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Cardiovascular magnetic resonance

Ryan Rosenberry, Susie Chung, Michael D Nelson
Exercise represents a major hemodynamic stress that demands a highly coordinated neurovascular response in order to match oxygen delivery to metabolic demand. Reactive hyperemia (in response to a brief period of tissue ischemia) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and provides important insight into vascular health and vasodilatory capacity. Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity is equally important in health and disease, as it determines the energy supply for myocellular processes. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive approach using near-infrared spectroscopy to assess each of these major clinical endpoints (reactive hyperemia, neurovascular coupling, and muscle oxidative capacity) during a single clinic or laboratory visit...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
John W Kakareka, Anthony Z Faranesh, Randall H Pursley, Adrienne Campbell-Washburn, Daniel A Herzka, Toby Rogers, Josh Kanter, Kanishka Ratnayaka, Robert J Lederman, Thomas J Pohida
Hemodynamic recording during interventional cardiovascular procedures is essential for procedural guidance, monitoring patient status, and collection of diagnostic information. Recent advances have made interventions guided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) possible and attractive in certain clinical scenarios. However, in the MRI environment, electromagnetic interference (EMI) can cause severe distortions and artifacts in acquired hemodynamic waveforms. The primary aim of this paper was to develop and validate a system to minimize EMI on electrocardiogram (ECG) and invasive blood pressure (IBP) signals...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Shiteng Suo, Lan Zhang, Hui Tang, Qihong Ni, Suqin Li, Haimin Mao, Xiangyu Liu, Shengyun He, Jianxun Qu, Qing Lu, Jianrong Xu
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques including arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD), and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), are capable of measuring tissue perfusion-related parameters. We sought to evaluate and compare these three CMR techniques in characterizing skeletal muscle perfusion in lower extremities and to investigate their abilities to diagnose and assess the severity of peripheral arterial disease (PAD)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Andrea Igoren Guaricci, Pier Giorgio Masci, Valentina Lorenzoni, Jurg Schwitter, Gianluca Pontone
BACKGROUND: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) represents the most valuable sudden cardiac death (SCD) prophylactic strategy in patients with heart failure and severely reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). To date, it is still unknown how to integrate the information given by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) into clinical and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) work-up of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) and ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) patients for accurate risk stratification...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Kondababu Kurakula, Duco S Koenis, Mark A Herzik, Yanyun Liu, John W Craft, Pieter B van Loenen, Mariska Vos, M Khang Tran, Henri H Versteeg, Marie-José T H Goumans, Wolfram Ruf, Carlie J M de Vries, Mehmet Şen
Tissue Factor is a cell-surface glycoprotein expressed in various cells of the vasculature and is the principal regulator of the blood coagulation cascade and hemostasis. Notably, aberrant expression of Tissue Factor is associated with cardiovascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Here, we sought to identify factors that regulate Tissue Factor gene expression and activity. Tissue Factor gene expression is regulated by various transcription factors, including activating protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappa B...
March 15, 2018: Haematologica
Morten Schmidt, Michael Maeng, Morten Madsen, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Lisette Okkels Jensen, Carl-Johan Jakobsen
The WDHR (Western Denmark Heart Registry) is a seminational, multicenter-based registry with longitudinal registration of detailed patient and procedure data since 1999. The registry includes as of January 1, 2017 approximately 240,000 coronary angiographies, 90,000 percutaneous coronary interventions, 60,000 cardiac computed tomographies, 40,000 cardiac operations, and 2,000 transcatheter aortic valve replacements. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are soon to be added...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Sean Robison, Gauri Rani Karur, Rachel M Wald, Paaladinesh Thavendiranathan, Andrew M Crean, Kate Hanneman
BACKGROUND: Calculation of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) extracellular volume (ECV) requires input of hematocrit, which may not be readily available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ECV calculated using various noninvasive measures of hematocrit compared to ECV calculated with input of laboratory hematocrit as the reference standard. METHODS: One hundred twenty three subjects (47.7 ± 14.1 years; 42% male) were prospectively recruited for CMR T1 mapping between August 2016 and April 2017...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Philippa R P Krahn, Sheldon M Singh, Venkat Ramanan, Labonny Biswas, Nicolas Yak, Kevan J T Anderson, Jennifer Barry, Mihaela Pop, Graham A Wright
BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has become a mainstay of treatment for ventricular tachycardia, yet adequate lesion formation remains challenging. This study aims to comprehensively describe the composition and evolution of acute left ventricular (LV) lesions using native-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) during CMR-guided ablation procedures. METHODS: RF ablation was performed using an actively-tracked CMR-enabled catheter guided into the LV of 12 healthy swine to create 14 RF ablation lesions...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Kana Ide, Masaya Koshizaka, Hirotake Tokuyama, Takahiko Tokuyama, Takahiro Ishikawa, Yoshiro Maezawa, Minoru Takemoto, Koutaro Yokote
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Although hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) can reduce cardiovascular events, residual risk remains even after target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels have been achieved. Lipoprotein particle size and fraction changes are thought to contribute to such risks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, on lipoprotein particle size, concentration, and glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia...
