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Hideomi Itoh, Kanako Tago, Masahito Hayatsu, Yoshitomo Kikuchi
Covering: up to 2018Insects live in a world full of toxic compounds such as plant toxins and manmade pesticides. To overcome the effects of these toxins, herbivorous insects have evolved diverse, elaborate mechanisms of resistance, such as toxin avoidance, target-site alteration, and detoxification. These resistance mechanisms are thought to be encoded by the insects' own genomes, and in many cases, this holds true. However, recent omics analyses, in conjunction with classic culture-dependent analyses, have revealed that a number of insects possess specific gut microorganisms, some of which significantly contribute to resistance against phytotoxins and pesticides by degrading such chemical compounds...
April 12, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Michael Winn, Daniel Francis, Jason Micklefield
Thaxtomins are diketopiperazine phytotoxins produced by Streptomyces scabies and other actinobacterial plant pathogens that inhibit cellulose biosynthesis in plants. Due to their potent bioactivity and novel mode of action there has been considerable interest in developing thaxtomins as herbicides for crop protection. To address the need for more stable derivatives, we have developed a new approach for structural diversification of thaxtomins. Genes encoding the thaxtomin NRPS from S. scabies, along with genes encoding a promiscuous tryptophan synthase (TrpS) from Salmonella typhimurium, were assembled in a heterologous host Streptomyces albus...
March 30, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Andrea Chini, Alessio Cimmino, Marco Masi, Pierluigi Reveglia, Paola Nocera, Roberto Solano, Antonio Evidente
Jasmonates are signaling compounds that regulate plant responses to stress. Jasmonic acid (JA) is the direct precursor of the bioactive plant hormone JA-Ile, the ligand of the COI1-JAZ co-receptor complex. JA, its methyl ester and three furanonyl esters were recently isolated from the grapevine pathogen Lasiodiplodia mediterannea sp. The JA ester lasiojasmonate A (LasA) is the first reported naturally occurring JA-furanone, whose mode of action is currently unexplored. Here we show that LasA activates many JA-regulated responses in planta, including protein degradation, gene expression, and physiological processes...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mairi M Littleson, Christopher M Baker, Anne J Dalençon, Elizabeth C Frye, Craig Jamieson, Alan R Kennedy, Kenneth B Ling, Matthew M McLachlan, Mark G Montgomery, Claire J Russell, Allan J B Watson
Natural phytotoxins are valuable starting points for agrochemical design. Acting as a jasmonate agonist, coronatine represents an attractive herbicidal lead with novel mode of action, and has been an important synthetic target for agrochemical development. However, both restricted access to quantities of coronatine and a lack of a suitably scalable and flexible synthetic approach to its constituent natural product components, coronafacic and coronamic acids, has frustrated development of this target. Here, we report gram-scale production of coronafacic acid that allows a comprehensive structure-activity relationship study of this target...
March 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Cleverson Carlos Matiolli, Maeli Melotto
Yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) cDNA library screening is a valuable tool to uncover protein-protein interactions and represents a widely used method to investigate protein function. However, cDNA libraries with low transcript representation limits the depth of the screening. We have developed a Y2H library with cDNA made from Arabidopsis leaves exposed to several stressors as well as untreated leaves. The library was built using pooled mRNA extracted from plants challenged with plant and human bacterial pathogens, the flg22 elicitor, the phytotoxin coronatine, and several hormones associated with environmental stress responses...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Alessio Cimmino, Paola Nocera, Benedetto Teodoro Linaldeddu, Marco Masi, Marcin Gorecki, Gennaro Pescitelli, Lucio Montecchio, Lucia Maddau, Antonio Evidente
From the culture filtrates of Diaporthella cryptica, an emerging hazelnut pathogen, 2-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoate methyl ester and its 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) and 3-(1H-indol-3-yl) analogues, named crypticins A-C, were isolated together with the well-known tyrosol. Crypticins A-C were identified by spectroscopic (essentially NMR and HRESI MS) methods. The R absolute configuration (AC) of crypticin A was determined comparing its optical rotation power and ECD spectrum with those of papuline, the methyl ester of (-)(S)-phenyllactic acid isolated as the main phytotoxin of Pseudomonas syringae pv papulans, responsible for apple blister spot...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Carolina G Puig, Manuel J Reigosa, Patrícia Valentão, Paula B Andrade, Nuria Pedrol
In the worldwide search for new strategies in sustainable weed management, the use of plant species able to produce and release phytotoxic compounds into the environment could be an effective alternative to synthetic herbicides. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is known to be a source of biologically active compounds responsible for its phytotoxic and allelopathic properties. Our previous results demonstrated the bioherbicide potential of eucalyptus leaves incorporated into the soil as a green manure, probably through the release of phytotoxins into the soil solution...
