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Jessie O Oyinlola, Jennifer Campbell, Antonis A Kousoulis
BACKGROUND: There is currently limited evidence regarding the extent Real World Evidence (RWE) has directly impacted the health and social care systems. The aim of this review is to identify national guidelines or guidances published in England from 2000 onwards which have referenced studies using the governmental primary care data provider the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). METHODS: The methodology recommended by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was followed...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Xiaoyuan Li, Qiwei Li, Li Shi, Liucheng Jiao
The response properties of individual neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) are among the most thoroughly described in the mammalian central nervous system, but they reveal less about higher-order processes like visual perception. Neural activity is highly nonlinear and non-stationary over time, greatly complicating the relationships among the spatiotemporal characteristics of visual stimuli, local field potential (LFP) signal components, and the underlying neuronal activity patterns. We applied discrete wavelet transformation to detect new features of the LFP that may better describe the association between visual input and neural ensemble activity...
2016: Open Biomedical Engineering Journal
Manuel García, Juan Ródenas, Raúl Alcaraz, José J Rieta
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and a growing healthcare burden worldwide. It is often asymptomatic and may appear as episodes of very short duration; hence, the development of methods for its automatic detection is a challenging requirement to achieve early diagnosis and treatment strategies. The present work introduces a novel method exploiting the relative wavelet energy (RWE) to automatically detect AF episodes of a wide variety in length...
July 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
W M Wilson, S J Walsh, A T Yan, C G Hanratty, A J Bagnall, M Egred, E Smith, K G Oldroyd, M McEntegart, J Irving, J Strange, H Douglas, J C Spratt
OBJECTIVES: Treatment options for coronary chronic total occlusions (CTO) are limited, with low historical success rates from percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We report procedural outcomes of CTO PCI from 7 centres with dedicated CTO operators trained in hybrid approaches comprising antegrade/retrograde wire escalation (AWE/RWE) and dissection re-entry (ADR/RDR) techniques. METHODS: Clinical and procedural data were collected from consecutive unselected patients with CTO between 2012 and 2014...
September 15, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Ilinca Georgescu, Robert J Gooding, R Christopher Doiron, Andrew Day, Shamini Selvarajah, Chris Davidson, David M Berman, Paul C Park
BACKGROUND: Gleason scores (GS) 3+3 and 3+4 prostate cancers (PCa) differ greatly in their clinical courses, with Gleason pattern (GP) 4 representing a major independent risk factor for cancer progression. However, Gleason grade is not reliably ascertained by diagnostic biopsy, largely due to sampling inadequacies, subjectivity in the Gleason grading procedure, and a lack of more objective biomarker assays to stratify prostate cancer aggressiveness. In most aggressive cancer types, the tumor microenvironment exhibits a reciprocal pro-tumorigenic metabolic phenotype consistent with the reverse Warburg effect (RWE)...
2016: Cancer & Metabolism
Elizabeth M Davenport, Kalyna Apkarian, Christopher T Whitlow, Jillian E Urban, Jens H Jensen, Eliza Szuch, Mark A Espeland, Youngkyoo Jung, Daryl A Rosenbaum, Gerry Gioia, Alexander K Powers, Joel D Stitzel, Joseph A Maldjian
The purpose of this study is to determine if the effects of cumulative head impacts during a season of high school football produce changes in diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) metrics in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussion. Subjects were recruited from a high school football team and were outfitted with the Head Impact Telemetry System (HITs) during all practices and games. Biomechanical head impact exposure metrics were calculated including: total impacts, summed acceleration, and Risk Weighted cumulative Exposure (RWE)...
April 4, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Jodi B Segal, Joel D Kallich, Emma R Oppenheim, Louis P Garrison, Sheikh Usman Iqbal, Marla Kessler, G Caleb Alexander
Most randomized controlled trials are unable to generate information about a product's real-world effectiveness. Therefore, payers use real-world evidence (RWE) generated in observational studies to make decisions regarding formulary inclusion and coverage. While some payers generate their own RWE, most cautiously rely on RWE produced by manufacturers who have a strong financial interest in obtaining coverage for their products. We propose a process by which an independent body would certify observational studies as generating valid and unbiased estimates of the effectiveness of the intervention under consideration...
