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Small membrane protein regulator

Akriti Prashar, María Eugenia Ortiz, Stefanie Lucarelli, Elizabeth Barker, Zohreh Tabatabeiyazdi, Feras Shamoun, Deepa Raju, Costin Antonescu, Cyril Guyard, Mauricio R Terebiznik
Legionella pneumophila (Lp) exhibits different morphologies with varying degrees of virulence. Despite their detection in environmental sources of outbreaks and in respiratory tract secretions and lung autopsies from patients, the filamentous morphotype of Lp remains poorly studied. We previously demonstrated that filamentous Lp invades lung epithelial cells (LECs) and replicates intracellularly in a Legionella containing vacuole. Filamentous Lp activates β1integrin and E-cadherin receptors at the surface of LECs leading to the formation of actin-rich cell membrane structures we termed hooks and membrane wraps...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Rui Xu, Jia Zhou, Xiang-Dong Zhou, Qi Li, Juliy M Perelman, Victor P Kolosov
The overexpression and hypersecretion of mucus is a hallmark of chronic pulmonary inflammatory disease. Mucin5AC (MUC5AC) is a major component of airway gel‑forming mucin. Members of the Unc13 (Munc13) protein family act as important activators of granule exocytosis from various types of mammalian cells. The present study aimed to determine the role of Munc13 family proteins in MUC5AC secretion via an in vitro study with BEAS‑2B and Calu‑3 cell lines. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting indicated that stimulation of the cells with 100 nM human neutrophil elastase (hNE) for 1 h did not affect the expression of either unc13 homolog B (Munc13‑2) or unc13 homolog D (Munc13‑4), but immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that hNE treatment was associated with the recruitment of Munc13‑4 to the plasma membrane...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Wenfang Hu, Hanwei Yan, Shuangshuang Luo, Feng Pan, Yue Wang, Yan Xiang
Small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) proteins play an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. Here, we identified 105 SAUR genes and comprehensively analyzed them in Populus trichocarpa. Based on the phylogenetic relationships, the PtSAURs were classified into ten subfamilies. Of the 105 PtSAURs, 100 were randomly distributed along the nineteen chromosomes, while the remaining genes were located along unassigned scafoolds. These genes mainly evolved through segmental duplications. In total, 94 PtSAURs contained no introns, and each group had a similar conserved motif structure...
May 8, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Wenping Zeng, Jie Wang, Ying Wang, Jing Lin, Yanping Fu, Jiatao Xie, Daohong Jiang, Tao Chen, Huiquan Liu, Jiasen Cheng
Ascospores act as the primary inoculum of Fusarium graminearum , which causes the destructive disease Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported in the F. graminearum vegetative stage, and Fgdcl2 is involved in microRNA-like RNA (milRNA) biogenesis but has no major impact on vegetative growth, abiotic stress or pathogenesis. In the present study, we found that ascospore discharge was decreased in the Fgdcl1 deletion mutant, and completely blocked in the double-deletion mutant of Fgdcl1 and Fgdcl2 ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Qing Lin, Shifang Peng, Yixuan Yang
Metastasis is a characteristic of malignant tumors and may be a fatal clinical factor for many patients with cancer. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells are highly metastatic; the mechanism of metastasis is complicated and may be influenced by a number of factors. Membrane proteins may block receptors or inhibit important enzymes, thus inhibiting tumor progression, and may be potential therapeutic targets for tumor prognosis and treatment. The present study aimed to use proteomics to analyze the dynamic changes of membrane proteins in HCC cells, to improve our understanding of membrane protein functions and to clarify the important components of the mechanisms of HCC metastasis...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Kelley E McQueeney, Joseph M Salamoun, Jennifer G Ahn, Paula Pekic, Isabella K Blanco, Heather L Struckman, Elizabeth R Sharlow, Peter Wipf, John S Lazo
Dysregulation of the tightly controlled protein phosphorylation networks that govern cellular behavior causes cancer. The membrane-associated, intracellular protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP4A3 is overexpressed in human colorectal cancer and contributes to cell migration and invasion. To interrogate further the role of PTP4A3 in colorectal cancer cell migration and invasion, we deleted the Ptp4a3 gene from murine colorectal tumor cells. The resulting PTP4A3-/- cells exhibited impaired colony formation, spheroid formation, migration, and adherence compared with the paired PTP4A3fl/fl cells...
