of malnutrition. Our aim was to investigate the association of IGF1 levels, bone mass, nutritional status, and inflammation to low-energy distal radius fractures and also study if fracture healing is influenced by IGF1, nutritional status, and inflammation...
November 2017: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174671/human-igf-i-propeptide-a-promotes-articular-chondrocyte-biosynthesis-and-employs-glycosylation-dependent-heparin-binding
#5
Shuiliang Shi, Brian J Kelly, Congrong Wang, Ken Klingler, Albert Chan, George J Eckert, Stephen B Trippel
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a key regulator of chondrogenesis, but its therapeutic application to articular cartilage damage is limited by rapid elimination from the repair site. The human IGF-I gene gives rise to three IGF-I propeptides (proIGF-IA, proIGF-IB and proIGF-IC) that are cleaved to create mature IGF-I. In this study, we elucidate the processing of IGF-I precursors by articular chondrocytes, and test the hypotheses that proIGF-I isoforms bind to heparin and regulate articular chondrocyte biosynthesis...
November 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165725/somatotrope-pituitary-function-in-professional-soccer-players
#6
Pia Roser, Tatiana Wehrhahn, Henry Krogmann, Nina Riedel, Robert Percy Marshall, Justus Gille, Jörg Flitsch, Jens Aberle
Background and objective Soccer is associated with repetitive head trauma, which, as it is known from sports like football and boxing, can result in hypopituitarism. Gonadotropins and GH are the most common pituitary hormones to become deficient. GH deficiency is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and has negative influence on body mass index, visceral fat mass, insulin resistance and sensitivity, bone mineral density and inflammatory markers. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the somatotrope pituitary function in professional soccer players...
November 17, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154111/pten-expression-and-its-association-with-glucose-control-and-calorie-supplementation-in-critically-ill-patients
#7
Alessio Molfino, Francesco Alessandri, Paola Mosillo, Donatella Dell'Utri, Alessio Farcomeni, Maria Ida Amabile, Alessandro Laviano
BACKGROUND & AIM: Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) reduces insulin sensitivity. Since critically ill patients present insulin resistance, we aimed at assessing the role of PTEN expression on glucose homeostasis and clinical outcome in patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) and receiving artificial nutrition. METHODS: Observational, single-center study conducted in one ICU in Rome, Italy on adult patients hospitalized for trauma. Plasma glucose levels and its variability were recorded in patients receiving artificial nutrition...
November 4, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145491/the-urine-biomarker-panel-igfbp7-x-timp-2-nephrocheck%C3%A2-parameter-does-not-correlate-with-igfbp7-and-timp-2-gene-expression-in-urinary-sediment
#8
Daniela Knafl, Markus Müller, Sahra Pajenda, Zeynep Genc, Manfred Hecking, Ludwig Wagner
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently observed in serious infections, following nephrotoxic medication, surgery and trauma. Here we tested whether the detection of two recently identified biomarkers for AKI, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 7 (IGFBP7), depends on the expression of these proteins in cells of the urinary sediment. METHOD: We collected urine samples of 33 kidney transplant recipients and 14 non-transplanted patients who all had AKI (stages 1-3 according to KDIGO), and measured [IGFBP7]x[TIMP-2] using the NephroCheck® Astute1 40 ™ meter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115473/clinical-application-of-a-novel-diagnostic-scheme-including-pancreatic-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-cell-dysfunction-for-traumatic-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome
#9
Zhan-Ke Wang, Rong-Jian Chen, Shi-Liang Wang, Guang-Wei Li, Zhong-Zhen Zhu, Qiang Huang, Zi-Li Chen, Fan-Chang Chen, Lei Deng, Xiao-Peng Lan, Tian Hu
A novel diagnostic scheme that includes pancreatic β‑cell dysfunction analysis for the diagnosis of traumatic multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) was investigated to assist in the early diagnosis and detection of MODS. Early intervention and treatment of MODS has been associated with a reduced mortality rate. A total of 2,876 trauma patients (including patients post‑major surgery) were admitted to the intensive care unit of the authors' hospital between December 2010 and December 2015 and enrolled in the present study...
January 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103210/insulin-for-the-treatment-of-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#10
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Luke Grzeskowiak, Kathryn Williamson, Michelle R Downie, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with short- and long-term complications for the mother and her infant. Women who are unable to maintain their blood glucose concentration within pre-specified treatment targets with diet and lifestyle interventions will require anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies. This review explores the safety and effectiveness of insulin compared with oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies, non-pharmacological interventions and insulin regimens...
