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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755574/branched-chain-amino-acids-in-health-and-disease-metabolism-alterations-in-blood-plasma-and-as-supplements
#1
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are essential amino acids with protein anabolic properties, which have been studied in a number of muscle wasting disorders for more than 50 years. However, until today, there is no consensus regarding their therapeutic effectiveness. In the article is demonstrated that the crucial roles in BCAA metabolism play: (i) skeletal muscle as the initial site of BCAA catabolism accompanied with the release of alanine and glutamine to the blood; (ii) activity of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD); and (iii) amination of branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) to BCAAs...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747601/pregnancy-outcomes-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-diagnosed-according-to-the-who-2013-and-who-1999-diagnostic-criteria-a-multicentre-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Eva A R Goedegebure, Sarah H Koning, Klaas Hoogenberg, Fleurisca J Korteweg, Helen L Lutgers, Mattheus J M Diekman, Eva Stekkinger, Paul P van den Berg, Joost J Zwart
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) adopted more stringent diagnostic criteria for GDM in 2013, to improve pregnancy outcomes. However, there is no global consensus on these new diagnostic criteria, because of limited evidence. The objective of the study was to evaluate maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes in two cohorts in the Netherlands applying different diagnostic criteria for GDM i.e. WHO-2013 and WHO-1999. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study involving singleton GDM pregnancies in two regions, between 2011 and 2016...
May 10, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701938/childhood-adversity-and-schizophrenia-the-protective-role-of-resilience-in-mental-and-physical-health-and-metabolic-markers
#3
Ellen E Lee, Averria Sirkin Martin, Xin Tu, Barton W Palmer, Dilip V Jeste
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of childhood adversity and current (adulthood) resilience on mental and physical health and markers of metabolic function among adults with schizophrenia and nonpsychiatric comparison participants (NCs). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 114 participants with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR criteria) and 101 NCs aged 26-65 years during 2012-2017. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory measures were examined. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to retrospectively assess emotional abuse/neglect, physical abuse/neglect, and sexual abuse experienced during childhood...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664527/-perioperative-nutrition-in-eras-protocols
#4
Andrés Sánchez C, Karin Papapietro V
The trauma involved in any surgical procedure, even if elective, causes a metabolic stress response characterized by postoperative insulin resistance (PIR). PIR is considered a surgical stress marker and is associated with increased morbidity and postoperative length of stay. PIR worsens when the patient is operated in a state of prolonged preoperative fasting or when postoperative feeding is delayed. The ERAS Protocols (Enhanced Recovery After Surgery) includes anesthetic, surgical, kinesiology, nutritional and nursing interventions aimed to modulate PIR...
November 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656802/impact-on-the-brain-of-the-inflammatory-response-to-surgery
#5
REVIEW
Sarah Saxena, Mervyn Maze
The brain is both the orchestrator as well as the target of the innate immune system's response to the aseptic trauma of surgery. When trauma-induced inflammation is not appropriately regulated persistent neuro-inflammation interferes with the synaptic plasticity that underlies the learning and memory aspects of cognition. The complications that ensue, include postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) at two poles of a constellation that is now termed perioperative neurocognitive disorders...
April 2018: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579298/long-lasting-glucagon-like-peptide-1-analogue-exendin-4-ameliorates-the-secretory-and-synthetic-function-of-islets-isolated-from-severely-scalded-rats
#6
Dongxu Zhao, Li Ma, Chuanan Shen, Dawei Li, Wenfeng Cheng, Yuru Shang, Zhaoxing Liu, Xin Wang, Kai Yin
The aim of this article was to observe the intracellular insulin content of islets isolated from severely scalded and Exendin-4-treated rats and to evaluate the stimulation of insulin mRNA synthesis and secretion by β cells at different glucose concentrations and during different periods of time. A 50% TBSA full-thickness scalded rat model was used. Rats were treated with Exendin-4, followed by islet isolation and functional measurements. Serum was collected for detection of serum insulin, glucose, and glucagon levels...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551633/an-intracrine-view-of-sex-steroids-immunity-and-metabolic-regulation
#7
REVIEW
Katya B Rubinow
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, parallel recognition has grown of the importance of both sex steroids and immune activity in metabolic regulation. More recently, these discrete areas have been integrated in studies examining the metabolic effects of sex steroid immunomodulation. Implicit in these studies has been a traditional, endocrine model of sex steroid delivery from the gonads to target cells, including immune cells. Thus, research to date has focused on the metabolic effects of sex steroid receptor signaling in immune cells...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551123/bullosis-diabeticorum-a-neglected-bullous-dermatosis
#8
Ramya Vangipuram, Tiffany Hinojosa, Daniel J Lewis, Christopher Downing, Caleb Hixson, Julio César Salas-Alanis, Stephen K Tyring
A 75-year-old African-American man presented with a 3-year history of painless, fluid-filled blisters, for which his primary care physician had treated him with doxycycline, cephalexin, and topical corticosteroids, with no significant improvement. The blisters had ruptured spontaneously and healed with scarring. He denied antecedent trauma. His medical history was remarkable for insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, primary cutaneous melanoma status-post excision, and breast cancer status-post mastectomy and chemotherapy...
