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Small membrane protein regulator

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214356/comparative-analysis-of-the-transcriptional-responses-to-low-and-high-temperature-in-three-rice-planthopper-species
#1
Hai-Jian Huang, Jian Xue, Ji-Chong Zhuo, Ruo-Lin Cheng, Hai-Jun Xu, Chuan-Xi Zhang
The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH), white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera, WBPH), and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPH) are important rice pests in Asia. These three species differ in thermal tolerance and exhibit quite different migration and overwintering strategies. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we sequenced and compared the transcriptome of the three species under different temperature treatments. We found that metabolism-, exoskeleton-, and chemosensory-related genes were modulated...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202367/exosomes-therapy-delivery-tools-and-biomarkers-of-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Lucio Barile, Giuseppe Vassalli
Virtually all cells in the organism secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), a heterogeneous population of lipid bilayer membrane-enclosed vesicles that transport and deliver payloads of proteins and nucleic acids to recipient cells, thus playing central roles in cell-cell communications. Exosomes, nanosized EVs of endosomal origin, regulate many pathophysiological processes including immune responses and inflammation, tumour growth, and infection. Healthy subjects and patients with different diseases release exosomes with different RNA and protein contents into the circulation, which can be measured as biomarkers...
February 12, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202288/tiam1-vav2-rac1-axis-a-tug-of-war-between-islet-function-and-dysfunction
#3
REVIEW
Anjaneyulu Kowluru
Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion [GSIS] from the islet β-cell involves a well-orchestrated interplay between metabolic and cationic events. It is well established that intracellular generation of adenine and guanine nucleotide triphosphates [e.g., ATP and GTP] represents one of the requisite signaling steps in GSIS. The small molecular mass GTP-binding proteins [G-proteins; e.g., Rac1 and Cdc42] have been shown to regulate islet β-cell function including actin cytoskeletal remodeling and fusion of insulin granules with the plasma membrane for GSIS to occur...
February 12, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197910/sumo-modification-of-ion-channels
#4
Mark Benson, Jorge A Iñiguez-Lluhí, Jeffrey Martens
Recently, a role for SUMO modification outside of the nucleus has emerged. Although the number of extranuclear proteins known to be sumoylated is comparatively small, ion channels represent one important new class of these proteins. Ion channels are responsible for the control of membrane excitability and therefore are critical for fundamental physiological processes such as muscle contraction, neuronal firing, and cellular homeostasis. As such, these ion-conducting proteins are subject to precise regulation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197079/sirt3-in-neural-stem-cells-attenuates-microglia-activation-induced-oxidative-stress-injury-through-mitochondrial-pathway
#5
De-Qi Jiang, Yan Wang, Ming-Xing Li, Yan-Jiao Ma, Yong Wang
Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a mitochondrial protein, is involved in energy metabolism, cell apoptosis and mitochondrial function. However, the role of SIRT3 in neural stem cells (NSCs) remains unknown. In previous studies, we found that microglia activation-induced cytotoxicity negatively regulated survival of NSCs, along with mitochondrial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of SIRT3 on the microglia activation-induced oxidative stress injury in NSCs and its possible mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194552/a-novel-synthetic-small-molecule-yf-452-inhibits-tumor-growth-through-antiangiogenesis-by-suppressing-vegf-receptor-2-signaling
#6
Yongrui Liu, Yuan He, Feifei Yang, Xiaonan Cong, Jinhua Wang, Shihong Peng, Dan Gao, Weifang Wang, Liping Lan, Xuexiang Ying, Mingyao Liu, Yihua Chen, Zhengfang Yi
Tumor angiogenesis is characterized by abnormal vessel morphology, endowing tumor with highly hypoxia and unresponsive toward treatment. To date, mounting angiogenic factors have been discovered as therapeutic targets in antiangiogenic drug development. Among them, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) inhibitors exerts potent antiangiogenic activity in tumor therapy. Therefore, it may provide a valid strategy for cancer treatment through targeting the tumor angiogenesis via VEGFR2 pathway...
February 13, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192532/role-of-arf-gtpases-in-fungal-morphogenesis-and-virulence
#7
Hayet Labbaoui, Stéphanie Bogliolo, Vikram Ghugtyal, Norma V Solis, Scott G Filler, Robert A Arkowitz, Martine Bassilana
Virulence of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans depends on the switch from budding to filamentous growth, which requires sustained membrane traffic and polarized growth. In many organisms, small GTPases of the Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor) family regulate membrane/protein trafficking, yet little is known about their role in fungal filamentous growth. To investigate these GTPases in C. albicans, we generated loss of function mutants in all 3 Arf proteins, Arf1-Arf3, and 2 Arf-like proteins, Arl1 and Arl3...
