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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516126/an-hplc-based-method-to-quantify-coronatine-production-by-bacteria
#1
Shweta Panchal, Zachary S Breitbach, Maeli Melotto
Coronatine is a polyketide phytotoxin produced by several pathovars of the plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. It is one of the most important virulence factors determining the success of bacterial pathogenesis in the plant at both epiphytic and endophytic stages of the disease cycle. This protocol describes an optimized procedure to culture bacterial cells for coronatine production and to quantify the amount of coronatine secreted in the culture medium using an HPLC-based method.
March 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467083/structural-revision-and-biosynthesis-of-the-fungal-phytotoxins-phyllostictines-a-and-b
#2
Francesco Trenti, Russell J Cox
The structure of the fungal phytotoxins known as the phyllostictines has been revised to a series of bicyclic 3-methylene tetramic acids. Genome sequencing of the producing organism Phyllostica cirsii has revealed a biosynthetic gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of the phyllostictines, and targeted knockout experiments have proven the link and produced an intermediate.
May 3, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462700/fungal-phytotoxins-in-sustainable-weed-management
#3
Maurizio Vurro, Angela Boari, Francesca Casella, Maria Chiara Zonno
Fungal phytotoxins are natural secondary metabolites produced by plant pathogenic fungi during host-pathogen interactions. They have received considerable particular attention for elucidating disease etiology, and consequently to design strategies for disease control. Due to wide differences in their chemical structures, these toxic metabolites have different ecological and environmental roles and mechanisms of action. This review aims at summarizing the studies on the possible use of thesemetabolites as tools in biological and integrated weed management, e...
April 26, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422495/cochliotoxin-a-dihydropyranopyran-4-5-dione-and-its-analogues-produced-by-cochliobolus-australiensis-display-phytotoxic-activity-against-buffelgrass-cenchrus-ciliaris
#4
Marco Masi, Susan Meyer, Suzette Clement, Alessio Cimmino, Massimo Cristofaro, Antonio Evidente
Buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare or Cenchrus ciliaris) is a perennial grass that has become highly invasive in the Sonoran Desert of southern Arizona. In the search for novel control strategies against this weed, strains of the foliar fungal pathogen Cochliobolus australiensis from buffelgrass have been screened for their ability to produce phytotoxic metabolites that could potentially be used as natural herbicides in an integrated pest management strategy. A new phytotoxin, named cochliotoxin, was isolated from liquid culture of this fungus together with radicinin, radicinol, and their 3-epimers...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403565/inhibitory-effect-of-thymus-vulgaris-and-origanum-vulgare-essential-oils-on-virulence-factors-of-phytopatogenic-pseudomonas-syringae-strains
#5
M E Carezzano, J P Sotelo, E Primo, E B Reinoso, M F Paletti Rovey, M S Demo, W F Giordano, M de Las M Oliva
Pseudomonas syringae is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes lesions in the leaves during the colonization process. The damage is associated to the production of many virulence factors such as biofilm and phytotoxins. The essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare have demonstrated the ability to inhibit P. syringae. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils on the production of virulence factors of phytopatogenic P. syringae strains, including anti-biofilm and anti-toxins activities...
April 12, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278617/phytotoxic-activity-against-bromus-tectorum-for-secondary-metabolites-of-a-seed-pathogenic-fusarium-strain-belonging-to-the-f-tricinctum-species-complex
#6
Marco Masi, Susan Meyer, Gennaro Pescitelli, Alessio Cimmino, Suzette Clement, Beth Peacock, Antonio Evidente
The winter annual grass Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) has become highly invasive in semiarid ecosystems of western North America. In these areas, a natural phenomenon, complete cheatgrass stand failure ('die-off'), is apparently caused by a complex interaction among soilborne fungal pathogens. Several Fusarium strains belonging to the Fusarium tricinctum species complex were isolated from these soils and found to be pathogenic on B. tectorum seeds. One of these strains was produced in cheatgrass seed culture to evaluate its ability to produce phytotoxins...
March 6, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251756/functional-genomics-guided-discovery-of-a-light-activated-phytotoxin-in-the-wheat-pathogen-parastagonospora-nodorum-via-pathway-activation
#7
Yit-Heng Chooi, Guozhi Zhang, Jinyu Hu, Mariano Jordi Muria-Gonzalez, Phuong N Tran, Amber Pettitt, Alexander G Maier, Russell A Barrow, Peter S Solomon
Parastagonospora nodorum is an important pathogen of wheat. The contribution of secondary metabolites to this pathosystem is poorly understood. A biosynthetic gene cluster (SNOG_08608-08616) has been shown to be upregulated during the late stage of P. nodorum wheat leaf infection. The gene cluster shares several homologues with the Cercospora nicotianae CTB gene cluster encoding the biosynthesis of cercosporin. Activation of the gene cluster by overexpression (OE) of the transcription factor gene (SNOG_08609) in P...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239986/molecular-analysis-of-the-early-interaction-between-the-grapevine-flower-and-botrytis-cinerea-reveals-that-prompt-activation-of-specific-host-pathways-leads-to-fungus-quiescence
#8
Zeraye Mehari Haile, Stefania Pilati, Paolo Sonego, Giulia Malacarne, Urska Vrhovsek, Kristof Engelen, Paul Tudzynski, Michela Zottini, Elena Baraldi, Claudio Moser
Grape quality and yield can be impaired by bunch rot, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Infection often occurs at flowering, and the pathogen stays quiescent until fruit maturity. Here, we report a molecular analysis of the early interaction between B. cinerea and Vitis vinifera flowers, using a controlled infection system, confocal microscopy and integrated transcriptomic and metabolic analysis of the host and the pathogen. Flowers from fruiting cuttings of the cultivar Pinot Noir were infected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled B...