May 10, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Yuki Miyamoto, Tomohiro Torii, Kenji Tago, Akito Tanoue, Shou Takashima, Junji Yamauchi
During development of the peripheral nervous system in mammals, Schwann cells wrap their plasma membranes around neuronal axons, forming multiple myelin sheaths. A mature myelin sheath insulates axons and increases nerve conduction velocity while protecting nerve fibers from various stresses such as physical ones. Despite this functional importance, the molecular units that underlie dynamic morphological changes in formation of myelin sheaths are not sufficiently understood. Arf1 is a small guanosine triphosphate-binding protein that plays multiple roles in intracellular trafficking and related signaling, both of which are processes involved in cell morphogenesis...
April 2018: Science Advances
Theresa M Rottmann, Carolin Fritz, Anja Lauter, Sabine Schneider, Cornelia Fischer, Nina Danzberger, Petra Dietrich, Norbert Sauer, Ruth Stadler
The best characterized function of sucrose transporters of the SUC family in plants is the uptake of sucrose into the phloem for long-distance transport of photoassimilates. This important step is usually performed by one specific SUC in every species. However, plants possess small families of several different SUCs which are less well understood. Here, we report on the characterization of AtSUC6 and AtSUC7, two members of the SUC family in Arabidopsis thaliana . Heterologous expression in yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) revealed that AtSUC6Col-0 is a high-affinity H+ -symporter that mediates the uptake of sucrose and maltose across the plasma membrane at exceptionally low pH values...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yoshimi Nakagawa, Hitoshi Shimano
The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-responsive element-binding protein H (CREBH, encoded by CREB3L3) is a membrane-bound transcriptional factor that primarily localizes in the liver and small intestine. CREBH governs triglyceride metabolism in the liver, which mediates the changes in gene expression governing fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis, and apolipoproteins related to lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activation. CREBH in the small intestine reduces cholesterol transporter gene Npc1l1 and suppresses cholesterol absorption from diet...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zhihua Hua, Paymon Doroodian, William Vu
Ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like proteins, collectively forming the ubiquiton family, regulate nearly all aspects of cellular processes via posttranslational modifications. Studies devoted to specific members suggested a large expansion of this family in plants. However, lack of its systematic analysis hinders the comparison of individual members at both evolutionary history and functional divergence levels, which may provide new insight into biological functions. In this work, we first retrieved in total 5,856 members of 17 known ubiquiton subfamilies in 50 plant genomes by searching both prior annotations and missing loci in each genome...
May 8, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Zhi-Qiang Jia, San-Qiang Li, Wei-Qiang Qiao, Wen-Zhong Xu, Jian-Wu Xing, Jian-Tao Liu, Hui Song, Zhong-Yang Gao, Bing-Wen Xing, Xi-Jing He
Ebselen is a fat-soluble small molecule and organic selenium compound that regulates the activity of glutathione peroxidase to alleviate mitochondrial oxidative stress and improve mitochondrial function. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of ebselen on mitochondrial oxidative stress response, mitochondrial apotosis, and motor behaviors after spinal cord injury (SCI). We found that ebselen significantly increased the BBB score in motor behavior, thus suggesting a rescue effect of ebselen on motor function after SCI in rats...
May 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Chao Chen, Tian Shu Liu, Si Cong Zhao, Wen Zheng Yang, Zong Ping Chen, Yong Yan
Efficient apoptosis requires Bcl-2 family-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which releases pro-apoptotic proteins to the cytosol, activating apoptosis and inhibiting X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). XIAP is a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein family whose expression is elevated in many cancer types and participates in the release of pro-apoptotic proteins. To explore the association between XIAP and the Bcl-2 family, and the influence of XIAP on mitochondria, RNA interference of XIAP was performed in Caki-1 cells and the dynamic change in the levels of related proteins was compared with the original Caki-1 cells upon induction of apoptosis...
May 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
S Joseph Endicott, Martina Brueckner
The primary cilium maintains a well-regulated complement of soluble and membrane proteins, allowing it to mediate a variety of signaling pathways that are essential for development and tissue homeostasis [1-3]. Entry into the cilium is regulated at the base, where a complex containing nucleoporins, referred to as the "ciliary pore complex" (CPC), has been proposed to set a size-exclusion limit for soluble molecule diffusion into the cilium [4-6]. Here, using a fluorescence-based diffusion trap system, we demonstrate that NUP98, a component of the phenylalanine-glycine (FG) hydrogel permeability barrier at the nuclear pore complex [7, 8], limits the diffusion of soluble molecules >70 kDa into the cilium in cultured mammalian cells...