February 13, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188999/the-small-gtpase-arf6-regulates-sea-urchin-morphogenesis
#8
Nadezda A Stepicheva, Megan Dumas, Priscilla Kobi, Julie G Donaldson, Jia L Song
The small GTPase Arf6 is a conserved protein that is expressed in all metazoans. Arf6 remodels cytoskeletal actin and mediates membrane protein trafficking between the plasma membrane in its active form and endosomal compartments in its inactive form. While a rich knowledge exists for the cellular functions of Arf6, relatively little is known about its physiological role in development. This study examines the function of Arf6 in mediating cellular morphogenesis in early development. We dissect the function of Arf6 with a loss-of-function morpholino and constitutively active Arf6-Q67L construct...
February 2, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182310/ankyrin-rich-membrane-spanning-protein-as-a-novel-modulator-of-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-function-in-nociceptive-neurons
#9
J Peter, C Kasper, M Kaufholz, R Buschow, J Isensee, T Hucho, F W Herberg, F Schwede, C Stein, S-E Jordt, M Brackmann, V Spahn
BACKGROUND: The ion channel TRPV1 is mainly expressed in small diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which are involved in the sensation of acute noxious thermal and chemical stimuli. Direct modifications of the channel by diverse signalling events have been intensively investigated, but little is known about the composition of modulating macromolecular TRPV1 signalling complexes. Here, we hypothesize that the novel adaptor protein ankyrin-rich membrane spanning protein/kinase D interacting substrate (ARMS) interacts with TRPV1 and modulates its function in rodent DRG neurons...
February 9, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174541/regulation-of-connexin-based-channels-by-fatty-acids
#10
REVIEW
Carlos Puebla, Mauricio A Retamal, Rodrigo Acuña, Juan C Sáez
In this mini-review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge about the effects of fatty acids (FAs) on connexin-based channels, as well as discuss the limited information about the impact FAs may have on pannexins (Panxs). FAs regulate diverse cellular functions, some of which are explained by changes in the activity of channels constituted by connexins (Cxs) or Panxs, which are known to play critical roles in maintaining the functional integrity of diverse organs and tissues. Cxs are transmembrane proteins that oligomerize into hexamers to form hemichannels (HCs), which in turn can assemble into dodecamers to form gap junction channels (GJCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167916/salinity-dependent-shift-in-the-localization-of-three-peptide-transporters-along-the-intestine-of-the-mozambique-tilapia-oreochromis-mossambicus
#11
Pazit Con, Tali Nitzan, Avner Cnaani
The peptide transporter (PepT) systems are well-known for their importance to protein absorption in all vertebrate species. These symporters use H(+) gradient at the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelial cells to mediate the absorption of small peptides. In fish, the intestine is a multifunctional organ, involved in osmoregulation, acid-base regulation, and nutrient absorption. Therefore, we expected environmental stimuli to affect peptide absorption. We examined the effect of three environmental factors; salinity, pH and feeding, on the expression, activity and localization of three PepT transporters (PepT1a, PepT1b, PepT2) along the intestine of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161490/structural-analysis-of-ribosomal-rack1-and-its-role-in-translational-control
#12
Maja Holch Nielsen, Rasmus Kock Flygaard, Lasse Bohl Jenner
Receptor for Activated C-Kinase 1 (RACK1) belongs to the WD40 family of proteins, known to act as scaffolding proteins in interaction networks. Accordingly, RACK1 is found to have numerous interacting partners ranging from kinases and signaling proteins to membrane bound receptors and ion channels. Interestingly, RACK1 has also been identified as a ribosomal protein present in all eukaryotic ribosomes. Structures of eukaryotic ribosomes have shown RACK1 to be located at the back of the head of the small ribosomal subunit...