2018: Skinmed
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440961/acute-pancreatitis-during-glp-1-receptor-agonist-treatment-a-case-report
#9
Bogdan Augustin Chis, Daniela Fodor
Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) are the newest treatment for diabetes mellitus (DM). These drugs can down-regulate fasting glucose more than oral drugs and lead to more constant glucose levels compared to regular insulin. Acute pancreatitis is a serious condition that may have a fatal outcome. It has been shown that long term and high doses of GLP-1RA can cause pancreatic changes in animals, but no connection has been proven in humans. We present the case of a 67 years old man with DM treated with oral drugs for 10 years until 3 months before, when GLP-1RA was added...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428804/links-between-a-biomarker-profile-cold-ischaemic-time-and-clinical-outcome-following-simultaneous-pancreas-and-kidney-transplantation
#10
Hussein A Khambalia, M Yvonne Alexander, Mahesan Nirmalan, Ria Weston, Phillip Pemberton, Zia Moinuddin, Angela Summers, David van Dellen, Titus Augustine
In sepsis, trauma and major surgery, where an explicit physiological insult leads to a significant systemic inflammatory response, the acute evolution of biomarkers have been delineated. In these settings, Interleukin (IL) -6 and TNF-α are often the first pro-inflammatory markers to rise, stimulating production of acute phase proteins followed by peaks in anti-inflammatory markers. Patients undergoing SPKT as a result of diabetic complications already have an inflammatory phenotype as a result of uraemia and glycaemia...
May 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325773/how-safe-is-metformin-when-initiated-in-early-pregnancy-a-retrospective-5-year-study-of-pregnant-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-from-india
#11
Vanlalhruaii, Riddhi Dasgupta, Roshna Ramachandran, Jiji E Mathews, Annie Regi, Niranjan Thomas, Vijay Gupta, P Visalakshi, H S Asha, Thomas Paul, Nihal Thomas
BACKGROUND: The initiation of metformin in early pregnancy in Gestational Diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains controversial. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of Metformin on maternal and fetal outcomes when initiated within the first trimester of pregnancy in GDM. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective analysis of 540 women with diabetes complicating pregnancy (IADPSG criteria) over five years (January 2011 to May 2016) was done. The study population comprised of patients initiated on (a) metformin within the first trimester (Group A:n = 186), (b) metformin after the first trimester (Group B:n = 203) and (c) insulin at any time during their pregnancy (Group C:n = 151)...
March 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258756/insulin-antagonises-pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-pedf-induced-modulation-of-lineage-commitment-of-myocytes-and-heterotrophic-ossification
#12
Revathy Carnagarin, Mina Elahy, Arun M Dharmarajan, Crispin R Dass
Extensive bone defects arising as a result of trauma, infection and tumour resection and other bone pathologies necessitates the identification of effective strategies in the form of tissue engineering, gene therapy and osteoinductive agents to enhance the bone repair process. PEDF is a multifunctional glycoprotein which plays an important role in regulating osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation. PEDF treatment of mice and human skeletal myocytes at physiological concentration inhibited myogenic differentiation and activated Erk1/2 MAPK- dependent osteogenic transdifferentiation of myocytes...
December 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240641/low-dose-insulin-as-an-anti-scarring-therapy-in-breast-surgery-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Marc-James Hallam, Elizabeth Pitt, Alexis Thomas, Charles Nduka
BACKGROUND: The role of insulin in expediting wound healing is firmly established within the context of major trauma and burns however only limited clinical evidence exists as to its effects upon scar formation. This study aims to build upon previous laboratory work to examine the potential anti-scarring properties of insulin in a clinical environment. METHODS: 91 patients undergoing bilateral aesthetic breast surgeries were recruited to receive low-dose insulin and placebo injections to the medial 3cm of their sub-mammary incisions within the context of a randomised, intra-patient, placebo controlled trial and scar quality was assessed at 3, 6, and 12-month reviews using the Manchester Scar Scale...