February 27, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160348/phoma-crystallifera-with-phytotoxic-effects-and-pathogenic-potential-against-field-bindweed-convolvulus-arvensis-l-in-iran
#9
P Razaghi, D Zafari
AIMS: To identify a potential pathogenic isolate of fungus on Convolvulus arvensis and to determine its phytotoxic activity, which revealed the presence of toxic metabolites responsible for the toxicity against the target weed. METHODS AND RESULTS: A high virulent isolate of the fungus, Phoma crystallifera was isolated from symptomatic field bindweed in the west of Iran and was screened for the production of phytotoxins, which promoted necrosis on the detached leaves and seedlings of field bindweed in the bioassays...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113065/allelopathic-effects-of-volatile-organic-compounds-from-eucalyptus-grandis-rhizosphere-soil-on-eisenia-fetida-assessed-using-avoidance-bioassays-enzyme-activity-and-comet-assays
#10
Tang Zhiqun, Zhang Jian, Yu Junli, Wang Chunzi, Zhang Danju
Allelopathy has been identified as an underlying mechanism of detrimental environmental impacts within commercial plantations. Eucalyptus spp. are known to generate huge amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can function as phytotoxins and thus inhibit other plants. In the present study, biochemical markers, including activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and oxidative stress enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were assayed to assess changes in Eisenia fetida at the physiological level induced by different doses of VOCs as part of an acute toxicity test over 7 and 14-day exposures...
April 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112374/ophiobolin-a-a-sesterpenoid-fungal-phytotoxin-displays-different-mechanisms-of-cell-death-in-mammalian-cells-depending-upon-the-cancer-cell-origin
#11
Rachel Morrison, Tiffany Lodge, Antonio Evidente, Robert Kiss, Helen Townley
Herein we have undertaken a systematic analysis of the effects of the fungal derivative ophiobolin A (OphA) on eight cancer cell lines from different tissue types. The LD50 for each cell line was determined and the change in cell size determined. Flow cytometric analysis and western blotting were used to assess the cell death markers for early apoptosis, late apoptosis and necrosis, and the involvement of the caspase signalling pathway. Alterations in calcium levels and reactive oxygen species were assessed due to their integral involvement in intracellular signalling...
March 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109049/production-of-the-antibiotic-secondary-metabolite-solanapyrone-a-by-the-fungal-plant-pathogen-ascochyta-rabiei-during-fruiting-body-formation-in-saprobic-growth
#12
Wonyong Kim, Jeong-Jin Park, Frank M Dugan, Tobin L Peever, David R Gang, George Vandemark, Weidong Chen
Fungi are noted producers of a diverse array of secondary metabolites, many of which are of pharmacological importance. However, the biological roles of the vast majority of these molecules during the fungal life cycle in nature remain elusive. Solanapyrones are polyketide-derived secondary metabolites produced by diverse fungal species including the plant pathogen Ascochyta rabiei. This molecule was originally thought to function as a phytotoxin facilitating pathogenesis of A. rabiei. Chemical profiling and gene expression studies showed that solanapyrone A was specifically produced during saprobic, but not parasitic growth of A...
January 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105943/comprehensive-analysis-of-draft-genomes-of-two-closely-related-pseudomonas-syringae-phylogroup-2b-strains-infecting-mono-and-dicotyledon-host-plants
#13
Rinat I Sultanov, Georgij P Arapidi, Svetlana V Vinogradova, Vadim M Govorun, Duglas G Luster, Alexander N Ignatov
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the damage caused by bacterial pathogens to major crops has been increasing worldwide. Pseudomonas syringae is a widespread bacterial species that infects almost all major crops. Different P. syringae strains use a wide range of biochemical mechanisms, including phytotoxins and effectors of the type III and type IV secretion systems, which determine the specific nature of the pathogen virulence. RESULTS: Strains 1845 (isolated from dicots) and 2507 (isolated from monocots) were selected for sequencing because they specialize on different groups of plants...
