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Small membrane protein regulator

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915803/tartrate-resistant-acid-phosphatase-trap-acp5-promotes-metastasis-related-properties-via-tgf%C3%AE-2-t%C3%AE-r-and-cd44-in-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells
#1
Anja Reithmeier, Elena Panizza, Michael Krumpel, Lukas M Orre, Rui M M Branca, Janne Lehtiö, Barbro Ek-Rylander, Göran Andersson
BACKGROUND: Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP/ACP5), a metalloenzyme that is characteristic for its expression in activated osteoclasts and in macrophages, has recently gained considerable focus as a driver of metastasis and was associated with clinically relevant parameters of cancer progression and cancer aggressiveness. METHODS: MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with different TRAP expression levels (overexpression and knockdown) were generated and characterized for protein expression and activity levels...
September 15, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915252/expression-and-regulation-of-the-neutral-amino-acid-transporter-b0at1-in-rat-small-intestine
#2
Julia Jando, Simone M R Camargo, Brigitte Herzog, François Verrey
Absorption of neutral amino acids across the luminal membrane of intestinal enterocytes is mediated by the broad neutral amino acid transporter B0AT1 (SLC6A19). Its intestinal expression depends on co-expression of the membrane-anchored peptidase angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and is additionally enhanced by aminopeptidase N (CD13). We investigated in this study the expression of B0AT1 and its auxiliary peptidases as well as its transport function along the rat small intestine. Additionally, we tested its possible short- and long-term regulation by dietary proteins and amino acids...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913175/regulation-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-ca-2-transfer-and-its-importance-for-anti-cancer-therapies
#3
REVIEW
Gaia Pedriali, Alessandro Rimessi, Luigi Sbano, Carlotta Giorgi, Mariusz R Wieckowski, Maurizio Previati, Paolo Pinton
Inter-organelle membrane contact sites are emerging as major sites for the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and distribution. Here, extracellular stimuli operate on a wide array of channels, pumps, and ion exchangers to redistribute intracellular Ca(2+) among several compartments. The resulting highly defined spatial and temporal patterns of Ca(2+) movement can be used to elicit specific cellular responses, including cell proliferation, migration, or death. Plasma membrane (PM) also can directly contact mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through caveolae, small invaginations of the PM that ensure inter-organelle contacts, and can contribute to the regulation of numerous cellular functions through scaffolding proteins such as caveolins...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912276/cavin-2-regulates-the-activity-and-stability-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-enos-in-angiogenesis
#4
Gandhi T K Boopathy, Madhura Kulkarni, Sze Yuan Ho, Adrian Boey, Edmond Wei Min Chua, Veluchamy A Barathi, Tom J Carney, Xiaomeng Wang, Wanjin Hong
Angiogenesis is a highly regulated process for formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones. Angiogenesis is dysregulated in various pathologies, including age-related macular degeneration, arthritis, and cancer. Inhibiting pathological angiogenesis therefore represents a promising therapeutic strategy for treating these disorders, highlighting the need to study angiogenesis in more detail. To this end, identifying the genes essential for blood vessel formation and elucidating their function are crucial for a complete understanding of angiogenesis...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912272/the-transcription-factor-hoxb7-regulates-erk-kinase-activity-and-thereby-stimulates-the-motility-and-invasiveness-of-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#5
Makiko Tsuboi, Keisuke Taniuchi, Takahiro Shimizu, Motoaki Saito, Toshiji Saibara
HOX genes encode transcription factors that function as sequence-specific transcription factors that are involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and death. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of a HOX family protein, HOXB7, in the motility and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells. We previously identified a HOXB7 transcript that is one of a number of transcripts that are preferentially translated in membrane protrusions in pancreatic cancer cells. Immunocytochemistry showed that HOXB7 was localized to the cell protrusions of migrating pancreatic cancer cells...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894006/structural-and-hydrodynamic-properties-of-an-intrinsically-disordered-region-of-a-germ-cell-specific-protein-on-phase-separation
