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Phytotoxin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160348/phoma-crystallifera-with-phytotoxic-effects-and-pathogenic-potential-against-field-bindweed-convolvulus-arvensis-l-in-iran
#1
Parisa Razaghi, Doustmorad Zafari
AIMS: To identify a potential pathogenic isolate of fungus on Convolvulus arvensis and to determine its phytotoxic activity, which revealed the presence of toxic metabolites responsible for the toxicity against the target weed. METHODS AND RESULTS: A high virulent isolate of the fungus, Phoma crystallifera was isolated from symptomatic field bindweed in the west of Iran and was screened for the production of phytotoxins, which promoted necrosis on the detached leaves and seedlings of field bindweed in the bioassays...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113065/allelopathic-effects-of-volatile-organic-compounds-from-eucalyptus-grandis-rhizosphere-soil-on-eisenia-fetida-assessed-using-avoidance-bioassays-enzyme-activity-and-comet-assays
#2
Tang Zhiqun, Zhang Jian, Yu Junli, Wang Chunzi, Zhang Danju
Allelopathy has been identified as an underlying mechanism of detrimental environmental impacts within commercial plantations. Eucalyptus spp. are known to generate huge amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can function as phytotoxins and thus inhibit other plants. In the present study, biochemical markers, including activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and oxidative stress enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were assayed to assess changes in Eisenia fetida at the physiological level induced by different doses of VOCs as part of an acute toxicity test over 7 and 14-day exposures...
January 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112374/ophiobolin-a-a-sesterpenoid-fungal-phytotoxin-displays-different-mechanisms-of-cell-death-in-mammalian-cells-depending-upon-the-cancer-cell-origin
#3
Rachel Morrison, Tiffany Lodge, Antonio Evidente, Robert Kiss, Helen Townley
Herein we have undertaken a systematic analysis of the effects of the fungal derivative ophiobolin A (OphA) on eight cancer cell lines from different tissue types. The LD50 for each cell line was determined and the change in cell size determined. Flow cytometric analysis and western blotting were used to assess the cell death markers for early apoptosis, late apoptosis and necrosis, and the involvement of the caspase signalling pathway. Alterations in calcium levels and reactive oxygen species were assessed due to their integral involvement in intracellular signalling...
March 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109049/production-of-the-antibiotic-secondary-metabolite-solanapyrone-a-by-the-fungal-plant-pathogen-ascochyta-rabiei-during-fruiting-body-formation-in-saprobic-growth
#4
Wonyong Kim, Jeong-Jin Park, Frank M Dugan, Tobin L Peever, David R Gang, George Vandemark, Weidong Chen
Fungi are noted producers of a diverse array of secondary metabolites, many of which are of pharmacological importance. However, the biological roles of the vast majority of these molecules during the fungal life cycle in nature remain elusive. Solanapyrones are polyketide-derived secondary metabolites produced by diverse fungal species including the plant pathogen Ascochyta rabiei. This molecule was originally thought to function as a phytotoxin facilitating pathogenesis of A. rabiei. Chemical profiling and gene expression studies showed that solanapyrone A was specifically produced during saprobic, but not parasitic growth of A...
January 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105943/comprehensive-analysis-of-draft-genomes-of-two-closely-related-pseudomonas-syringae-phylogroup-2b-strains-infecting-mono-and-dicotyledon-host-plants
#5
Rinat I Sultanov, Georgij P Arapidi, Svetlana V Vinogradova, Vadim M Govorun, Duglas G Luster, Alexander N Ignatov
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the damage caused by bacterial pathogens to major crops has been increasing worldwide. Pseudomonas syringae is a widespread bacterial species that infects almost all major crops. Different P. syringae strains use a wide range of biochemical mechanisms, including phytotoxins and effectors of the type III and type IV secretion systems, which determine the specific nature of the pathogen virulence. RESULTS: Strains 1845 (isolated from dicots) and 2507 (isolated from monocots) were selected for sequencing because they specialize on different groups of plants...