February 1, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161412/proteomic-characterization-of-seminal-plasma-from-alternative-reproductive-tactics-of-chinook-salmon-oncorhynchus-tswatchysha
#13
Robert Gombar, Trevor E Pitcher, Jason A Lewis, Janeen Auld, Panayiotis O Vacratsis
: Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are external fertilizers that display sneak-guard alternative reproductive tactics. The larger hooknose males dominate mating positions, while the smaller jack males utilize sneak tactics to achieve fertilization. Although poorly understood, previous studies have suggested that differences in spermatozoa quality may play a critical role in sperm competition. Considering that the seminal plasma strongly regulates spermatozoa quality and other processes critical for fertilization success, we employed label free quantitative mass spectrometry utilizing ion mobility separation coupled to cross-species bioinformatics to examine the seminal plasma proteome of Chinook salmon...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149289/pore-forming-proteins-as-mediators-of-novel-epigenetic-mechanism-of-epilepsy
#14
Andrei Surguchov, Irina Surgucheva, Mukut Sharma, Ram Sharma, Vikas Singh
Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. In the last two decades, numerous gene defects underlying different forms of epilepsy have been identified with most of these genes encoding ion channel proteins. Despite these developments, the etiology of majority of non-familial epilepsies has no known associated genetic mutations and cannot be explained by defects in identified ion channels alone. We hypothesize that de novo formation of ion channels by naturally unfolded proteins (NUPs) increases neuronal excitability...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145713/electrostatic-control-of-polymorphism-in-charged-amphiphile-assemblies
#15
Changrui Gao, Honghao Li, Yue Li, Sumit Kewalramani, Liam C Palmer, Vinayak P Dravid, Samuel I Stupp, Monica Olvera de la Cruz, Michael J Bedzyk
Stimuli-induced structural transformations of molecular assemblies in aqueous solutions are integral to nanotechnological applications and biological processes. In particular, pH responsive amphiphiles, as well as proteins, with various degrees of ionization can reconfigure in response to pH variations. Here, we use in situ small and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Monte Carlo simulations to show how charge regulation via pH induces morphological changes in the assembly of a positively charged peptide amphiphile (PA)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134784/sibling%C3%A2-srna%C3%A2-ryfa1%C3%A2-influences%C3%A2-shigella%C3%A2-dysenteriae-pathogenesis
#16
Megan E Fris, William H Broach, Sarah E Klim, Peter W Coschigano, Ronan K Carroll, Clayton C Caswell, Erin R Murphy
Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) of Shigella dysenteriae and other pathogens are vital for the regulation of virulence-associated genes and processes. Here, we characterize RyfA1, one member of a sibling pair of sRNAs produced by S. dysenteriae. Unlike its nearly identical sibling molecule, RyfA2, predicted to be encoded almost exclusively by non-pathogenic species, the presence of a gene encoding RyfA1, or a RyfA1-like molecule, is strongly correlated with virulence in a variety of enteropathogens. In S. dysenteriae, the overproduction of RyfA1 negatively impacts the virulence-associated process of cell-to-cell spread as well as the expression of ompC, a gene encoding a major outer membrane protein important for the pathogenesis of Shigella...
January 26, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129039/coordination-of-synaptic-vesicle-trafficking-and-turnover-by-the-rab35-signaling-network
#17
Patricia Sheehan, Clarissa L Waites
Rab35 and the Rab35 network of GAPs, GEFs, and effectors are important regulators of membrane trafficking for a variety of cellular processes, from cytokinesis and phagocytosis to neurite outgrowth. In the past five years, components of this signaling network have also been implicated as critical mediators of synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling and protein homeostasis. Recent studies by several groups, including our own, have demonstrated that Rab35-mediated endosomal sorting is required for the degradation of SV proteins via the ESCRT pathway, thereby eliminating old or damaged proteins from the SV pool...
January 27, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129035/where-no-ras-has-gone-before-vps35-steers-n-ras-through-the-cytosol
#18
Mo Zhou, Mark R Philips
Ras is the best-studied member of the superfamily of small GTPases because of its role in cancer. Ras proteins transmit signals for proliferation, differentiation and survival. Three RAS genes encode 4 isoforms. All Ras isoforms have long been considered membrane bound, a localization required for function. Our recent study revealed that N-Ras differs from all other isoforms in being largely cytosolic even following modification with a prenyl lipid. Endogenous, cytosolic N-Ras chromatographed in both high and low molecular weight pools, a pattern that required prenylation, suggesting prenyl-dependent interaction with other proteins...
January 27, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125283/plastoglobuli-plastid-microcompartments-with-integrated-functions-in-metabolism-plastid-developmental-transitions-and-environmental-adaptation
#19
Klaas J van Wijk, Felix Kessler
Plastoglobuli (PGs) are plastid lipoprotein particles surrounded by a membrane lipid monolayer. PGs contain small specialized proteomes and metabolomes. They are present in different plastid types (e.g., chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and elaioplasts) and are dynamic in size and shape in response to abiotic stress or developmental transitions. PGs in chromoplasts are highly enriched in carotenoid esters and enzymes involved in carotenoid metabolism. PGs in chloroplasts are associated with thylakoids and contain ∼30 core proteins (including six ABC1 kinases) as well as additional proteins recruited under specific conditions...
January 25, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123510/effects-of-prunus-mume-siebold-zucc-in-the-pacemaking-activity-of-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-in-murine-small-intestine
#20
Sang Weon Lee, Sung Jin Kim, Hyungwoo Kim, Dongki Yang, Hyun Jung Kim, Byung Joo Kim
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) function as pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and therefore, serve an important role in regulating GI motility. The effects of a species of plum (Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc.) on cultured ICC cluster-induced pacemaker potentials in the mouse small intestine were investigated, and the effects of a methanolic extract of Prunus mume (m-PM) on ICC pacemaker activities were examined using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. ICC pacemaker membrane potentials were depolarized by m-PM in a concentration dependent manner in current clamp mode...
January 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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