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Yi Zhang, Yuhan Gao, Yingbo Liang, Yijie Dong, Xiufen Yang, Jingjing Yuan, Dewen Qiu
During pathogenic infection, hundreds of proteins that play vital roles in the Verticillium dahliae-host interaction are secreted. In this study, an integrated proteomic analysis of secreted V. dahliae proteins was performed, and a conserved secretory protein, designated VdCP1, was identified as a member of the SnodProt1 phytotoxin family. An expression analysis of the vdcp1 gene revealed that the transcript is present in every condition studied and displays elevated expression throughout the infection process...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ariel Álvarez-Morales, Alejandro Hernández-Morales, Jackeline L Arvizu-Gómez
Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola is a phytopathogenic bacterium in beans that produces a phytotoxin called phaseolotoxin, in whose synthesis a group of genes that belong to the "Pht cluster" are involved. This cluster comprises 23 genes arranged in 5 transcriptional units, two monocistronic (argK, phtL) and three polycistronic (phtA, phtD, phtM) operons, whose expression is increased at 18°C, correlating with the production of phaseolotoxin by the bacterium. So far, the regulatory mechanisms involved in phaseolotoxin synthesis are poorly understood and only the requirement of low temperatures for its synthesis has been demonstrated...
November 10, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Samuel Jourdan, Isolde M Francis, Benoit Deflandre, Elodie Tenconi, Jennifer Riley, Sören Planckaert, Pierre Tocquin, Loïc Martinet, Bart Devreese, Rosemary Loria, Sébastien Rigali
Common scab disease on root and tuber plants is caused by Streptomyces scabies and related species which use the cellulose synthase inhibitor thaxtomin A as the main phytotoxin. Thaxtomin production is primarily triggered by the import of cello-oligosaccharides. Once inside the cell, the fate of the cello-oligosaccharides is dichotomized into i) fueling glycolysis with glucose for the saprophytic lifestyle through the action of β-glucosidase(s) (BG), and ii) eliciting the pathogenic lifestyle by inhibiting the CebR-mediated transcriptional repression of thaxtomin biosynthetic genes...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Matan Geron, Adina Hazan, Avi Priel
Beyond providing evolutionary advantages, venoms offer unique research tools, as they were developed to target functionally important proteins and pathways. As a key pain receptor in the nociceptive pathway, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) of the TRP superfamily has been shown to be a target for several toxins, as a way of producing pain to deter predators. Importantly, TRPV1 is involved in thermoregulation, inflammation, and acute nociception. As such, toxins provide tools to understand TRPV1 activation and modulation, a critical step in advancing pain research and the development of novel analgesics...
October 16, 2017: Toxins
Marco Masi, Maria Chiara Zonno, Alessio Cimmino, Pierluigi Reveglia, Alexander Berestetskiy, Angela Boari, Maurizio Vurro, Antonio Evidente
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is responsible for serious allergies induced on humans. Different approaches for its control were proposed during the COST Action FA1203 "Sustainable management of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Europe" (SMARTER). Fungal secondary metabolites often show potential herbicidal activity. Three phytotoxins were purified from the fungal culture filtrates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, isolated from infected leaves of A. artemisiifolia. They were identified by spectroscopic and chemical methods as colletochlorin A, orcinol and tyrosol (1, 2 and 3)...
October 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
Frankie K Crutcher, Lorraine S Puckhaber, Robert D Stipanovic, Alois A Bell, Robert L Nichols, Katheryn S Lawrence, Jinggao Liu
Fusaric acid (FA) produced by Fusarium oxysporum plays an important role in disease development in plants, including cotton. This non-specific toxin also has antibiotic effects on microorganisms. Thus, one expects a potential pool of diverse detoxification mechanisms of FA in nature. Bacteria and fungi from soils infested with Fusarium and from laboratory sources were evaluated for their ability to grow in the presence of FA and to alter the structure of FA into less toxic compounds. None of the bacterial strains were able to chemically modify FA...