December 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093838/fusaric-acid-contributes-to-virulence-of-fusarium-oxysporum-on-plant-and-mammalian-hosts
#6
Cristina López-Díaz, Vahid Rahjoo, Michael Sulyok, Veronica Ghionna, Adela Martín-Vicente, Javier Capilla, Antonio Di Pietro, Manuel S López-Berges
Fusaric acid (FA) is among the oldest identified secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium species, known for a long time to display strong phytotoxicity and moderate toxicity to animal cells; however, the cellular targets of FA as well as its function in fungal pathogenicity remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of FA in Fusarium oxysporum, a soil-borne cross-kingdom pathogen that causes vascular wilt on more than a hundred plant species and opportunistic infections in humans. Targeted deletion of fub1, encoding a predicted orthologue of the polyketide synthase involved in FA biosynthesis in F...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036242/identification-of-new-regulatory-genes-involved-in-the-pathogenic-functions-of-the-rice-pathogenic-bacterium-burkholderia-glumae
#7
Rebecca A Melanson, Inderjit Barphagha, Surendra Osti, Tiago P Lelis, Hari S Karki, Ruoxi Chen, Bishnu K Shrestha, Jong Hyun Ham
Burkholderia glumae is an emerging plant-pathogenic bacterium that causes disease in rice in several of the major of rice-producing areas throughout the world. In the southern United States, B. glumae is the major causal agent of bacterial panicle blight of rice and has caused severe yield losses in recent decades. Despite its importance, few management options are available for diseases caused by B. glumae, and knowledge of how this pathogen causes disease is limited. In an effort to identify novel factors that contribute to the pathogenicity of B...
December 30, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013556/%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors-and-phytotoxins-from-streptomyces-xanthophaeus
#8
Jing Wei, Xiu-Yun Zhang, Shan Deng, Lin Cao, Quan-Hong Xue, Jin-Ming Gao
Twenty-four metabolites 1-24 were isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces xanthophaeus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of their NMR data with literature data reported. Daidzein (1), genistein (2) and gliricidin (3) inhibited α-glucosidase in vitro with IC50 values of 174.2, 36.1 and 47.4 μM, respectively, more potent than the positive control, acarbose. Docking study revealed that the amino acid residue Thr 215 is the essential binding site for active ligands 2...
December 26, 2016: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987445/assessment-of-phytotoxicity-grade-during-composting-based-on-eem-parafac-combined-with-projection-pursuit-regression
#9
Hong-Yang Cui, Yue Zhao, Yan-Ni Chen, Xu Zhang, Xue-Qin Wang, Qian Lu, Li-Ming Jia, Zi-Min Wei
Improper treatment of organic waste may result in environmental pollution and harm to plant growth due to the high concentration of phytotoxin. Composting has widely been used for recycling organic waste and reducing phytotoxin to improve soil properties. Assessing the phytotoxicity grades of compost products is essential for achieving high quality compost to guarantee its marketability. In this study, a technique combined parallel factor (PARAFAC) of excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) spectroscopy with projection pursuit regression (PPR) was applied to improve the sensitivity of phytotoxicity assessment during composting...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941854/effects-of-iron-and-boron-combinations-on-the-suppression-of-fusarium-wilt-in-banana
#10
Xian Dong, Min Wang, Ning Ling, Qirong Shen, Shiwei Guo
The effects of mineral nutrient on banana wilt disease, which are the result of a competitive relationship between host plants and pathogens, can affect the interactions of plants with microorganisms. To investigate the mineral nutrient effect, hydroponic experiments were conducted in glasshouse containing combinations of low, medium, and high iron (Fe) and boron (B) concentrations, followed by pathogen inoculation. High Fe and B treatment significantly reduced the disease index and facilitated plants growth...
