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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824803/caregiving-immediately-after-stroke-a-study-of-uncertainty-in-caregivers-of-older-adults
#1
Eeeseung Byun, Barbara Riegel, Marilyn Sommers, Nancy Tkacs, Lois Evans
BACKGROUND: Caregivers of stroke survivors experience high rates of mental and physical morbidity. Stroke has sudden onset, and the outcome is not immediately known. Uncertainties surrounding the new caregiving role may not only necessitate major changes in the lives of family caregivers but also contribute to negative health outcomes for the caregiver. PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to describe caregiver uncertainty across the early weeks after a family member's stroke and to explore characteristics of caregivers and stroke survivors associated with that uncertainty...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793131/what-s-all-the-talk-about-topic-modelling-in-a-mental-health-internet-support-group
#2
Bradley Carron-Arthur, Julia Reynolds, Kylie Bennett, Anthony Bennett, Kathleen M Griffiths
BACKGROUND: The majority of content in an Internet Support Group (ISG) is contributed by 1 % of the users ('super users'). Computational methods, such as topic modelling, can provide a large-scale quantitative objective description of this content. Such methods may provide a new perspective on the nature of engagement on ISGs including the role of super users and their possible effect on other users. METHODS: A topic model was computed for all posts (N = 131,004) in the ISG BlueBoard using Latent Dirichlet Allocation...
October 28, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782973/giving-voice-to-all-patients-on-patients-at-the-margins-and-their-intention-and-perceived-ability-to-complain
#3
Torsten Oliver Salge, David Antons, Patrick Cichy, J Nils Foege, Julian Hannen, Antje S J Huetten
BACKGROUND: It is now widely established that health care organizations are well advised not only to identify and act upon the concerns of all patient groups but also to encourage and enable them to voice their concerns in the first place. That said, research has begun to reveal that patients differ substantially in their readiness to complain, with many deciding to remain silent even after experiencing severe adverse events. Little research has explored whether patients at the margins (e...
October 25, 2016: Health Care Management Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703840/continuum-beliefs-in-the-stigma-process-regarding-persons-with-schizophrenia-and-depression-results-of-path-analyses
#4
Anna C Makowski, Eva E Mnich, Matthias C Angermeyer, Olaf von dem Knesebeck
BACKGROUND: Individuals with mental illness often experience stigmatization and encounter stereotypes such as being dangerous or unpredictable. To further improve measures against psychiatric stigma, it is of importance to understand its components. In this study, we attend to the step of separation between "us" and "them" in the stigma process as conceptualized by Link and Phelan. In using the belief in continuity of mental illness symptoms as a proxy for separation, we explore its associations with stereotypes, emotional responses and desire for social distance in the stigma process...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604363/randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-digitally-assisted-low-intensity-intervention-to-promote-personal-recovery-in-persisting-psychosis-smart-therapy-study-protocol
#5
Neil Thomas, John Farhall, Fiona Foley, Susan L Rossell, David Castle, Emma Ladd, Denny Meyer, Cathrine Mihalopoulos, Nuwan Leitan, Cassy Nunan, Rosalie Frankish, Tara Smark, Sue Farnan, Bronte McLeod, Leon Sterling, Greg Murray, Ellie Fossey, Lisa Brophy, Michael Kyrios
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial interventions have an important role in promoting recovery in people with persisting psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Readily available, digital technology provides a means of developing therapeutic resources for use together by practitioners and mental health service users. As part of the Self-Management and Recovery Technology (SMART) research program, we have developed an online resource providing materials on illness self-management and personal recovery based on the Connectedness-Hope-Identity-Meaning-Empowerment (CHIME) framework...
September 7, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573365/maternal-exposure-to-the-water-soluble-fraction-of-crude-oil-lead-and-their-mixture-induces-autism-like-behavioral-deficits-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-larvae
#6
Yuanchuan Wang, Hongxiu Zhong, Chonggang Wang, Dongxu Gao, Yulin Zhou, Zhenghong Zuo
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious debilitating mental illness with complex symptoms and multi-factorial pathogenesis. Although the pathogenesis of ASD remains unclear, etiology is thought to involve complex, multigenic interactions and possible environmental contributions. In the present study, we used zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model to investigate whether maternal exposure to the water soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF, 5μg/L), lead (Pb, 20μg/L) and their mixture (5 μg/L WSF+20 μg/L Pb) could induce autism-like behavior in larvae...
August 26, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038085/virtual-patient-simulation-in-psychiatric-care-a-pilot-study-of-digital-support-for-collaborate-learning
#7
Charlotta Sunnqvist, Karin Karlsson, Lisbeth Lindell, Uno Fors
Psychiatric and mental health nursing is built on a trusted nurse and patient relationship. Therefore communication and clinical reasoning are two important issues. Our experiences as teachers in psychiatric educational programmes are that the students feel anxiety and fear before they start their clinical practices in psychiatry. Therefore there is a need for bridging over the fear. Technology enhanced learning might support such activities so we used Virtual patients (VPs), an interactive computer simulations of real-life clinical scenarios...