October 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Andrea Saponaro, Alessandro Porro, Antonio Chaves-Sanjuan, Marco Nardini, Oliver Rauh, Gerhard Thiel, Anna Moroni
Plants acquire potassium (K+) ions for cell growth and movement via regulated diffusion through K+ channels. Here we present crystallographic and functional data showing that the K+ inward rectifier KAT1 channel is regulated by 14-3-3 proteins and further modulated by the phytotoxin fusicoccin, in analogy to the H+-ATPase. We identified a 14-3-3 mode III binding site at the very C-terminus of KAT1 and co-crystallized it with tobacco 14-3-3 proteins to describe the protein complex at atomic detail. Validation of this interaction by electrophysiology shows that 14-3-3 binding augments KAT1 conductance by increasing the maximal current and by positively shifting the voltage-dependency of gating...
September 29, 2017: Plant Cell
Katja Gemperlein, Michael Hoffmann, Liujie Huo, Patrick Pilak, Lutz Petzke, Rolf Müller, Silke C Wenzel
Coronatine (COR) represents a phytotoxin produced by several pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae. It mediates multiple virulence activities by mimicking the plant stress hormone jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine. Structurally, COR consists of a bicyclic polyketide moiety, coronafacic acid (CFA), which is linked via an amide bond to an unusual ethylcyclopropyl amino acid moiety, coronamic acid (CMA). In our studies, we aimed at establishing and engineering of heterologous COR and CFA production platforms using P. putida KT2440 as host...
September 23, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
Luke Bown, Dawn R D Bignell
Streptomyces sp. strain 11-1-2 is a Gram-positive filamentous bacterium that was isolated from a common scab lesion on a potato tuber. The strain is highly pathogenic to plants but does not produce the virulence-associated Streptomyces phytotoxin thaxtomin A. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. 11-1-2.
September 14, 2017: Genome Announcements
Marco Masi, Susan Meyer, Marcin Górecki, Alessandro Mandoli, Lorenzo Di Bari, Gennaro Pescitelli, Alessio Cimmino, Massimo Cristofaro, Suzette Clement, Antonio Evidente
Pyricularia grisea has been identified as a foliar pathogen on buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris) in North America and was studied as a potential source of phytotoxins for buffelgrass control. Two monosubstituted hex-4-ene-2,3-diols, named pyriculins A and B, were isolated from its culture filtrate organic extract together with (10S,11S)-(-)-epipyriculol, trans-3,4-dihydro-3,4,8-trihydroxy-1(2H)-napthalenone, and (4S)-(+)-isosclerone. Pyriculins A and B were characterized by spectroscopic (essentially nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR], High-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry [HRESIMS]) and chemical methods such as (4E)-1-(4-hydroxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl)hex-4-ene-2,3-diols...
September 13, 2017: Chirality
Kwang-Hwa Jeong, Jung Kon Kim, Balsubramani Ravindran, Dong Jun Lee, Jonathan Woon-Chung Wong, Ammaiyappan Selvam, Obuli P Karthikeyan, Jung-Hoon Kwag
The study investigated the effect of in-vessel composting process on Hanwoo manure in two different South Korea regions (Pyeongchang and Goechang) with sawdust using vertical cylindrical in-vessel bioreactor for 42days. The stability and quality of Hanwoo manure in both regions were improved and confirmed through the positive changes in physico-chemical and phytotoxic properties using different commercial seed crops. The pH and electrical conductivity (EC, ds/m) of composted manure in both regions were slightly increased...
December 2017: Bioresource Technology
Lena Barra, Paul Barac, Gabriele M König, Max Crüsemann, Jeroen S Dickschat
The volatiles emitted by five fungal strains previously isolated from the marine sponge Callyspongia cf. flammea were captured with a closed-loop stripping apparatus (CLSA) and analyzed by GC-MS. Besides several widespread compounds, a series of metabolites with interesting bioactivities were found, including the quorum sensing inhibitor protoanemonin, the fungal phytotoxin 3,4-dimethylpentan-4-olide, and the insect attractant 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene. In addition, the aromatic polyketides isotorquatone and chartabomone that are both known from Eucalyptus and a new O-desmethyl derivative were identified...
September 13, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Kumudini M Meepagala, William E Briscoe, Natascha Techen, Robert D Johnson, Brandon M Clausen, Stephen O Duke
BACKGROUND: The fungus Diaporthe eres was isolated from a fungal pathogen-infected leaf of Hedera helix (English Ivy) exhibiting necrosis. It is hypothesized that the causative fungus produces phytotoxins as evidenced by necrotic lesions on the leaves. RESULTS: The fungus was isolated and grown in Czapek Dox broth culture medium and potato dextrose broth culture medium and identified as Diaporthe eres. The ethyl acetate extracts of the culture broths were phytotoxic to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera)...