#6
Jacob P Brady, Patrick J Farber, Ashok Sekhar, Yi-Hsuan Lin, Rui Huang, Alaji Bah, Timothy J Nott, Hue Sun Chan, Andrew J Baldwin, Julie D Forman-Kay, Lewis E Kay
Membrane encapsulation is frequently used by the cell to sequester biomolecules and compartmentalize their function. Cells also concentrate molecules into phase-separated protein or protein/nucleic acid "membraneless organelles" that regulate a host of biochemical processes. Here, we use solution NMR spectroscopy to study phase-separated droplets formed from the intrinsically disordered N-terminal 236 residues of the germ-granule protein Ddx4. We show that the protein within the concentrated phase of phase-separated Ddx4, [Formula: see text], diffuses as a particle of 600-nm hydrodynamic radius dissolved in water...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893927/mutant-huntingtin-inhibits-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-expression-and-impairs-exosome-secretion-from-astrocytes
#7
Yan Hong, Ting Zhao, Xiao-Jiang Li, Shihua Li
In the brain, astrocytes secrete diverse substances that regulate neuronal function and viability. Exosomes, which are vesicles produced through the formation of multivesicular bodies and their subsequent fusion with the plasma membrane, are also released from astrocytes via exocytotic secretion. Astrocytic exosomes carry heat shock proteins that can reduce the cellular toxicity of misfolded proteins and prevent neurodegeneration. Although mutant huntingtin (mHtt) affects multiple functions of astrocytes, it remains unknown whether mHtt impairs the production of exosomes from astrocytes...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889942/differential-functions-of-wave-regulatory-complex-subunits-in-the-regulation-of-actin-driven-processes
#8
Christof Litschko, Joern Linkner, Stefan Brühmann, Theresia E B Stradal, Tobias Reinl, Lothar Jänsch, Klemens Rottner, Jan Faix
The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) links upstream Rho-family GTPase signaling to the activation of the ARP2/3 complex in different organisms. WRC-induced and ARP2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation beneath the plasma membrane is critical for actin assembly in the leading edge to drive efficient cell migration. The WRC is a stable heteropentamer composed of SCAR/WAVE, Abi, Nap, Pir and the small polypeptide Brk1/Hspc300. Functional interference with individual subunits of the complex frequently results in diminished amounts of the remaining polypeptides of the WRC complex, implying the complex to act as molecular entity...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887403/the-functions-of-reelin-in-membrane-trafficking-and-cytoskeletal-dynamics-implications-for-neuronal-migration-polarization-and-differentiation
#9
REVIEW
Jessica Santana, María-Paz Marzolo
Reelin is a large extracellular matrix protein with relevant roles in mammalian central nervous system including neurogenesis, neuronal polarization and migration during development; and synaptic plasticity with its implications in learning and memory, in the adult. Dysfunctions in reelin signaling are associated with brain lamination defects such as lissencephaly, but also with neuropsychiatric diseases like autism, schizophrenia and depression as well with neurodegeneration. Reelin signaling involves a core pathway that activates upon reelin binding to its receptors, particularly ApoER2 (apolipoprotein E receptor 2)/LRP8 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8) and very low-density lipoprotein receptor, followed by Src/Fyn-mediated phosphorylation of the adaptor protein Dab1 (Disabled-1)...
September 7, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880478/role-of-g-proteins-in-islet-function-in-health-and-diabetes
#10
REVIEW
Anjaneyulu Kowluru
Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) involves interplay between metabolic and cationic events. Seminal contributions from multiple laboratories affirm essential roles for small G-proteins (Rac1, Cdc42, Arf6, Rab27A) in GSIS. Activation of these signalling proteins promotes cytoskeletal remodeling, transport and docking of insulin granules on the plasma membrane for exocytotic secretion of insulin. Evidence in rodent and human islets suggests key roles for lipidation (farnesylation and geranylgeranylation) of these G-proteins for their targeting to appropriate cellular compartments for optimal regulation of effectors leading to GSIS...
