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Adam L Clayton, Shinichiro Enomoto, Yinghua Su, Colin Dale
Many bacteria utilize two-component systems consisting of a sensor kinase and a transcriptional response regulator to detect environmental signals and modulate gene expression for adaptation. The response regulator PhoP and its cognate sensor kinase PhoQ compose a two-component system known for its role in responding to low levels of Mg(2+) , Ca(2+) , pH, and to the presence of antimicrobial peptides and activating the expression of genes involved in adaptation to host association. Compared to their free-living relatives, mutualistic insect symbiotic bacteria inhabit a static environment where the requirement for sensory functions is expected to be relaxed...
December 17, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Trung-Kien Tran, Qiang-Qiang Han, Yixin Shi, Lin Guo
In pathogenic bacteria, the two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) play important roles in signal transduction and regulation of their pathogenesis. Here, we used quantitative proteomic methods to comparatively analyze functional networks under the control of the RstA/RstB system versus the PhoP/PhoQ system in Salmonella typhimurium. By comparing the proteomic profile from a wild-type strain to that from a ΔrstB strain or a ΔphoPQ strain under a condition known to activate these TCSs, we found that the levels of 159 proteins representing 6...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
R R Cheng, O Nordesjö, R L Hayes, H Levine, S C Flores, J N Onuchic, F Morcos
Two-component signaling (TCS) is the primary means by which bacteria sense and respond to the environment. TCS involves two partner proteins working in tandem, which interact to perform cellular functions whereas limiting interactions with non-partners (i.e., cross-talk). We construct a Potts model for TCS that can quantitatively predict how mutating amino acid identities affect the interaction between TCS partners and non-partners. The parameters of this model are inferred directly from protein sequence data...
December 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Sebastián Riquelme, Macarena Varas, Camila Valenzuela, Paula Velozo, Nicolás Chahin, Paulina Aguilera, Andrea Sabag, Bayron Labra, Sergio A Álvarez, Francisco P Chávez, Carlos A Santiviago
The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has proven to be a useful model for studying relevant aspects of the host-pathogen interaction. In this work, D. discoideum was used as a model to study the ability of Salmonella Typhimurium to survive in amoebae and to evaluate the contribution of selected genes in this process. To do this, we performed infection assays using axenic cultures of D. discoideum co-cultured with wild-type S. Typhimurium and/or defined mutant strains. Our results confirmed that wild-type S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
François Guérin, Christophe Isnard, Clara Sinel, Philippe Morand, Anne Dhalluin, Vincent Cattoir, Jean-Christophe Giard
OBJECTIVES: Aims of this study were to: (i) evaluate whether the cluster membership could have an impact on hetero-resistance phenotype to colistin in the Enterobacter cloacae complex (ECC); and (ii) determine the genetic mechanism of colistin hetero-resistance in ECC. METHODS: A collection of 124 clinical isolates belonging to 13 clusters were used to analyse the hetero-resistance phenotype (MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method, Etest and population analysis profiling)...
November 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Srujana S Yadavalli, Jeffrey N Carey, Rachel S Leibman, Annie I Chen, Andrew M Stern, Manuela Roggiani, Andrew M Lippa, Mark Goulian
Antimicrobial peptides are an important component of the molecular arsenal employed by hosts against bacteria. Many bacteria in turn possess pathways that provide protection against these compounds. In Escherichia coli and related bacteria, the PhoQ/PhoP signalling system is a key regulator of this antimicrobial peptide defence. Here we show that treating E. coli with sublethal concentrations of antimicrobial peptides causes cells to filament, and that this division block is controlled by the PhoQ/PhoP system...
2016: Nature Communications
Michael E Salazar, Anna I Podgornaia, Michael T Laub
In Escherichia coli and other γ-proteobacteria, the PhoQ-PhoP two-component signaling system responds to low extracellular Mg(++) and cationic antimicrobial peptides. On transition to inducing conditions, the expression of PhoP-dependent genes increases rapidly, but then decays to a new, intermediate steady-state level, a phenomenon often referred to as partial adaptation. The molecular basis for this partial adaptation has been unclear. Here, using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy to examine PhoP-dependent gene expression in individual E...