November 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049303/a-mediterranean-diet-with-additional-extra-virgin-olive-oil-and-pistachios-reduces-the-incidence-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-gdm-a-randomized-controlled-trial-the-st-carlos-gdm-prevention-study
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Carla Assaf-Balut, Nuria García de la Torre, Alejandra Durán, Manuel Fuentes, Elena Bordiú, Laura Del Valle, Cristina Familiar, Ana Ortolá, Inés Jiménez, Miguel A Herraiz, Nuria Izquierdo, Noelia Perez, María J Torrejon, María I Ortega, Francisco J Illana, Isabelle Runkle, Maria P de Miguel, Carmen Montañez, Ana Barabash, Martín Cuesta, Miguel A Rubio, Alfonso L Calle-Pascual
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) prevalence is increasing and becoming a major public health concern. Whether a Mediterranean diet can help prevent GDM in unselected pregnant women has yet to be studied. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized controlled trial to evaluate the incidence of GDM with two different dietary models. All consecutive normoglycemic (<92 mg/dL) pregnant women at 8-12 gestational weeks (GW) were assigned to Intervention Group (IG, n = 500): MedDiet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and pistachios; or Control Group (CG, n = 500): standard diet with limited fat intake...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045765/oral-anti-diabetic-agents-for-women-with-established-diabetes-impaired-glucose-tolerance-or-previous-gestational-diabetes-planning-pregnancy-or-pregnant-women-with-pre-existing-diabetes
#12
REVIEW
Joanna Tieu, Suzette Coat, William Hague, Philippa Middleton, Emily Shepherd
BACKGROUND: While most guidance recommends the use of insulin in women whose pregnancies are affected by pre-existing diabetes, oral anti-diabetic agents may be more acceptable to women. The effects of these oral anti-diabetic agents on maternal and infant health outcomes need to be established in pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, as well as in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus preconceptionally or during a subsequent pregnancy. This review is an update of a review that was first published in 2010...
October 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032144/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-ppar%C3%AE-a-master-gatekeeper-in-cns-injury-and-repair
#13
REVIEW
Wei Cai, Tuo Yang, Huan Liu, Lijuan Han, Kai Zhang, Xiaoming Hu, Xuejing Zhang, Ke-Jie Yin, Yanqin Gao, Michael V L Bennett, Rehana K Leak, Jun Chen
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a widely expressed ligand-modulated transcription factor that governs the expression of genes involved in inflammation, redox equilibrium, trophic factor production, insulin sensitivity, and the metabolism of lipids and glucose. Synthetic PPARγ agonists (e.g. thiazolidinediones) are used to treat Type II diabetes and have the potential to limit the risk of developing brain injuries such as stroke by mitigating the influence of comorbidities. If brain injury develops, PPARγ serves as a master gatekeeper of cytoprotective stress responses, improving the chances of cellular survival and recovery of homeostatic equilibrium...
October 12, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025782/olfactory-bulb-agenesis-with-normal-sexual-hormones
#14
Prayuth Tunsuriyawong, Krit Pongpirul, Tagann Chaisam, Petpring Prajuabpansri
An 18-year-old Caucasian man presented with a lack of sense of surrounding smell. The problem was first noticed when a family member discussed the smell of the food, which he had no idea what it was. The patient had normal development and sexual function, no history of trauma, surgery, chemical exposure or infection. Physical examination revealed no significant abnormalities. Smell threshold test using phenyl-ethyl-alcohol revealed bilateral anosmia. MRI showed bilateral aplastic olfactory bulbs and tracts associated with absent cortical growth of the olfactory sulci and asymmetrical gyrus rectus...