December 13, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178313/association-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-bone-mass-and-inflammation-to-low-energy-distal-radius-fractures-and-fracture-healing-in-elderly-women-attending-emergency-care
#14
Simona I Chisalita, Lee Ti Chong, Maciej Wajda, Lars Adolfsson, Mischa Woisetschläger, Anna Spångeus
OBJECTIVE: Elderly patients suffer fractures through low-energy mechanisms. The distal radius is the most frequent fracture localization. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) plays an important role in the maintenance of bone mass and its levels decline with advancing age and in states of malnutrition. Our aim was to investigate the association of IGF1 levels, bone mass, nutritional status, and inflammation to low-energy distal radius fractures and also study if fracture healing is influenced by IGF1, nutritional status, and inflammation...
November 2017: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174671/human-igf-i-propeptide-a-promotes-articular-chondrocyte-biosynthesis-and-employs-glycosylation-dependent-heparin-binding
#15
Shuiliang Shi, Brian J Kelly, Congrong Wang, Ken Klingler, Albert Chan, George J Eckert, Stephen B Trippel
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a key regulator of chondrogenesis, but its therapeutic application to articular cartilage damage is limited by rapid elimination from the repair site. The human IGF-I gene gives rise to three IGF-I propeptides (proIGF-IA, proIGF-IB and proIGF-IC) that are cleaved to create mature IGF-I. In this study, we elucidate the processing of IGF-I precursors by articular chondrocytes, and test the hypotheses that proIGF-I isoforms bind to heparin and regulate articular chondrocyte biosynthesis...
March 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165725/somatotrope-pituitary-function-in-professional-soccer-players
#16
Pia Roser, Tatiana Wehrhahn, Henry Krogmann, Nina Riedel, Robert Percy Marshall, Justus Gille, Jörg Flitsch, Jens Aberle
Background and objective Soccer is associated with repetitive head trauma, which, as it is known from sports like football and boxing, can result in hypopituitarism. Gonadotropins and GH are the most common pituitary hormones to become deficient. GH deficiency is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and has negative influence on body mass index, visceral fat mass, insulin resistance and sensitivity, bone mineral density and inflammatory markers. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the somatotrope pituitary function in professional soccer players...
November 17, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154111/pten-expression-and-its-association-with-glucose-control-and-calorie-supplementation-in-critically-ill-patients
#17
Alessio Molfino, Francesco Alessandri, Paola Mosillo, Donatella Dell'Utri, Alessio Farcomeni, Maria Ida Amabile, Alessandro Laviano
BACKGROUND & AIM: Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) reduces insulin sensitivity. Since critically ill patients present insulin resistance, we aimed at assessing the role of PTEN expression on glucose homeostasis and clinical outcome in patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) and receiving artificial nutrition. METHODS: Observational, single-center study conducted in one ICU in Rome, Italy on adult patients hospitalized for trauma. Plasma glucose levels and its variability were recorded in patients receiving artificial nutrition...
November 4, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145491/the-urine-biomarker-panel-igfbp7-x-timp-2-nephrocheck%C3%A2-parameter-does-not-correlate-with-igfbp7-and-timp-2-gene-expression-in-urinary-sediment
#18
Daniela Knafl, Markus Müller, Sahra Pajenda, Zeynep Genc, Manfred Hecking, Ludwig Wagner
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently observed in serious infections, following nephrotoxic medication, surgery and trauma. Here we tested whether the detection of two recently identified biomarkers for AKI, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 7 (IGFBP7), depends on the expression of these proteins in cells of the urinary sediment. METHOD: We collected urine samples of 33 kidney transplant recipients and 14 non-transplanted patients who all had AKI (stages 1-3 according to KDIGO), and measured [IGFBP7]x[TIMP-2] using the NephroCheck® Astute1 40 ™ meter...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115473/clinical-application-of-a-novel-diagnostic-scheme-including-pancreatic-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-cell-dysfunction-for-traumatic-multiple-organ-dysfunction-syndrome
#19
Zhan-Ke Wang, Rong-Jian Chen, Shi-Liang Wang, Guang-Wei Li, Zhong-Zhen Zhu, Qiang Huang, Zi-Li Chen, Fan-Chang Chen, Lei Deng, Xiao-Peng Lan, Tian Hu
A novel diagnostic scheme that includes pancreatic β‑cell dysfunction analysis for the diagnosis of traumatic multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) was investigated to assist in the early diagnosis and detection of MODS. Early intervention and treatment of MODS has been associated with a reduced mortality rate. A total of 2,876 trauma patients (including patients post‑major surgery) were admitted to the intensive care unit of the authors' hospital between December 2010 and December 2015 and enrolled in the present study...
January 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103210/insulin-for-the-treatment-of-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Luke Grzeskowiak, Kathryn Williamson, Michelle R Downie, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with short- and long-term complications for the mother and her infant. Women who are unable to maintain their blood glucose concentration within pre-specified treatment targets with diet and lifestyle interventions will require anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies. This review explores the safety and effectiveness of insulin compared with oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies, non-pharmacological interventions and insulin regimens...
November 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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