November 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Amalia Porta, Anna Maria Petrone, Silvana Morello, Ilaria Granata, Francesca Rizzo, Domenico Memoli, Alessandro Weisz, Bruno Maresca
We showed previously that insertion of Synechocystis Δ(12) -desaturase in salmonella's membrane alters membrane physical state (MPS), followed by the expression of stress genes causing inability to survive within murine macrophages (MΦ). Recently, we showed that expression of one membrane lipid domain (MLD) of Δ(12) -desaturase (ORF200) interferes with salmonella MPS, causing loss of virulence in mice and immunoprotection. Here, we postulate that an α-antimicrobial peptide (α-AMP) intercalates within membrane lipids, and depending on its amino acid sequence, it does so within specific key sensors of MLD...
July 12, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Muhammad Ali, Yu Sun, Li Xie, Huafu Yu, Anum Bashir, Lin Li
Different species of the Pseudomonas genus have been reported for their pathogenic potential against animal cells. However, the pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae against Caenorhabditis elegans has never been reported. In this study, the interaction of P. syringae MB03 with C. elegans was studied. Different bioassays such as killing assay, lawn leaving assay, food preference assay, L4 growth assay and newly developed "secretion assay" were performed to evaluate the pathogenic potential of P. syringae on different growth media...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jeongjoon Choi, Eduardo A Groisman
pH regulates gene expression, biochemical activities and cellular behaviors. A mildly acidic pH activates the master virulence regulatory system PhoP/PhoQ in the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The sensor PhoQ harbors an extracytoplasmic domain implicated in signal sensing, and a cytoplasmic domain controlling activation of the regulator PhoP. We now report that, surprisingly, a decrease in Salmonella's own cytoplasmic pH induces transcription of PhoP-activated genes even when the extracytoplasmic pH remains neutral...
September 2016: Molecular Microbiology
Jian Tu, Boyan Huang, Yu Zhang, Yuxi Zhang, Ting Xue, Shaocan Li, Kezong Qi
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) infections are a very important problem in the poultry industry. PhoP-PhoQ is a two-component system that regulates virulence genes in APEC. In this study, we constructed strains that lacked the PhoP or PhoQ genes to assess regulation of APEC pathogenicity by the PhoP-PhoQ two-component system. The PhoP mutant strain AE18, PhoQ mutant strain AE19, and PhoP/PhoQ mutant strain AE20 were constructed by the Red homologous recombination method. Swim plates were used to evaluate the motility of the APEC strains, viable bacteria counting was used to assess adhesion and invasion of chick embryo fibroblasts, and Real-Time PCR was used to measure mRNA expression of virulence genes...
2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Lei Liu, Haihong Fang, Huiying Yang, Yiquan Zhang, Yanping Han, Dongsheng Zhou, Ruifu Yang
gmhA encodes a phosphoheptose isomerase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of heptose, a conserved component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). GmhA plays an important role in Yersinia pestis biofilm blockage in the flea gut. waaA, waaE, and coaD constitute a three-gene operon waaAE-coaD in Y. pestis. waaA encodes a transferase that is responsible for binding lipid-A to the core oligosaccharide of LPS. WaaA is a key determinant in Y. pestis biofilm formation, and the waaA expression is positively regulated by the two-component regulatory system PhoP/PhoQ...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jie Ren, Yu Sang, Yongcong Tan, Jing Tao, Jinjing Ni, Shuting Liu, Xia Fan, Wei Zhao, Jie Lu, Wenjuan Wu, Yu-Feng Yao
The two-component system PhoP-PhoQ is highly conserved in bacteria and regulates virulence in response to various signals for bacteria within the mammalian host. Here, we demonstrate that PhoP could be acetylated by Pat and deacetylated by deacetylase CobB enzymatically in vitro and in vivo in Salmonella Typhimurium. Specifically, the conserved lysine residue 201(K201) in winged helix-turn-helix motif at C-terminal DNA-binding domain of PhoP could be acetylated, and its acetylation level decreases dramatically when bacteria encounter low magnesium, acid stress or phagocytosis of macrophages...
