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Small membrane protein regulator

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643924/exosomes-novel-regulators-of-bone-remodelling-and-potential-therapeutic-agents-for-orthodontics
#1
REVIEW
L S Holliday, K P McHugh, J Zuo, J I Aguirre, J K Neubert, W J Rody
Recent studies suggest that exosomes are involved in intercellular communication required for the maintenance of healthy bone. Exosomes are small (30-150 nm in diameter) extracellular vesicles that are formed in multivesicular bodies and are released from cells as the multivesicular bodies fuse with the plasma membrane. Regulatory exosomes have the capacity to exert profound control over target cells. They can stimulate plasma membrane receptors and are also internalized by the target cell delivering proteins, lipids, small molecules and functional RNAs from the cell of origin...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637768/vrk2a-is-an-a-type-lamin-dependent-nuclear-envelope-kinase-that-phosphorylates-baf
#2
K C Birendra, Danielle G May, Benjamin V Benson, Dae In Kim, Winnie G Shivega, Manaal H Ali, Randolph S Faustino, Alexandre R Campos, Kyle J Roux
The nuclear envelope (NE) is critical for numerous fundamental cellular functions and mutations in several NE constituents can lead to a heterogeneous spectrum of diseases. We used proximity biotinylation to uncover new constituents of the inner nuclear membrane (INM) by comparative BioID analysis of lamin-A, Sun2 and a minimal INM-targeting motif. These studies identified vaccinia-related kinase-2 (VRK2) as a candidate constituent of the INM. We determined that the transmembrane VRK2A isoform is retained at the NE by association with A-type lamins...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636979/exosomes-in-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-prostate-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Jun Pan, Meng Ding, Kai Xu, Chunhua Yang, Li-Jun Mao
Exosomes are small vesicular bodies released by a variety of cells. Exosomes contain miRNAs, mRNAs and proteins with the potential to regulate signaling pathways in recipient cells. Exosomes deliver nucleic acids and proteins to mediate the communication between cancer cells and stroma cells. In this review, we summarize recent progress in our understanding of the role of exosomes in prostate cancer. The tumorigenesis, metastasis and drug resistance of prostate cancer are associated with the cargos of exosomes such as miRNAs, lncRNAs and proteins...
June 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633436/membrane-androgen-receptor-zip9-induces-croaker-ovarian-cell-apoptosis-via-stimulatory-g-protein-alpha-subunit-and-mapkinase-signaling
#4
Aubrey Converse, Chenan Zhang, Peter Thomas
Recent studies show that androgen-induced apoptosis in Atlantic croaker primary granulosa/theca (G/T) cells and in human breast and prostate cancer cell lines is mediated by the novel membrane androgen receptor ZIP9 which belongs to the SLC39A zinc transporter family. However, the apoptotic signaling pathways remain unclear because ZIP9 activates an inhibitory G protein in human cancer cells, whereas recombinant croaker ZIP9 activates a stimulatory G protein (Gs) in transfected cancer cells. Here we investigated androgen-dependent apoptotic pathways in order to identify the signaling pathways regulated through wild-type croaker ZIP9 in ovarian follicle cells...
June 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628306/lysine-deacetylation-by-hdac6-regulates-the-kinase-activity-of-akt-in-human-neural-progenitor-cells
#5
Jonathan Iaconelli, Jasmin Lalonde, Bradley Watmuff, Bangyan Liu, Ralph Mazitschek, Stephen J Haggarty, Rakesh Karmacharya
AKT family of serine-threonine kinases functions downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) to transmit signals by direct phosphorylation of a number of targets, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and β-catenin. AKT binds to phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PIP3) generated by PI3K activation, which results in its membrane localization and subsequent activation through phosphorylation by phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)...