March 15, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Robin Bülow, Till Ittermann, Marcus Dörr, Axel Poesch, Sönke Langner, Henry Völzke, Norbert Hosten, Marc Dewey, Robin Bülow
OBJECTIVES: Reference ranges of left ventricular (LV) parameters from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) were established to investigate the impact of ageing and hypertension as important determinants of cardiac structure and function. METHODS: One thousand five hundred twenty-five contrast-enhanced CMRs were conducted in the Study of Health in Pomerania. LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), end-systolic volume (LVESV), stroke volume (LVSV), ejection fraction (LVEF), and myocardial mass (LVMM) were determined using long- and short-axis steady-state free-precession sequences...
March 14, 2018: European Radiology
Sophie Kobuch, Azharuddin Fazalbhoy, Rachael Brown, Vaughan G Macefield, Luke A Henderson
Introduction: Long-lasting experimental muscle pain elicits divergent muscle sympathetic responses, with some individuals exhibiting a persistent increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and others a decrease. These divergent responses are thought to result from sustained functional changes in specific brain regions that modulate the cardiovascular responses to pain. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions that are functionally coupled to the generation of an MSNA burst at rest and to determine their behavior during tonic muscle pain...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Jayendra M Bhalodiya, Arnab Palit, Manoj K Tiwari, Sanjay K Prasad, Sunil K Bhudia, Theodoros N Arvanitis, Mark A Williams
Cardiovascular disease diagnosis and prognosis can be improved by measuring patient-specific in-vivo local myocardial strain using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Local myocardial strain can be determined by tracking the movement of sample muscles points during cardiac cycle using cardiac motion estimation model. The tracking accuracy of the benchmark Free Form Deformation (FFD) model is greatly affected due to its dependency on tunable parameters and regularisation function. Therefore, Hierarchical Template Matching (HTM) model, which is independent of tunable parameters, regularisation function, and image-specific features, is proposed in this article...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Roman Johannes Gertz, Torben Lange, Johannes Tammo Kowallick, Sören Jan Backhaus, Michael Steinmetz, Wieland Staab, Shelby Kutty, Gerd Hasenfuß, Joachim Lotz, Andreas Schuster
AIM: Since cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature-tracking (CMR-FT) has been demonstrated to be of incremental clinical merit we investigated the interchangeability of global left and right ventricular strain parameters between different CMR-FT software solutions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CMR-cine images of 10 patients without significant reduction in LVEF and RVEF and 10 patients with a significantly impaired systolic function were analyzed using two different types of FT-software (TomTec, Germany; QStrain, Netherlands)...
2018: PloS One
Sebastian E Beyer, Mihir M Sanghvi, Nay Aung, Alice Hosking, Jackie A Cooper, José Miguel Paiva, Aaron M Lee, Kenneth Fung, Elena Lukaschuk, Valentina Carapella, Murray A Mittleman, Soren Brage, Stefan K Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Steffen E Petersen
BACKGROUND: Handgrip strength, a measure of muscular fitness, is associated with cardiovascular (CV) events and CV mortality but its association with cardiac structure and function is unknown. The goal of this study was to determine if handgrip strength is associated with changes in cardiac structure and function in UK adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), mass (M), and mass-to-volume ratio (MVR) were measured in a sample of 4,654 participants of the UK Biobank Study 6...