March 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Saranya Subramani, Harmonie Perdreau-Dahl, Jens Preben Morth
The magnesium transporter A (MgtA) is a specialized P-type ATPase, believed to import Mg(2+) into the cytoplasm. In Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, the virulence determining two-component system PhoQ/PhoP regulates the transcription of mgtA gene by sensing Mg(2+) concentrations in the periplasm. However, the factors that affect MgtA function are not known. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that MgtA is highly dependent on anionic phospholipids and in particular, cardiolipin. Colocalization studies confirm that MgtA is found in the cardiolipin lipid domains in the membrane...
January 18, 2016: ELife
Li-Zhi Hu, Wei-Ping Zhang, Mao-Tian Zhou, Qiang-Qiang Han, Xiao-Li Gao, Hao-Long Zeng, Lin Guo
SRM (selected reaction monitoring), a tandem mass spectrometry-based method characterized by high repeatability and accuracy, is an effective tool for the quantification of predetermined proteins. In this study, we built a time-scheduled dimethyl-SRM method that can provide the precise relative quantification of 92 proteins in one run. By applying this method to the Salmonella PhoP/PhoQ two-component system, we found that the expression of selected PhoP/PhoQ-activated proteins in response to Mg(2+) concentrations could be divided into two distinct patterns...
January 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Harleen Kaur, Mohd Ahmad, Vinod Scaria
There is emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhi in pandemic proportions throughout the world, and therefore, there is a necessity to speed up the discovery of novel molecules having different modes of action and also less influenced by the resistance formation that would be used as drug for the treatment of salmonellosis particularly typhoid fever. The PhoP regulon is well studied and has now been shown to be a critical regulator of number of gene expressions which are required for intracellular survival of S...
March 2016: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
Md Manjurul Haque, Hisae Hirata, Shinji Tsuyumu
We previously showed that SlyA of Dickeya dadantii 3937 plays an important role in virulence toward plants, and that the ΔslyA mutant is hypermotile, whereas flagellum synthesis and flagellin production are indistinguishable from the wild type. Here we show that motility factors, including the distance of continuous directed movement, time for that movement and speed, were significantly higher in the ΔslyA mutant than in the wild type. Remarkably, transcription levels of motA and motB, that are involved in flagellar rotation, were elevated in the ΔslyA mutant, suggesting that the mutant's hypermotility was due to an increase in flagellar rotation...
July 2015: Research in Microbiology
Aurélie Jayol, Laurent Poirel, Maria-Virginia Villegas, Patrice Nordmann
Gene modifications in the PmrAB and PhoPQ two-component regulatory systems, as well as inactivation of the mgrB gene, are known to be causes of colistin resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae. The objective of this study was to characterise the mechanism involved in colistin resistance in a Klebsiella oxytoca isolate. A K. oxytoca clinical isolate showing resistance to colistin was recovered in Cali, Colombia. The pmrA, pmrB, phoP, phoQ and mgrB genes were amplified and sequenced. Wild-type mgrB genes from K. pneumoniae and K...
July 2015: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Fernando Baisón-Olmo, María Galindo-Moreno, Francisco Ramos-Morales
Salmonella enterica expresses two virulence-related type III secretion systems (T3SSs) encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) and SPI2, respectively. SseK1 is a poorly characterized substrate of the SPI2-encoded T3SS. Here, we show that this effector is essential to get full virulence both in oral and intraperitoneal mice infections, in spite of not having a role in invasion or intracellular proliferation in cultured mammalian cells. In vitro, expression of sseK1 was higher in media mimicking intracellular conditions, when SPI2 was induced, but it was also significant under SPI1 inducing conditions...
2015: Frontiers in Microbiology
Viveka Vadyvaloo, Austin K Viall, Clayton O Jarrett, Angela K Hinz, Daniel E Sturdevant, B Joseph Hinnebusch
The Yersinia pestis PhoPQ gene regulatory system is induced during infection of the flea digestive tract and is required to produce adherent biofilm in the foregut, which greatly enhances bacterial transmission during a flea bite. To understand the in vivo context of PhoPQ induction and to determine PhoP-regulated targets in the flea, we undertook whole-genome comparative transcriptional profiling of Y. pestis WT and ΔphoP strains isolated from infected fleas and from temperature-matched in vitro planktonic and flow-cell biofilm cultures...
June 2015: Microbiology
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