March 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26968151/an-examination-of-the-language-construct-in-nimh-s-research-domain-criteria-time-for-reconceptualization
#8
REVIEW
Brita Elvevåg, Alex S Cohen, Maria K Wolters, Heather C Whalley, Viktoria-Eleni Gountouna, Ksenia A Kuznetsova, Andrew R Watson, Kristin K Nicodemus
The National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) Initiative "calls for the development of new ways of classifying psychopathology based on dimensions of observable behavior." As a result of this ambitious initiative, language has been identified as an independent construct in the RDoC matrix. In this article, we frame language within an evolutionary and neuropsychological context and discuss some of the limitations to the current measurements of language. Findings from genomics and the neuroimaging of performance during language tasks are discussed in relation to serious mental illness and within the context of caveats regarding measuring language...
September 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26906507/computational-psychiatry-as-a-bridge-from-neuroscience-to-clinical-applications
#9
REVIEW
Quentin J M Huys, Tiago V Maia, Michael J Frank
Translating advances in neuroscience into benefits for patients with mental illness presents enormous challenges because it involves both the most complex organ, the brain, and its interaction with a similarly complex environment. Dealing with such complexities demands powerful techniques. Computational psychiatry combines multiple levels and types of computation with multiple types of data in an effort to improve understanding, prediction and treatment of mental illness. Computational psychiatry, broadly defined, encompasses two complementary approaches: data driven and theory driven...
March 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26554711/identifying-causal-risk-factors-for-violence-among-discharged-patients
#10
Jeremy W Coid, Constantinos Kallis, Mike Doyle, Jenny Shaw, Simone Ullrich
BACKGROUND: Structured Professional Judgement (SPJ) is routinely administered in mental health and criminal justice settings but cannot identify violence risk above moderate accuracy. There is no current evidence that violence can be prevented using SPJ. This may be explained by routine application of predictive instead of causal statistical models when standardising SPJ instruments. METHODS: We carried out a prospective cohort study of 409 male and female patients discharged from medium secure services in England and Wales to the community...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26489912/characteristics-of-trafficked-adults-and-children-with-severe-mental-illness-a-historical-cohort-study
#11
Siân Oram, Mizanur Khondoker, Melanie Abas, Matthew Broadbent, Louise M Howard
BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the mental health needs of trafficked people is limited; however, prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder is high among trafficked people who are in contact with shelter services. We aimed to investigate the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of trafficked people with severe mental illness. METHODS: We did a historical cohort study of trafficked people in contact with secondary mental health services in South London, UK, between Jan 1, 2006, and July 31, 2012...
December 2015: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26383904/dopamine-depressive-symptoms-and-decision-making-the-relationship-between-spontaneous-eye-blink-rate-and-depressive-symptoms-predicts-iowa-gambling-task-performance
#12
Kaileigh A Byrne, Dominique D Norris, Darrell A Worthy
Depressive symptomatology has been associated with alterations in decision-making, although conclusions have been mixed, with depressed individuals showing impairments in some contexts but advantages in others. The dopaminergic system may link depressive symptoms with decision-making performance. We assessed the role of striatal dopamine D2 receptor density, using spontaneous eye blink rates, in moderating the relationship between depressive symptoms and decision-making performance in a large undergraduate sample that had not been screened for mental illness (N = 104)...
February 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26371267/a-participatory-model-of-the-paradox-of-primary-care
#13
Laura Homa, Johnie Rose, Peter S Hovmand, Sarah T Cherng, Rick L Riolo, Alison Kraus, Anindita Biswas, Kelly Burgess, Heide Aungst, Kurt C Stange, Kalanthe Brown, Margaret Brooks-Terry, Ellen Dec, Brigid Jackson, Jules Gilliam, George E Kikano, Ann Reichsman, Debbie Schaadt, Jamie Hilfer, Christine Ticknor, Carl V Tyler, Anna Van der Meulen, Heather Ways, Richard F Weinberger, Christine Williams
PURPOSE: The paradox of primary care is the observation that primary care is associated with apparently low levels of evidence-based care for individual diseases, but systems based on primary care have healthier populations, use fewer resources, and have less health inequality. The purpose of this article is to explore, from a complex systems perspective, mechanisms that might account for the effects of primary care beyond disease-specific care. METHODS: In an 8-session, participatory group model-building process, patient, caregiver, and primary care clinician community stakeholders worked with academic investigators to develop and refine an agent-based computer simulation model to test hypotheses about mechanisms by which features of primary care could affect health and health equity...