June 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626043/the-diverse-roles-of-arrestin-scaffolds-in-g-protein-coupled-receptor-signaling
#6
REVIEW
Yuri K Peterson, Louis M Luttrell
The visual/β-arrestins, a small family of proteins originally described for their role in the desensitization and intracellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), have emerged as key regulators of multiple signaling pathways. Evolutionarily related to a larger group of regulatory scaffolds that share a common arrestin fold, the visual/β-arrestins acquired the capacity to detect and bind activated GPCRs on the plasma membrane, which enables them to control GPCR desensitization, internalization, and intracellular trafficking...
July 2017: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625359/roles-of-arf6-in-cancer-cell-invasion-metastasis-and-proliferation
#7
REVIEW
Rui Li, Cheng Peng, Xianzhe Zhang, Yuewei Wu, Shida Pan, Yechen Xiao
ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6), a member of small GTPases ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) family, expresses widely in mammalian cells and mainly regulates the functions of membrane traffic and actin remodeling. Current studies indicated that the activation and high expression of Arf6 protein may be significantly correlated with the invasion and metastasis of several tumors, such as breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, etc. Meanwhile, the ability of tumor invasion and metastasis can be suppressed when Arf6 activity is blocked by the inhibitors or small-interfering RNAs of Arf6...
June 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621666/9%C3%A3-structure-of-the-copi-coat-reveals-that-the-arf1-gtpase-occupies-two-contrasting-molecular-environments
#8
Svetlana O Dodonova, Patrick Aderhold, Juergen Kopp, Iva Ganeva, Simone Röhling, Wim J Hagen, Irmgard Sinning, Felix Wieland, John Ag Briggs
COPI coated vesicles mediate trafficking within the Golgi apparatus and between the Golgi and the endoplasmic reticulum. Assembly of a COPI coated vesicle is initiated by the small GTPase Arf1 that recruits the coatomer complex to the membrane, triggering polymerization and budding. The vesicle uncoats before fusion with a target membrane. Coat components are structurally conserved between COPI and clathrin/adaptor proteins. Using cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging, we determined the structure of the COPI coat assembled on membranes in vitro at 9 Å resolution...
June 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611809/proteomic-analysis-of-lipid-droplets-from-arabidopsis-aging-leaves-brings-new-insight-into-their-biogenesis-and-functions
#9
Lysiane Brocard, Françoise Immel, Denis Coulon, Nicolas Esnay, Karine Tuphile, Stéphanie Pascal, Stéphane Claverol, Laëtitia Fouillen, Jean-Jacques Bessoule, Claire Bréhélin
Lipid droplets (LDs) are cell compartments specialized for oil storage. Although their role and biogenesis are relatively well documented in seeds, little is known about their composition, structure and function in senescing leaves where they also accumulate. Here, we used a label free quantitative mass spectrometry approach to define the LD proteome of aging Arabidopsis leaves. We found that its composition is highly different from that of seed/cotyledon and identified 28 proteins including 9 enzymes of the secondary metabolism pathways involved in plant defense response...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611589/mitochondrial-effects-of-pgc-1alpha-silencing-in-mpp-treated-human-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells
#10
Qinyong Ye, Chun Chen, Erwang Si, Yousheng Cai, Juhua Wang, Wanling Huang, Dongzhu Li, Yingqing Wang, Xiaochun Chen
The dopaminergic neuron degeneration and loss that occurs in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been tightly linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the aged-related cause of the mitochondrial defect observed in PD patients remains unclear, nuclear genes are of potential importance to mitochondrial function. Human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α) is a multi-functional transcription factor that tightly regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity. The goal of the present study was to explore the potential pathogenic effects of interference by the PGC-1α gene on N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-induced SH-SY5Y cells...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607172/tweety-homologue-1-drives-brain-colonization-of-gliomas
#11
Erik Jung, Matthias Osswald, Jonas Blaes, Benedikt Wiestler, Felix Sahm, Torsten Schmenger, Gergely Solecki, Katrin Deumelandt, Felix T Kurz, Ruifan Xie, Sophie Weil, Oliver Heil, Carina Thomé, Miriam Gömmel, Mustafa Syed, Peter Häring, Peter E Huber, Sabine Heiland, Michael Platten, Andreas von Deimling, Wolfgang Wick, Frank Winkler