September 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876998/meiosis-specific-localization-of-the-exocytic-rab-ypt2-in-fission-yeast
#11
Kazuki Imada, Taro Nakamura
Fission yeast Ypt2, an orthologue of the mammalian small GTPase Rab8, is responsible for post-Golgi membrane trafficking. During meiosis, Ypt2 localizes at the spindle pole body (SPB), where it regulates de novo biogenesis of the spore plasma membrane. Recruitment of Ypt2 to the SPB is dependent on its meiosis-specific GDP/GTP exchange factor (GEF), the SPB-resident protein Spo13. Here we have examined the SPB recruitment of Ypt2 by Spo13. The GEF activity of Spo13 was required, but not essential for recruitment...
September 6, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874679/the-endosomal-neuronal-proteins-nsg1-neep21-and-nsg2-p19-are-itinerant-not-resident-proteins-of-dendritic-endosomes
#12
Chan Choo Yap, Laura Digilio, Lloyd McMahon, Bettina Winckler
Membrane traffic critically regulates most aspects of neuronal function. Neurons express many neuronal-specific proteins that regulate membrane traffic, including the poorly understood small transmembrane proteins neural-specific gene 1 and 2 (Nsg1/NEEP21 and Nsg2/P19). Nsg1 has been implicated in regulating endosomal recycling and sorting of several important neuronal receptors. Nsg2 is largely unstudied. At steady-state, Nsg1 and Nsg2 only partially co-localize with known endosomal compartments, and it was suggested that they mark a neuronal-specific endosome...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874523/escherichia-coli-responds-to-environmental-changes-using-enolasic-degradosomes-and-stabilized-dicf-srna-to-alter-cellular-morphology
#13
Oleg N Murashko, Sue Lin-Chao
Escherichia coli RNase E is an essential enzyme that forms multicomponent ribonucleolytic complexes known as "RNA degradosomes." These complexes consist of four major components: RNase E, PNPase, RhlB RNA helicase, and enolase. However, the role of enolase in the RNase E/degradosome is not understood. Here, we report that presence of enolase in the RNase E/degradosome under anaerobic conditions regulates cell morphology, resulting in Ecoli MG1655 cell filamentation. Under anaerobic conditions, enolase bound to the RNase E/degradosome stabilizes the small RNA (sRNA) DicF, i...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872980/the-recycling-endosome-protein-rab-10-promotes-autophagic-flux-and-localization-of-the-transmembrane-protein-atg-9
#14
N J Palmisano, N Rosario, M Wysocki, M Hong, B Grant, A Meléndez
Macroautophagy/autophagy involves the formation of an autophagosome, a double-membrane vesicle that delivers sequestered cytoplasmic cargo to lysosomes for degradation and recycling. Closely related, endocytosis mediates the sorting and transport of cargo throughout the cell, and both processes are important for cellular homeostasis. However, how endocytic proteins functionally intersect with autophagy is not clear. Mutations in the DAF-2/insulin-like IGF-1 (INSR) receptor at the permissive temperature result in a small increase in GFP::LGG-1 foci, i...
September 5, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870903/role-of-arhgap24-in-adp-ribosylation-factor-6-arf6-dependent-pseudopod-formation-in-human-breast-carcinoma-cells
#15
Shota Uehara, Koji Saito, Hisayo Asami, Yasutaka Ohta
BACKGROUND/AIM: The small GTPase ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) promotes carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis through remodeling of actin cytoskeleton and formation of pseudopod that is regulated by RAC. RHO GTPase activating protein 24 (ARHGAP24), a RAC-specific GTPase activating protein, binds to activated ARF6 and is recruited to the plasma membrane. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate if ARHGAP24 is involved in the ARF6-mediated formation of pseudopods in breast carcinoma cells...