December 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930998/fate-and-ecotoxicological-impact-of-new-generation-herbicides-from-the-triketone-family-an-overview-to-assess-the-environmental-risks
#11
REVIEW
E Dumas, M Giraudo, E Goujon, M Halma, E Knhili, M Stauffert, I Batisson, P Besse-Hoggan, J Bohatier, P Bouchard, H Celle-Jeanton, M Costa Gomes, F Delbac, C Forano, P Goupil, N Guix, P Husson, G Ledoigt, C Mallet, C Mousty, V Prévot, C Richard, S Sarraute
Triketones, derived chemically from a natural phytotoxin (leptospermone), are a good example of allelochemicals as lead molecules for the development of new herbicides. Targeting a new and key enzyme involved in carotenoid biosynthesis, these latest-generation herbicides (sulcotrione, mesotrione and tembotrione) were designed to be eco-friendly and commercialized fifteen-twenty years ago. The mechanisms controlling their fate in different ecological niches as well as their toxicity and impact on different organisms or ecosystems are still under investigation...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855306/effect-of-phytotoxic-secondary-metabolites-and-semisynthetic-compounds-from-endophytic-fungus-xylaria-feejeensis-strain-sm3e-1b-on-spinach-chloroplast-photosynthesis
#12
Martha Lydia Macías-Rubalcava, Marbella Claudia García-Méndez, Beatriz King-Díaz, Norma Angélica Macías-Ruvalcaba
We investigated the mechanism of action on the photosynthesis light reactions of three major secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Xylaria feejeensis strain SM3e-1b, isolated from Sapium macrocarpum; and four novel derivatives of coriloxine, a major compound produced by X. feejeensis. The natural phytotoxins include one epoxycyclohexenone derivative, coriloxine (1), and two quinone derivatives (2-3). The semisynthetic derivatives of coriloxine are two cyclohexenone (4-6) and two quinone compounds (5-7)...
January 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855163/genetic-modulation-of-c-di-gmp-turnover-affects-multiple-virulence-traits-and-bacterial-virulence-in-rice-pathogen-dickeya-zeae
#13
Yufan Chen, Mingfa Lv, Lisheng Liao, Yanfang Gu, Zhibin Liang, Zurong Shi, Shiyin Liu, Jianuan Zhou, Lianhui Zhang
The frequent outbreaks of rice foot rot disease caused by Dickeya zeae have become a significant concern in rice planting regions and countries, but the regulatory mechanisms that govern the virulence of this important pathogen remain vague. Given that the second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is associated with modulation of various virulence-related traits in various microorganisms, here we set to investigate the role of the genes encoding c-di-GMP metabolism in the regulation of the bacterial physiology and virulence by construction all in-frame deletion mutants targeting the annotated c-di-GMP turnover genes in D...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853836/increasing-the-synthesis-of-bioactive-abietane-diterpenes-in-salvia-sclarea-hairy-roots-by-elicited-transcriptional-reprogramming
#14
M C Vaccaro, A Mariaevelina, N Malafronte, N De Tommasi, A Leone
Transcriptional activation of genes belonging to the plastidial MEP-derived isoprenoid pathway by elicitation with methyl jasmonate and coronatine enhanced the content of bioactive abietane diterpenes in Salvia sclarea hairy roots. We have shown that aethiopinone, an abietane diterpene synthesized in Salvia sclarea roots is cytotoxic and induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells. To develop a production platform for this compound and other abietane diterpenes, hairy root technology was combined with the elicitation of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or the phytotoxin coronatine (Cor)...
November 16, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762444/a-major-locus-involved-in-the-formation-of-the-radial-oxygen-loss-barrier-in-adventitious-roots-of-teosinte-zea-nicaraguensis-is-located-on-the-short-arm-of-chromosome-3
#15
Kohtaro Watanabe, Hirokazu Takahashi, Saori Sato, Shunsaku Nishiuchi, Fumie Omori, Al Imran Malik, Timothy David Colmer, Yoshiro Mano, Mikio Nakazono
A radial oxygen loss (ROL) barrier in roots of waterlogging-tolerant plants promotes oxygen movement via aerenchyma to the root tip, and impedes soil phytotoxin entry. The molecular mechanism and genetic regulation of ROL barrier formation are largely unknown. Zea nicaraguensis, a waterlogging-tolerant wild relative of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), forms a tight ROL barrier in its roots when waterlogged. We used Z. nicaraguensis chromosome segment introgression lines (ILs) in maize (inbred line Mi29) to elucidate the chromosomal region involved in regulating root ROL barrier formation...