Early and progressive colonization of the healthy brain is one hallmark of diffuse gliomas, including glioblastomas. Recently we have discovered ultra-long (> ten to hundreds of microns) membrane protrusions (tumor microtubes, TMs) that are extended by glioma cells. TMs were associated with the capacity of glioma cells to effectively invade the brain, and proliferate. Moreover, TMs were also used by some tumor cells to interconnect to one large, resistant multicellular network. Here, we performed a correlative gene expression microarray and in vivo imaging analysis, and identified novel molecular candidates for TM formation and function...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607067/a-recruiting-protein-of-geranylgeranyl-diphosphate-synthase-controls-metabolic-flux-toward-chlorophyll-biosynthesis-in-rice
#12
Fei Zhou, Cheng-Yuan Wang, Michael Gutensohn, Ling Jiang, Peng Zhang, Dabing Zhang, Natalia Dudareva, Shan Lu
In plants, geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) is produced by plastidic GGPP synthase (GGPPS) and serves as a precursor for vital metabolic branches, including chlorophyll, carotenoid, and gibberellin biosynthesis. However, molecular mechanisms regulating GGPP allocation among these biosynthetic pathways localized in the same subcellular compartment are largely unknown. We found that rice contains only one functionally active GGPPS, OsGGPPS1, in chloroplasts. A functionally active homodimeric enzyme composed of two OsGGPPS1 subunits is located in the stroma...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606862/pathogenicity-profile-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-in-farmed-pacific-white-shrimp-penaeus-vannamei
#13
R Ananda Raja, R Sridhar, C Balachandran, A Palanisammi, S Ramesh, K Nagarajan
A pathobiological study was conducted using Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) strain isolated from vibriosis affected shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) farms in Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur districts of Tamil Nadu during August 2014 to February 2015. The isolate was identified based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular characters. LD50 value with intramuscular injection was determined as 2.6 × 10(4) cfu/shrimp and sequential pathology was studied giving 6.1 × 10(3) cfu/shrimp (LD25). Total plate count (TPC) and total Vibrio count (TVC) in water, pond sediment, haemolymph, muscle, HP and gut were found significantly (P < 0...
June 9, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600435/rassf4-controls-soce-and-er-pm-junctions-through-regulation-of-pi-4-5-p2
#14
Yu-Ju Chen, Chi-Lun Chang, Wan-Ru Lee, Jen Liou
RAS association domain family 4 (RASSF4) is involved in tumorigenesis and regulation of the Hippo pathway. In this study, we identify new functional roles of RASSF4. First, we discovered that RASSF4 regulates store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), a fundamental Ca(2+) signaling mechanism, by affecting the translocation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) sensor stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) to ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctions. It was further revealed that RASSF4 regulates the formation of ER-PM junctions and the ER-PM tethering function of extended synaptotagmins E-Syt2 and E-Syt3...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596722/unique-structural-features-of-membrane-bound-c-terminal-domain-motifs-modulate-complexin-inhibitory-function
#15
David Snead, Alex L Lai, Rachel T Wragg, Daniel A Parisotto, Trudy F Ramlall, Jeremy S Dittman, Jack H Freed, David Eliezer
Complexin is a small soluble presynaptic protein that interacts with neuronal SNARE proteins in order to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis. While the SNARE-binding central helix of complexin is required for both the inhibition of spontaneous fusion and the facilitation of synchronous fusion, the disordered C-terminal domain (CTD) of complexin is specifically required for its inhibitory function. The CTD of worm complexin binds to membranes via two distinct motifs, one of which undergoes a membrane curvature dependent structural transition that is required for efficient inhibition of neurotransmitter release, but the conformations of the membrane-bound motifs remain poorly characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592941/the-plant-cellular-systems-for-plant-virus-movement
#16
REVIEW
Jin-Sung Hong, Ho-Jong Ju
Plasmodesmata (PDs) are specialized intercellular channels that facilitate the exchange of various molecules, including sugars, ribonucleoprotein complexes, transcription factors, and mRNA. Their diameters, estimated to be 2.5 nm in the neck region, are too small to transfer viruses or viral genomes. Tobacco mosaic virus and Potexviruses are the most extensively studied viruses. In viruses, the movement protein (MP) is responsible for the PD gating that allows the intercellular movement of viral genomes. Various host factors interact with MP to regulate complicated mechanisms related to PD gating...