September 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869648/site-specific-distribution-of-claudin-based-paracellular-channels-with-roles-in-biological-fluid-flow-and-metabolism
#16
REVIEW
Hiroo Tanaka, Atsushi Tamura, Koya Suzuki, Sachiko Tsukita
The claudins are a family of membrane proteins with at least 27 members in humans and mice. The extracellular regions of claudin proteins play essential roles in cell-cell adhesion and the paracellular barrier functions of tight junctions (TJs) in epithelial cell sheets. Furthermore, the extracellular regions of some claudins function as paracellular channels in the paracellular barrier that allow the selective passage of water, ions, and/or small organic solutes across the TJ in the extracellular space. Structural analyses have revealed a common framework of transmembrane, cytoplasmic, and extracellular regions among the claudin-based paracellular barriers and paracellular channels; however, differences in the claudins' extracellular regions, such as their charges and conformations, determine their properties...
September 4, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861813/an-overview-of-protein-secretion-in-yeast-and-animal-cells
#17
Yusong Guo, Feng Yang, Xiao Tang
Protein secretion mediated by the secretory transport pathway is an important cellular process in eukaryotic cells. In the conventional secretory transport pathway, newly synthesized proteins pass through several endomembrane compartments en route to their specific destinations. Transport of secretory proteins between different compartments is shuttled by small, membrane-enclosed vesicles. To ensure the fidelity of transport, eukaryotic cells employ elaborate molecular machineries to accurately sort newly synthesized proteins into specific transport vesicles and precisely deliver these transport vesicles to distinct acceptor compartments...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861104/identification-of-genes-under-positive-selection-reveals-differences-in-evolutionary-adaptation-between-brown-algal-species
#18
Linhong Teng, Xiao Fan, Dong Xu, Xiaowen Zhang, Thomas Mock, Naihao Ye
Brown algae are an important taxonomic group in coastal ecosystems. The model brown algal species Ectocarpus siliculosus and Saccharina japonica are closely related lineages. Despite their close phylogenetic relationship, they vary greatly in morphology and physiology. To obtain further insights into the evolutionary forces driving divergence in brown algae, we analyzed 3,909 orthologs from both species to identify Genes Under Positive Selection (GUPS). About 12% of the orthologs in each species were considered to be under positive selection...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858527/family-wide-analysis-of-the-inhibition-of-arf-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factors-with-small-molecules-evidence-of-unique-inhibitory-profiles
#19
Sarah Benabdi, François Peurois, Agata Nawrotek, Jahnavi Chikireddy, Tatiana Cañeque, Takao Yamori, Isamu Shiina, Yoshimi Ohashi, Shingo Dan, Raphaël Rodriguez, Jacqueline Cherfils, Mahel Zeghouf
Arf GTPases and their guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ArfGEFs) are major regulators of membrane traffic and organelle structure in cells. They are associated with a variety of diseases and are thus attractive therapeutic targets for inhibition by small molecules. Several inhibitors of unrelated chemical structures have been discovered, which have shown their potential in dissecting molecular pathways and blocking disease-related functions. However, their specificity across the ArfGEF family has remained elusive...
September 13, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858295/versatile-effects-of-bacterium-released-membrane-vesicles-on-mammalian-cells-and-infectious-inflammatory-diseases
#20
REVIEW
You-Jiang Yu, Xiao-Hong Wang, Guo-Chang Fan
Gram-negative bacterium-released outer-membrane vesicles (OMVs) and Gram-positive bacterium-released membrane vesicles (MVs) share significant similarities with mammalian cell-derived MVs (eg, microvesicles and exosomes) in terms of structure and their biological activities. Recent studies have revealed that bacterial OMVs/MVs could (1) interact with immune cells to regulate inflammatory responses, (2) transport virulence factors (eg, enzymes, DNA and small RNAs) to host cells and result in cell injury, (3) enhance barrier function by stimulating the expression of tight junction proteins in intestinal epithelial cells, (4) upregulate the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules, and (5) serve as natural nanocarriers for immunogenic antigens, enzyme support and drug delivery...
August 31, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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