August 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
Iris Buckel, Lars Andernach, Anja Schüffler, Meike Piepenbring, Till Opatz, Eckhard Thines
Phytotoxic dioxolanones from Guignardia bidwellii can be described as potential virulence factors which cause the formation of lesions upon an infection by G. bidwellii. The toxin guignardic acid was found in planta of G. bidwellii-infected Vitis vinifera leaves, whereas no phytotoxic dioxolanones were detected in uninfected leaf material. Secondary metabolism analyses of further phytopathogenic fungi from the genus Guignardia led to the observation that all species investigated can produce the phytotoxins known from G...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Timothy Cairns, Vera Meyer
BACKGROUND: Fungal pathogens of plants produce diverse repertoires of secondary metabolites, which have functions ranging from iron acquisition, defense against immune perturbation, to toxic assaults on the host. The wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici causes Septoria tritici blotch, a foliar disease which is a significant threat to global food security. Currently, there is limited knowledge of the secondary metabolite arsenal produced by Z. tritici, which significantly restricts mechanistic understanding of infection...
August 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
Luke Bown, Yuting Li, Fabrice Berrué, Joost T P Verhoeven, Suzanne C Dufour, Dawn R D Bignell
Coronafacoyl phytotoxins are an important family of plant toxins that are produced by several different phytopathogenic bacteria, including the gammaproteobacterium Pseudomonas syringae and the actinobacterium Streptomyces scabies. The phytotoxins consist of coronafacic acid (CFA) linked via an amide bond to different amino acids or amino acid derivatives. Previous work suggested that S. scabies and P. syringae use distinct biosynthetic pathways for producing CFA, which is subsequently linked to its amino acid partner to form the complete phytotoxin...
July 28, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Alexander S Luckew, Sivakumar Swaminathan, Leonor F Leandro, James H Orf, Silvia R Cianzio
Four novel QTL and interactions among QTL were identified in this research, using as a parent line the most SDS-resistant genotype within soybean cultivars of the US early maturity groups. Soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) reduces soybean yield in most of the growing areas of the world. The causal agent of SDS, soilborne fungus Fusarium virguliforme (Fv), releases phytotoxins taken up by the plant to produce chlorosis and necrosis in the leaves. Planting resistant cultivars is the most successful management practice to control the disease...
October 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Wei Tian, Zixin Deng, Kui Hong
Ophiobolins (Ophs) are a group of tricarbocyclic sesterterpenoids whose structures contain a tricyclic 5-8-5 carbotricyclic skeleton. Thus far, 49 natural Ophs have been reported and assigned into A-W subgroups in order of discovery. While these sesterterpenoids were first characterized as highly effective phytotoxins, later investigations demonstrated that they display a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological characteristics such as phytotoxic, antimicrobial, nematocidal, cytotoxic, anti-influenza and inflammation-promoting activities...
July 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
Suma Chakravarthy, Jay N Worley, Adriana Montes-Rodriguez, Alan Collmer
Primary virulence factors of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 include the phytotoxin coronatine (COR) and a repertoire of 29 effector proteins injected into plant cells by the type III secretion system (T3SS). DC3000 derivatives differentially producing COR, the T3SS machinery, and subsets of key effectors were constructed and assayed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Bacteria were inoculated by dipping of whole plants and assayed for population growth and production of chlorotic spots on leaves. The strains fell into three classes...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Md Nazim Uddin, Randall William Robinson
BACKGROUND: Phragmites australis, a ubiquitous wetland plant, has been considered one of the most invasive species in the world. Allelopathy appears to be one of the invasion mechanisms, however, the effects could be masked by resource competition among target plants. The difficulty of distinguishing allelopathy from resource competition among plants has hindered investigations of the role of phytotoxic allelochemicals in plant communities. This has been addressed via experiments conducted in both the greenhouse and laboratory by growing associated plants, Melaleuca ericifolia, Rumex conglomeratus, and model plant, Lactuca sativa at varying densities with the allelopathic plant, P...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
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