June 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588281/a-central-small-amino-acid-in-the-vamp2-transmembrane-domain-regulates-the-fusion-pore-in-exocytosis
#17
Benoît Hastoy, Pier A Scotti, Alexandra Milochau, Zahia Fezoua-Boubegtiten, Jorge Rodas, Rémi Megret, Bernard Desbat, Michel Laguerre, Sabine Castano, David Perrais, Patrik Rorsman, Reiko Oda, Jochen Lang
Exocytosis depends on cytosolic domains of SNARE proteins but the function of the transmembrane domains (TMDs) in membrane fusion remains controversial. The TMD of the SNARE protein synaptobrevin2/VAMP2 contains two highly conserved small amino acids, G100 and C103, in its central portion. Substituting G100 and/or C103 with the β-branched amino acid valine impairs the structural flexibility of the TMD in terms of α-helix/β-sheet transitions in model membranes (measured by infrared reflection-absorption or evanescent wave spectroscopy) during increase in protein/lipid ratios, a parameter expected to be altered by recruitment of SNAREs at fusion sites...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587082/natural-products-as-alternative-choices-for-p-glycoprotein-p-gp-inhibition
#18
REVIEW
Saikat Dewanjee, Tarun K Dua, Niloy Bhattacharjee, Anup Das, Moumita Gangopadhyay, Ritu Khanra, Swarnalata Joardar, Muhammad Riaz, Vincenzo De Feo, Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is regarded as one of the bottlenecks of successful clinical treatment for numerous chemotherapeutic agents. Multiple key regulators are alleged to be responsible for MDR and making the treatment regimens ineffective. In this review, we discuss MDR in relation to P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and its down-regulation by natural bioactive molecules. P-gp, a unique ATP-dependent membrane transport protein, is one of those key regulators which are present in the lining of the colon, endothelial cells of the blood brain barrier (BBB), bile duct, adrenal gland, kidney tubules, small intestine, pancreatic ducts and in many other tissues like heart, lungs, spleen, skeletal muscles, etc...
May 25, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586283/mkl1-dependent-gene-activation-is-sufficient-to-induce-actin-cap-assembly
#19
Ketan Thakar, Christopher W Carroll
Actin-dependent forces mechanically control both the position and shape of the nucleus. While the mechanisms that establish nuclear position are well defined, less understood is how actin filaments determine nuclear shape. We recently showed that nuclear envelope-spanning LINC complexes promote stress fiber assembly by activating the small GTPase RhoA and Mkl1-dependent gene activation. We now report that a subset of these stress fibers associate with the apical face of the nuclear envelope through LINC complexes that contain the inner nuclear membrane protein Sun2...
June 6, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585686/neutralization-of-lipopolysaccharide-by-heat-shock-protein-in-pediococcus-pentosaceus-ak-23
#20
Kyoko Asami, Ayaka Kondo, Yoshihito Suda, Makoto Shimoyamada, Makoto Kanauchi
About 1000 species of bacteria are present in the human intestine. Some Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli or Salmonella spp. among intestinal bacteria have lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which might induce inflammation of human intestines. Actually, LPS, especially its lipid A constituent, is toxic. Small amounts of LPS in bacteria cause inflammation of mucosa and other tissues in humans. Such bacteria may be regulated by beneficial lactic acid bacteria to maintain human health. Many lactic acid bacteria show cancer prevention activity and anti-inflammatory activity in intestines...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Food Science
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