2018: PloS One
Kelvin J Yong, Tasneem M Vaid, Patrick J Shilling, Feng-Jie Wu, Lisa M Williams, Mattia Deluigi, Andreas Plückthun, Ross Ad Bathgate, Paul R Gooley, Daniel J Scott
α1A- and α1B-adrenoceptors (α1A-AR and α1B-AR) are closely related G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that modulate the cardiovascular and nervous systems in response to binding epinephrine and norepinephrine. The GPCR gene super-family is made up of numerous sub-families that, like α1A-AR and α1B-AR, are activated by the same endogenous agonists but may modulate different physiological processes. A major challenge in GPCR research and drug discovery is determining how compounds interact with receptors at the molecular level, especially to assist in the optimization of drug leads...
March 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Konstantin V Borisov
BACKGROUND: In patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy myocardial fibrosis is an independent predictor of adverse outcome. A new technique of HOCM surgical correction in patients with severe hypertrophy and septal myocardial fibrosis has been proposed. METHODS: The excision of the asymmetrical hypertrophied area of the interventricular septum causing obstruction was performed from the conal part of the right ventricle corresponding to the zone of obstruction of the left ventricle (LV)...
March 10, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Sigita Glaveckaite, Egle Uzdavinyte-Gateliene, Zaneta Petrulioniene, Darius Palionis, Nomeda Valeviciene, Gintaras Kalinauskas, Pranas Serpytis, Aleksandras Laucevicius
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate (i) the effectiveness of combined surgery (coronary artery bypass grafting with restrictive mitral valve annuloplasty) and (ii) the late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance-based predictors of ischaemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) recurrence. METHODS: The prospective analysis included 40 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease, IMR >II° and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction undergoing combined surgery...
March 9, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Yuchi Han, Paul R Forfia, Anjali Vaidya, Jeremy A Mazurek, Myung H Park, Gautam Ramani, Stephen Y Chan, Aaron B Waxman
Introduction: A major determining factor on outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is right ventricular (RV) function. Ranolazine, which is currently approved for chronic stable angina, has been shown to improve RV function in an animal model and has been shown to be safe in small human studies with PAH. We aim to study the effect of ranolazine on RV function using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with pulmonary hypertension (non-group 2 patients) and monitor the effect of ranolazine on metabolism using metabolic profiling and changes of microRNA...
2018: Open Heart
Fabian Aus dem Siepen, Christian Baumgärtner, Matthias Müller-Henessen, Florian André, Daniel Messroghli, Marco Ochs, Johannes Riffel, Evangelos Giannitsis, Hugo A Katus, Matthias G Friedrich, Sebastian J Buss
Background: Myocardial T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) derived from cardiovascular MRIs are more and more widely accepted as important markers for diagnosis, risk prediction and monitoring of cardiac disease. Yet data regarding long-term stability of myocardial T1 mapping are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term stability of native and postcontrast T1 mapping values in healthy volunteers. Methods: 18 strictly selected healthy volunteers (52±10 years, 12 men) were studied on a Philips Achieva 1...
2018: Open Heart
Ester Meles, Caterina De Carlini, Gaetano Gentile, Alberto Roghi, Stefano Maggiolini
We report the case of a 56-year-old man showing numerous cardiovascular manifestations of Listeria infection (myo-pericarditis, coronary vasospasm, intracavitary vegetations/thrombus, sinoatrial blocks). Cardiac magnetic resonance and echocardiography images provided an unexpected picture of this infection, and were relevant for the appropriate clinical management. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography were useful for assessing the presence of an endocavitary mass. Tissue characterization by cardiac magnetic resonance confirmed the presence of a thrombus and revealed signs of active inflammation in the myocardial wall, pericardium and vascular pedicle...
February 2018: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
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