March 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Zhen-Yuan Zhu, Fengying Dong, Xiaocui Liu, Qian Lv, YingYang, Fei Liu, Ling Chen, Tiantian Wang, Zheng Wang, Yongmin Zhang
This study was to investigate the effects of different extraction methods on the yield, chemical structure and antitumor activity of polysaccharides from Cordyceps gunnii (C. gunnii) mycelia. Five extraction methods were used to extract crude polysaccharides (CPS), which include room-temperature water extraction (RWE), hot-water extraction (HWE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and cellulase-assisted extraction (CAE). Then Sephadex G-100 was used for purification of CPS...
April 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Rina Quek, Xinyan Bi, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
Asians typically consume carbohydrate-rich and high-glycaemic-index diets that have been associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Rice is rarely eaten alone such that it is of interest to investigate the effects of co-ingesting different protein-rich meals with rice on insulin and glycaemic response. This study had a randomised, controlled, non-blind, cross-over design in which fifteen healthy Chinese male participants were required to come on non-consecutive days. Five rice-based test meals were served: rice alone (control), rice with fish (RWF), rice with egg white (RWE), rice with soya beancurd (taukwa) (RWT) and rice with chicken (RWC)...
April 14, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Ki-Choon Choi, Seong-Wan Cho, Sung-Ho Kook, Sa-Ra Chun, Govinda Bhattarai, Sher Bahadur Poudel, Min-Kook Kim, Kyung-Yeol Lee, Jeong-Chae Lee
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Water extract of Raphanus sativus L. (RSL) seeds was traditionally used to treat digestive inflammatory complaints in Korean culture. RSL seeds exerted antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-septic functions, suggesting their pharmacological potential for the treatment of inflammatory pathologies associated with oxidative stress such as inflammatory bowel disease. AIM OF THIS STUDY: We evaluated the intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of RSL seed water extract (RWE) in experimental rat models of trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS)- or dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis...
February 17, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Simon de Lusignan, Laura Crawford, Neil Munro
New forms of evidence are needed to complement evidence generated from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Real-World Evidence (RWE) is a potential new form of evidence, but remains undefined. This paper sets to fill that gap by defining RWE as the output from a rigorous research process which: (1) includes a clear a priori statement of a hypothesis to be tested or research question to be answered; (2) defines the data sources that will be used and critically appraises their strengths and weaknesses; and (3) applies appropriate methods, including advanced analytics...
2015: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
W Horsley, V Nayar, G Auddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
R Martina, D Jenkins, S Bujkiewicz, P Dequen, K Abrams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
J Altevers, K Borchert, T Mittendorf, S Braun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
X Lie, C Ivanescu, T Nijhuis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
P Cornford, K Jefferson, O Cole, J S Gilbody, V Nayar, G Auddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Gongliu Yang, Yuanyuan Liu, Ming Li, Shunguang Song
An improved double-factor adaptive Kalman filter called AMA-RWE-DFAKF is proposed to denoise fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) drift signal in both static and dynamic conditions. The first factor is Kalman gain updated by random weighting estimation (RWE) of the covariance matrix of innovation sequence at any time to ensure the lowest noise level of output, but the inertia of KF response increases in dynamic condition. To decrease the inertia, the second factor is the covariance matrix of predicted state vector adjusted by RWE only when discontinuities are detected by adaptive moving average (AMA)...
2015: Sensors
Zhenhu Liang, Yinghua Wang, Xue Sun, Duan Li, Logan J Voss, Jamie W Sleigh, Satoshi Hagihira, Xiaoli Li
HIGHLIGHTS: ► Twelve entropy indices were systematically compared in monitoring depth of anesthesia and detecting burst suppression.► Renyi permutation entropy performed best in tracking EEG changes associated with different anesthesia states.► Approximate Entropy and Sample Entropy performed best in detecting burst suppression. OBJECTIVE: Entropy algorithms have been widely used in analyzing EEG signals during anesthesia. However, a systematic comparison of these entropy algorithms in assessing anesthesia drugs' effect is lacking...
2015: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Sladjana Spasić, Srdjan Kesić, Gordana Stojadinović, Branka Petković, Dajana Todorović
To study the influence of a static magnetic field (SMF, 2 mT) and extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF, 50 Hz, 2 mT) on the neuronal population activity, the experiments were performed on adult longhorn beetles Morimus funereus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). Based on a wavelet analysis of the local field potentials (LFPs), our study showed for the first time that the effects of prolonged and repeated exposure to the ELF MF on the LFPs were irreversible within investigated time frame. The relative wavelet energy (RWE) of 4-8 Hz frequency band was significantly increased after sine ELF MF (SnMF)/square ELF MF (SqMF) in comparison to the control value...
March 2015: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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