September 2015: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26269098/the-effects-of-an-audio-visual-assisted-therapy-aid-for-refractory-auditory-hallucinations-avatar-therapy-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Tom K J Craig, Mar Rus-Calafell, Thomas Ward, Miriam Fornells-Ambrojo, Paul McCrone, Richard Emsley, Philippa Garety
BACKGROUND: Psychological interventions which adopt an explicitly interpersonal approach are a recent development in the treatment of distressing voices. AVATAR therapy is one such approach which creates a direct dialogue between a voice-hearer and a computerised representation of their persecutory voice (the avatar) through which the person may be supported to gain a sense of greater power and control. The main objective of the trial is to test the clinical efficacy of this therapy to reduce the frequency and severity of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH)...
2015: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26237744/to-treat-or-to-prevent-reducing-the-population-burden-of-violence-related-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Magdalena Cerdá, Melissa Tracy, Katherine M Keyes, Sandro Galea
BACKGROUND: Violence-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a prevalent and disabling psychiatric disorder in urban areas. However, the most effective allocation of resources into prevention and treatment to reduce this problem is unknown. We contrasted the impact of two interventions on violence-related PTSD: (1) a population-level intervention intended to prevent violence (i.e., hot-spot policing), and (2) an individual-level intervention intended to shorten PTSD duration (i...
September 2015: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26180227/treating-tobacco-dependence-at-the-intersection-of-diversity-poverty-and-mental-illness-a-randomized-feasibility-and-replication-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Norval J Hickman, Kevin L Delucchi, Judith J Prochaska
INTRODUCTION: In an ethnically-diverse, uninsured psychiatric sample with co-occurring drug/alcohol addiction, we evaluated the feasibility and reproducibility of a tobacco treatment intervention. The intervention previously demonstrated efficacy in insured psychiatric and nonpsychiatric samples with 20.0%-25.0% abstinence at 18 months. METHODS: Daily smokers, recruited in 2009-2010 from psychiatric units at an urban public hospital, were randomized to usual care (on-unit nicotine replacement plus quit advice) or intervention, which added a Transtheoretical-model tailored, computer-assisted intervention, stage-matched manual, brief counseling, and 10-week post-hospitalization nicotine replacement...
August 2015: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26157034/computational-psychiatry-towards-a-mathematically-informed-understanding-of-mental-illness
#17
REVIEW
Rick A Adams, Quentin J M Huys, Jonathan P Roiser
Computational Psychiatry aims to describe the relationship between the brain's neurobiology, its environment and mental symptoms in computational terms. In so doing, it may improve psychiatric classification and the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. It can unite many levels of description in a mechanistic and rigorous fashion, while avoiding biological reductionism and artificial categorisation. We describe how computational models of cognition can infer the current state of the environment and weigh up future actions, and how these models provide new perspectives on two example disorders, depression and schizophrenia...
January 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25913376/novel-systems-modeling-methodology-in-comparative-microbial-metabolomics-identifying-key-enzymes-and-metabolites-implicated-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Colin Heberling, Prasad Dhurjati
Autism spectrum disorders are a group of mental illnesses highly correlated with gastrointestinal dysfunction. Recent studies have shown that there may be one or more microbial "fingerprints" in terms of the composition characterizing individuals with autism, which could be used for diagnostic purposes. This paper proposes a computational approach whereby metagenomes characteristic of "healthy" and autistic individuals are artificially constructed via genomic information, analyzed for the enzymes coded within, and then these enzymes are compared in detail...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25862978/itraq-based-quantitative-analysis-of-hippocampal-postsynaptic-density-associated-proteins-in-a-rat-chronic-mild-stress-model-of-depression
#19
X Han, W Shao, Z Liu, S Fan, J Yu, J Chen, R Qiao, J Zhou, P Xie
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric mood illness and a major cause of disability and suicide worldwide. However, the underlying pathophysiology of MDD remains poorly understood due to its heterogenic nature. Extensive pre-clinical research suggests that many molecular alterations associated with MDD preferentially localize to the postsynaptic density (PSD). Here, we used a rodent chronic mild stress (CMS) model to generate susceptible and unsusceptible subpopulations. Proteomic analysis using an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and tandem mass spectrometry was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins in enriched PSD preparations from the hippocampi of different groups...
July 9, 2015: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25827030/a-clinical-perspective-on-the-relevance-of-research-domain-criteria-in-electronic-health-records
#20
Thomas H McCoy, Victor M Castro, Hannah R Rosenfield, Andrew Cagan, Isaac S Kohane, Roy H Perlis
OBJECTIVE: The limitations of the DSM nosology for capturing dimensionality and overlap in psychiatric syndromes, and its poor correspondence to underlying neurobiology, have been well established. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), a proposed dimensional model of psychopathology, may offer new insights into psychiatric illness. For psychiatric clinicians, however, because tools for capturing these domains in clinical practice have not yet been established, the relevance and means of transition from the categorical system of DSM-5 to the dimensional models of RDoC remains unclear...
April 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
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