2018: PloS One
Hao-Xun Chang, Mitchell G Roth, Dechun Wang, Silvia R Cianzio, David A Lightfoot, Glen L Hartman, Martin I Chilvers
Complexity and inconsistencies in resistance mapping publications of soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) result in interpretation difficulty. This review integrates SDS mapping literature and proposes a new nomenclature system for reproducible SDS resistance loci. Soybean resistance to sudden death syndrome (SDS) is composed of foliar resistance to phytotoxins and root resistance to pathogen invasion. There are more than 80 quantitative trait loci (QTL) and dozens of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with soybean resistance to SDS...
February 12, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Wenjin Hu, Xinli Pan, Fengfeng Li, Wubei Dong
To explore the pathogenesis of Rhizoctonia solani and its phytotoxin phenylacetic acid (PAA) on maize leaves and sheaths, treated leaf and sheath tissues were analyzed and interpreted by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics. The PAA treatment had similar effects to those of R. solani on maize leaves regarding the metabolism of traumatin, phytosphingosine, vitexin 2'' O-beta-D-glucoside, rutin and DIBOA-glucoside, which were up-regulated, while the synthesis of OPC-8:0 and 12-OPDA, precursors for the synthesis of jasmonic acid, a plant defense signaling molecule, was down-regulated under both treatments...
2018: PloS One
Yudi Rusman, Benjamin W Held, Robert A Blanchette, Yanan He, Christine E Salomon
Recent investigations of filamentous fungi isolated from coastal areas and historic wooden structures in the Ross Sea and Peninsula regions of Antarctica have identified the genus Cadophora as one of the most abundant fungal groups, comprising more than 30% of culturable fungi at some locations. A methanol extract of Cadophora luteo-olivacea grown on rice media yielded the known polyketides spiciferone A, spiciferol A, dihydrospiciferone A and dihydrospiciferol A. Additionally, nine related hexaketides were identified, including spiciferone F, two isomers of the known fungal bicyclic ketal colomitide B, cadopherones A-D, similin C, and spicifernin B...
January 19, 2018: Phytochemistry
Juan Martin D'Ambrosio, Gabriela Gonorazky, Daniela J Sueldo, Javier Moraga, Andrés Arruebarrena Di Palma, Lorenzo Lamattina, Isidro González Collado, Ana Maria Laxalt
The phytotoxin botrydial triggers PA production in tomato cell suspensions via PLD and PLC/DGK activation. PLC/DGK-derived PA is partially required for botrydial-induced ROS generation. Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a phospholipid second messenger involved in the induction of plant defense responses. It is generated via two distinct enzymatic pathways, either via phospholipase D (PLD) or by the sequential action of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol kinase (PLC/DGK). Botrydial is a phytotoxic sesquiterpene generated by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea that induces diverse plant defense responses, such as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
April 2018: Planta
Ting Gao, Xianyang Shi
Bacterial seed endophytes can facilitate germination and early plant development. Therefore, the introduction of seed-borne endophytes may improve selected plant characteristics across generations. In this study, regenerated plantlets of common reed (Phragmites australis) were inoculated with activated sludge to obtain a specific functional endophytic bacterium. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis demonstrated that abundant endophytic bacteria could be enriched in the roots. A siderophore-producing endophytic bacterium was isolated from the roots and identified as Herbaspirillum frisingense RE3-3 based on 16S rRNA sequences...
March 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bin Zhao, Jingqian Huo, Ning Liu, Jinlin Zhang, Jingao Dong
α -terthienyl is a natural phytotoxin isolated originally from Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The bioassay presented here shows the strong herbicidal activity of α -terthienyl on Digitaria sanguinalis , Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii . The α -terthienyl-induced response of A. thaliana at the protein level was analyzed at different times. Changes in the protein expression profiles were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) mass spectrometry...