December 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093838/fusaric-acid-contributes-to-virulence-of-fusarium-oxysporum-on-plant-and-mammalian-hosts
#14
Cristina López-Díaz, Vahid Rahjoo, Michael Sulyok, Veronica Ghionna, Adela Martín-Vicente, Javier Capilla, Antonio Di Pietro, Manuel S López-Berges
Fusaric acid (FA) is among the oldest identified secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium species, known for a long time to display strong phytotoxicity and moderate toxicity to animal cells; however, the cellular targets of FA as well as its function in fungal pathogenicity remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of FA in Fusarium oxysporum, a soil-borne cross-kingdom pathogen that causes vascular wilt on more than a hundred plant species and opportunistic infections in humans. Targeted deletion of fub1, encoding a predicted orthologue of the polyketide synthase involved in FA biosynthesis in F...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036242/identification-of-new-regulatory-genes-involved-in-the-pathogenic-functions-of-the-rice-pathogenic-bacterium-burkholderia-glumae
#15
Rebecca A Melanson, Inderjit Barphagha, Surendra Osti, Tiago P Lelis, Hari S Karki, Ruoxi Chen, Bishnu K Shrestha, Jong Hyun Ham
Burkholderia glumae is an emerging plant-pathogenic bacterium that causes disease in rice in several of the major of rice-producing areas throughout the world. In the southern United States, B. glumae is the major causal agent of bacterial panicle blight of rice and has caused severe yield losses in recent decades. Despite its importance, few management options are available for diseases caused by B. glumae, and knowledge of how this pathogen causes disease is limited. In an effort to identify novel factors that contribute to the pathogenicity of B...
December 30, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013556/%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitors-and-phytotoxins-from-streptomyces-xanthophaeus
#16
Jing Wei, Xiu-Yun Zhang, Shan Deng, Lin Cao, Quan-Hong Xue, Jin-Ming Gao
Twenty-four metabolites 1-24 were isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces xanthophaeus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of their NMR data with literature data reported. Daidzein (1), genistein (2) and gliricidin (3) inhibited α-glucosidase in vitro with IC50 values of 174.2, 36.1 and 47.4 μM, respectively, more potent than the positive control, acarbose. Docking study revealed that the amino acid residue Thr 215 is the essential binding site for active ligands 2...
December 26, 2016: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987445/assessment-of-phytotoxicity-grade-during-composting-based-on-eem-parafac-combined-with-projection-pursuit-regression
#17
Hong-Yang Cui, Yue Zhao, Yan-Ni Chen, Xu Zhang, Xue-Qin Wang, Qian Lu, Li-Ming Jia, Zi-Min Wei
Improper treatment of organic waste may result in environmental pollution and harm to plant growth due to the high concentration of phytotoxin. Composting has widely been used for recycling organic waste and reducing phytotoxin to improve soil properties. Assessing the phytotoxicity grades of compost products is essential for achieving high quality compost to guarantee its marketability. In this study, a technique combined parallel factor (PARAFAC) of excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) spectroscopy with projection pursuit regression (PPR) was applied to improve the sensitivity of phytotoxicity assessment during composting...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941854/effects-of-iron-and-boron-combinations-on-the-suppression-of-fusarium-wilt-in-banana
#18
Xian Dong, Min Wang, Ning Ling, Qirong Shen, Shiwei Guo
The effects of mineral nutrient on banana wilt disease, which are the result of a competitive relationship between host plants and pathogens, can affect the interactions of plants with microorganisms. To investigate the mineral nutrient effect, hydroponic experiments were conducted in glasshouse containing combinations of low, medium, and high iron (Fe) and boron (B) concentrations, followed by pathogen inoculation. High Fe and B treatment significantly reduced the disease index and facilitated plants growth...
December 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930998/fate-and-ecotoxicological-impact-of-new-generation-herbicides-from-the-triketone-family-an-overview-to-assess-the-environmental-risks
#19
REVIEW
E Dumas, M Giraudo, E Goujon, M Halma, E Knhili, M Stauffert, I Batisson, P Besse-Hoggan, J Bohatier, P Bouchard, H Celle-Jeanton, M Costa Gomes, F Delbac, C Forano, P Goupil, N Guix, P Husson, G Ledoigt, C Mallet, C Mousty, V Prévot, C Richard, S Sarraute
Triketones, derived chemically from a natural phytotoxin (leptospermone), are a good example of allelochemicals as lead molecules for the development of new herbicides. Targeting a new and key enzyme involved in carotenoid biosynthesis, these latest-generation herbicides (sulcotrione, mesotrione and tembotrione) were designed to be eco-friendly and commercialized fifteen-twenty years ago. The mechanisms controlling their fate in different ecological niches as well as their toxicity and impact on different organisms or ecosystems are still under investigation...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855306/effect-of-phytotoxic-secondary-metabolites-and-semisynthetic-compounds-from-endophytic-fungus-xylaria-feejeensis-strain-sm3e-1b-on-spinach-chloroplast-photosynthesis
#20
Martha Lydia Macías-Rubalcava, Marbella Claudia García-Méndez, Beatriz King-Díaz, Norma Angélica Macías-Ruvalcaba
We investigated the mechanism of action on the photosynthesis light reactions of three major secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Xylaria feejeensis strain SM3e-1b, isolated from Sapium macrocarpum; and four novel derivatives of coriloxine, a major compound produced by X. feejeensis. The natural phytotoxins include one epoxycyclohexenone derivative, coriloxine (1), and two quinone derivatives (2-3). The semisynthetic derivatives of coriloxine are two cyclohexenone (4-6) and two quinone compounds (5-7)...
January 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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