October 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994516/the-implication-of-combat-stress-and-ptsd-trajectories-in-metabolic-syndrome-and-elevated-c-reactive-protein-levels-a-longitudinal-study
#15
Zahava Solomon, Yafit Levin, Einor Ben Assayag, Orit Furman, Shani Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shlomo Berliner, Avi Ohry
OBJECTIVE: This study sheds light on the importance of long-term follow-up of trauma survivors, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) trajectories, and early detection of health risk factors in trauma survivors. The present study prospectively assessed the following over 23 years: (1) the association of psychological and physiologic stress during captivity with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS), which includes hypertension; elevated levels of insulin, triglycerides, and fasting glucose; decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and obesity and (2) the implication of PTSD trajectories in elevated CRP levels and MetS...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981324/detailed-analysis-of-insulin-absorption-variability-and-the-tissue-response-to-continuous-subcutaneous-insulin-infusion-catheter-implantation-in-swine
#16
Jasmin R Hauzenberger, Brian R Hipszer, Channy Loeum, Peter A McCue, Mark DeStefano, Marc C Torjman, Mahmut T Kaner, Alek R Dinesen, Inna Chervoneva, Thomas R Pieber, Jeffrey I Joseph
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, ∼1 million people manage their type 1 diabetes with an insulin pump and a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) catheter. Patients routinely insert a new catheter every 2-3 days due to increasing variability of insulin absorption over time. Catheter insertion and maintenance damage capillaries, lymphatics, cells, and connective tissue leading to an acute inflammatory response. METHODS: We compared an investigational CSII catheter (IC) and a commercial CSII catheter (CC) regarding insulin absorption pharmacokinetics (PK) and tissue inflammation...
November 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832100/consensus-on-use-of-insulins-in-gestational-diabetes
#17
Kalyan Kumar Gangopadhyay, J J Mukherjee, R K Sahay
INTRODUCTION: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy is associated with maternal (caesarean delivery, hypoglycaemia, hyperbilirubinaemia, shoulder dystocia, pre-term delivery and birth trauma) and fetal (Hyperbilirubinaemia in offspring, Neonatal hypoglycaemia, Macrosomia) complications. Despite, insulin being the standard treatment for GDM cases, there is no existing comprehensive consensus update on use of insulin in Indian patients with GDM. OBJECTIVE: To provide simple and easily implementable guidelines to healthcare physicians on use of insulin in GDM...
March 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780983/anti-inflammatory-and-organ-protective-effect-of-insulin-in-scalded-mods-rats-without-controlling-hyperglycemia
#18
Zhongzhen Zhu, Tian Hu, Zhanke Wang, Jin Wang, Rui Liu, Qianyong Yang, Xiaoyun Zhang, Yuanyuan Xiong
BACKGROUND: Insulin, as an anti-inflammatory drug, could not be freely used in patients who experienced trauma according to the degree of inflammation, because of the side effect of hypoglycemia. In vivo experimental evidence is lacking concerning whether the effect is dosage dependent and whether it relies on controlling hyperglycemia. METHODS: By adjusting the dosage ratio of glucose and insulin, different dosages of insulin were used to treat severely scalded MODS rats to achieve uncontrolled or controlled hyperglycemia...
July 22, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747716/burn-induced-muscle-metabolic-derangements-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-are-associated-with-activation-of-hif-1%C3%AE-and-mtorc1-role-of-protein-farnesylation
#19
Harumasa Nakazawa, Kazuhiro Ikeda, Shohei Shinozaki, Masayuki Kobayashi, Yuichi Ikegami, Ming Fu, Tomoyuki Nakamura, Shingo Yasuhara, Yong-Ming Yu, J A Jeevendra Martyn, Ronald G Tompkins, Kentaro Shimokado, Tomoko Yorozu, Hideki Ito, Satoshi Inoue, Masao Kaneki
Metabolic derangements are a clinically significant complication of major trauma (e.g., burn injury) and include various aspects of metabolism, such as insulin resistance, muscle wasting, mitochondrial dysfunction and hyperlactatemia. Nonetheless, the molecular pathogenesis and the relation between these diverse metabolic alterations are poorly understood. We have previously shown that burn increases farnesyltransferase (FTase) expression and protein farnesylation and that FTase inhibitor (FTI) prevents burn-induced hyperlactatemia, insulin resistance, and increased proteolysis in mouse skeletal muscle...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713332/childhood-maltreatment-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-prediabetic-disturbances-in-glucose-regulation
#20
Li Li, W Timothy Garvey, Barbara A Gower
AIMS: Childhood maltreatment (CM) is shown to be associated with obesity and depression. However, the relationship of CM to prediabetic state is much less studied. We tested the hypothesis that CM increases the risk for prediabetic state due to glucose intolerance, reduced insulin sensitivity, and beta cell function. METHODS: Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-derived metabolic parameters of glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and beta cell function were measured in 121 participants aged 19-60 years...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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