January 12, 2018: Toxins
Mingfa Lv, Yufan Chen, Lisheng Liao, Zhibin Liang, Zurong Shi, Yingxin Tang, Sixuan Ye, Jianuan Zhou, Lianhui Zhang
Dickeya zeae is the causal agent of rice foot rot disease, which has recently become a great threat to rice planting countries and regions. The pathogen produces a family of phytotoxins named zeamines that is critical for bacterial virulence, but little is known about the signaling pathways and regulatory mechanisms that govern zeamine production. In this study, we showed that a conserved transcriptional regulator Fis is involved in the regulation of zeamine production in D. zeae strain EC1. Deletion mutants were markedly attenuated in the virulence against rice seed germination...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dawn R D Bignell, Zhenlong Cheng, Luke Bown
Phytotoxins are secondary metabolites that contribute to the development and/or severity of diseases caused by various plant pathogenic microorganisms. The coronafacoyl phytotoxins are an important family of plant toxins that are known or suspected to be produced by several phylogenetically distinct plant pathogenic bacteria, including the gammaproteobacterium Pseudomonas syringae and the actinobacterium Streptomyces scabies. At least seven different family members have been identified, of which coronatine was the first to be described and is the best-characterized...
January 6, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Michelina Ruocco, Riccardo Baroncelli, Santa Olga Cacciola, Catello Pane, Maurilia Maria Monti, Giuseppe Firrao, Mariarosaria Vergara, Gaetano Magnano di San Lio, Giovanni Vannacci, Felice Scala
BACKGROUND: The early phases of Diaporthe helianthi pathogenesis on sunflower are characterized by the production of phytotoxins that may play a role in host colonisation. In previous studies, phytotoxins of a polyketidic nature were isolated and purified from culture filtrates of virulent strains of D. helianthi isolated from sunflower. A highly aggressive isolate (7/96) from France contained a gene fragment of a putative nonaketide synthase (lovB) which was conserved in a virulent D...
January 6, 2018: BMC Genomics
Hai-Lei Wei, Alan Collmer
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and its derivatives cause disease in tomato, Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana. The primary virulence factors include a repertoire of 29 effector proteins injected into plant cells by the type III secretion system and the phytotoxin coronatine. The complete repertoire of effector genes and key coronatine biosynthesis genes have been progressively deleted and minimally reassembled to reconstitute basic pathogenic ability in N. benthamiana, and in Arabidopsis plants that have mutations in target genes that mimic effector actions...
December 25, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Seungwon Ji, Jin-Young Lee, Jan Schrör, Aloran Mazumder, Dong Man Jang, Sébastien Chateauvieux, Michael Schnekenburger, Che Ry Hong, Christo Christov, Hyoung Jin Kang, Youngjo Lee, Byung Woo Han, Kyu-Won Kim, Hee-Young Shin, Mario Dicato, Claudia Cerella, Gabriele M König, Barbora Orlikova, Marc Diederich
Stemphol (STP) is a novel druggable phytotoxin triggering mixed apoptotic and non-apoptotic necrotic-like cell death in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Use of several chemical inhibitors highlighted that STP-induced non-canonical programmed cell death was Ca2+ -dependent but independent of caspases, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, cathepsin, or calpains. Similar to thapsigargin, STP led to increased cytosolic Ca2+ levels and computational docking confirmed binding of STP within the thapsigargin binding pocket of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA)...
March 1, 2018: Cancer Letters
Pierluigi Reveglia, Tamara Cinelli, Alessio Cimmino, Marco Masi, Antonio Evidente
A strain of Fusarium oxysporum was isolated from grapevine showing heavy decline disease in a vineyard of Veneto region in Italy. The fungus showed to produce phytotoxic metabolites when grown in liquid culture. The main metabolite was identified as fusaric acid produced for the first time as a phytotoxin by a strain of F. oxysporom isolated from diseased grapevine plants. Its quantification in the fungus cultures filtrates was accomplished by HPLC. When tested on tobacco by leaf-puncture assay fusaric acid at 0...
December 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
Yi Zhang, Yuhan Gao, Yingbo Liang, Yijie Dong, Xiufen Yang, Jingjing Yuan, Dewen Qiu
During pathogenic infection, hundreds of proteins that play vital roles in the Verticillium dahliae -host interaction are secreted. In this study, an integrated proteomic analysis of secreted V . dahliae proteins was performed, and a conserved secretory protein, designated VdCP1, was identified as a member of the SnodProt1 phytotoxin family. An expression analysis of the vdcp1 gene revealed that the transcript is present in every condition studied and displays elevated expression throughout the infection process...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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