October 20, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721016/the-botrydial-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-of-botrytis-cinerea-displays-a-bipartite-genomic-structure-and-is-positively-regulated-by-the-putative-zn-ii-2cys6-transcription-factor-bcbot6
#16
Antoine Porquier, Guillaume Morgant, Javier Moraga, Bérengère Dalmais, Isabelle Luyten, Adeline Simon, Jean-Marc Pradier, Joëlle Amselem, Isidro González Collado, Muriel Viaud
Botrydial (BOT) is a non-host specific phytotoxin produced by the polyphagous phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. The genomic region of the BOT biosynthetic gene cluster was investigated and revealed two additional genes named Bcbot6 and Bcbot7. Analysis revealed that the G+C/A+T-equilibrated regions that contain the Bcbot genes alternate with A+T-rich regions made of relics of transposable elements that have undergone repeat-induced point mutations (RIP). Furthermore, BcBot6, a Zn(II)2Cys6 putative transcription factor was identified as a nuclear protein and the major positive regulator of BOT biosynthesis...
November 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665682/the-biosynthesis-of-brassicicolin-a-in-the-phytopathogen-alternaria-brassicicola
#17
M Soledade C Pedras, Myung Ryeol Park
Alternaria brassicicola (Schwein.) Wiltshire is a phytopathogenic fungus that together with A. brassicae causes Alternaria black spot disease in Brassica species. Brassicicolin A is the major host-selective phytotoxin produced in cultures of A. brassicicola. Biosynthetic studies to establish the metabolic precursors of brassicicolin A were carried out with isotopically labeled compounds. Incorporation of D-[(13)C6]glucose, L-[(15)N]valine, or L-[(2)H8]valine into brassicicolin A was established using (1)H, (13)C, (15)N NMR and INADEQUATE spectroscopy and HPLC-ESI-MS spectrometry...
December 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636202/characterization-of-citrus-associated-alternaria-species-in-mediterranean-areas
#18
Francesca Garganese, Leonardo Schena, Ilenia Siciliano, Maria Isabella Prigigallo, Davide Spadaro, Anna De Grassi, Antonio Ippolito, Simona Marianna Sanzani
Alternaria brown spot is one of the most important diseases of tangerines and their hybrids worldwide. Recently, outbreaks in Mediterranean areas related to susceptible cultivars, refocused attention on the disease. Twenty representatives were selected from a collection of 180 isolates of Alternaria spp. from citrus leaves and fruit. They were characterized along with reference strains of Alternaria spp. Micro- and macroscopic characteristics separated most Alternaria isolates into six morphotypes referable to A...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633190/characterisation-of-a-flavonoid-ligand-of-the-fungal-protein-alt-a-1
#19
María Garrido-Arandia, Javier Silva-Navas, Carmen Ramírez-Castillejo, Nuria Cubells-Baeza, Cristina Gómez-Casado, Domingo Barber, Juan C Pozo, Pablo G Melendi, Luis F Pacios, Araceli Díaz-Perales
Spores of pathogenic fungi are virtually ubiquitous and cause human disease and severe losses in crops. The endophytic fungi Alternaria species produce host-selective phytotoxins. Alt a 1 is a strongly allergenic protein found in A. alternata that causes severe asthma. Despite the well-established pathogenicity of Alt a 1, the molecular mechanisms underlying its action and physiological function remain largely unknown. To gain insight into the role played by this protein in the pathogenicity of the fungus, we studied production of Alt a 1 and its activity in spores...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536995/karrikins-identified-in-biochars-indicate-post-fire-chemical-cues-can-influence-community-diversity-and-plant-development
#20
Jitka Kochanek, Rowena L Long, Allan T Lisle, Gavin R Flematti
BACKGROUND: Karrikins are smoke-derived compounds that provide strong chemical cues to stimulate seed germination and seedling growth. The recent discovery in Arabidopsis that the karrikin perception system may be present throughout angiosperms implies a fundamental plant function. Here, we identify the most potent karrikin, karrikinolide (KAR1), in biochars and determine its role in species unique plant responses. METHODS: Biochars were prepared by three distinct commercial-scale pyrolysis technologies using systematically selected source material and their chemical properties, including karrikinolide, were quantified...
2016: PloS One
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