April 26, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Ankita Jha, Thomas S van Zanten, Jean-Marc Philippe, Satyajit Mayor, Thomas Lecuit
Tissue morphogenesis arises from controlled cell deformations in response to cellular contractility. During Drosophila gastrulation, apical activation of the actomyosin networks drives apical constriction in the invaginating mesoderm and cell-cell intercalation in the extending ectoderm. Myosin II (MyoII) is activated by cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as Smog and Mist, that activate G proteins, the small GTPase Rho1, and the kinase Rok. Quantitative control over GPCR and Rho1 activation underlies differences in deformation of mesoderm and ectoderm cells...
April 25, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Raphael D Teixeira, Cristiane R Guzzo, Santiago Justo Arévalo, Maxuel O Andrade, Josielle Abrahão, Robson F de Souza, Chuck S Farah
The second messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a central regulator of bacterial lifestyle, controlling several behaviors, including the switch between sessile and motile states. C-di-GMP levels are controlled by the interplay between diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which synthesize and hydrolyze this second messenger, respectively. These enzymes often contain additional domains that regulate activity via binding of small molecules, covalent modification or protein-protein interactions...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Catherine H H Hor, Bor Luen Tang, Eyleen L K Goh
Rab23 is a conserved member of the Rab family of small GTPases that regulates membrane trafficking in eukaryotes. It is unique amongst the Rabs in terms of its implicated role in mammalian development, as originally illustrated by the embryonic lethality and open neural tube phenotype of a spontaneous mouse mutant that carries homozygous mutation of open brain, a gene encoding Rab23. Rab23 was initially identified to act as an antagonist of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, and has since been implicated in a number of physiological and pathological roles, including oncogenesis...
May 4, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Qian-Ming Qi, Yin-Cun Xue, Jian Lv, Di Sun, Jian-Xin Du, Sheng-Qiang Cai, Yun-He Li, Tian-Cun Gu, Mu-Bing Wang
Ginkgolic acids may induce malignant cell death via the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax)/Bcl-2 apoptosis pathway. Concurrently, apoptosis, autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction may also be involved in bringing about this endpoint. The anticancer effect of Ginkgolic acids (GAs) was investigated using the HepG2 cell line. The median lethal dose of the GAs of the HepG2 was measured via an MTT assay, the dose-response curves were evaluated and changes in cell morphology were monitored by microscopy...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
Michael M Wudick, Maria Teresa Portes, Erwan Michard, Paul Rosas-Santiago, Michael A Lizzio, Custódio Oliveira Nunes, Cláudia Campos, Daniel Santa Cruz Damineli, Joana C Carvalho, Pedro T Lima, Omar Pantoja, José A Feijó
Compared to animals, evolution of plant calcium (Ca2+ ) physiology has led to a loss of proteins for influx and small ligand-operated control of cytosolic Ca2+ , leaving many Ca2+ mechanisms unaccounted for. Here, we show a mechanism for sorting and activation of glutamate receptor-like channels (GLRs) by CORNICHON HOMOLOG (CNIH) proteins. Single mutants of pollen-expressed Arabidopsis thaliana GLRs ( At GLRs) showed growth and Ca2+ flux phenotypes expected for plasma membrane Ca2+ channels. However, higher-order mutants of At GLR3...
May 4, 2018: Science
Jacob K Hilton, Taraneh Salehpour, Nicholas J Sisco, Parthasarathi Rath, Wade D Van Horn
Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a cold-sensitive ion channel with diverse physiological roles. TRPM8 activity is modulated by many mechanisms, including an interaction with the small membrane protein phosphoinositide-interacting regulator of TRP (PIRT). Here, using comparative electrophysiology experiments, we identified species-dependent differences between the human and mouse TRPM8-PIRT complexes. We found that human PIRT attenuated human TPRM8 conductance, unlike mouse PIRT, which enhanced mouse TRPM8 conductance...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Aishwarya Payapilly, Angeliki Malliri
RAC1 signalling has been implicated in a variety of dynamic cell biological processes that are orchestrated through regulated localisation and activation of RAC1. As a small GTPase, RAC1 switches between active and inactive states at various subcellular locations that include the plasma membrane, nucleus and mitochondria. Once activated, RAC1 interacts with a range of effectors that then mediate various biological functions. RAC1 is regulated by a large number of proteins that can promote its recruitment, activation, deactivation, or stability...
April 30, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
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