keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Phytotoxin

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818040/in-silico-prediction-and-characterization-of-secondary-metabolite-biosynthetic-gene-clusters-in-the-wheat-pathogen-zymoseptoria-tritici
#1
Timothy Cairns, Vera Meyer
BACKGROUND: Fungal pathogens of plants produce diverse repertoires of secondary metabolites, which have functions ranging from iron acquisition, defense against immune perturbation, to toxic assaults on the host. The wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici causes Septoria tritici blotch, a foliar disease which is a significant threat to global food security. Currently, there is limited knowledge of the secondary metabolite arsenal produced by Z. tritici, which significantly restricts mechanistic understanding of infection...
August 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754703/biosynthesis-and-evolution-of-coronafacoyl-phytotoxin-production-in-the-common-scab-pathogen-streptomyces-scabies
#2
Luke Bown, Yuting Li, Fabrice Berrué, Joost T P Verhoeven, Suzanne C Dufour, Dawn R D Bignell
Coronafacoyl phytotoxins are an important family of plant toxins that are produced by several different phytopathogenic bacteria, including the gammaproteobacterium Pseudomonas syringae and the actinobacterium Streptomyces scabies. The phytotoxins consist of coronafacic acid (CFA) linked via an amide bond to different amino acids or amino acid derivatives. Previous work suggested that S. scabies and P. syringae use distinct biosynthetic pathways for producing CFA, which is subsequently linked to its amino acid partner to form the complete phytotoxin...
July 28, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748252/-mn1606sp-by-spencer-filial-soybean-population-reveals-novel-quantitative-trait-loci-and-interactions-among-loci-conditioning-sds-resistance
#3
Alexander S Luckew, Sivakumar Swaminathan, Leonor F Leandro, James H Orf, Silvia R Cianzio
Four novel QTL and interactions among QTL were identified in this research, using as a parent line the most SDS-resistant genotype within soybean cultivars of the US early maturity groups. Soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) reduces soybean yield in most of the growing areas of the world. The causal agent of SDS, soilborne fungus Fusarium virguliforme (Fv), releases phytotoxins taken up by the plant to produce chlorosis and necrosis in the leaves. Planting resistant cultivars is the most successful management practice to control the disease...
July 26, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718836/the-biological-activities-of-sesterterpenoid-type-ophiobolins
#4
REVIEW
Wei Tian, Zixin Deng, Kui Hong
Ophiobolins (Ophs) are a group of tricarbocyclic sesterterpenoids whose structures contain a tricyclic 5-8-5 carbotricyclic skeleton. Thus far, 49 natural Ophs have been reported and assigned into A-W subgroups in order of discovery. While these sesterterpenoids were first characterized as highly effective phytotoxins, later investigations demonstrated that they display a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological characteristics such as phytotoxic, antimicrobial, nematocidal, cytotoxic, anti-influenza and inflammation-promoting activities...
July 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677296/pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-dc3000-polymutants-deploying-coronatine-and-two-type-iii-effectors-produce-quantifiable-chlorotic-spots-from-individual-bacterial-colonies-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-leaves
#5
Suma Chakravarthy, Jay N Worley, Adriana Montes-Rodriguez, Alan Collmer
Primary virulence factors of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 include the phytotoxin coronatine (COR) and a repertoire of 29 effector proteins injected into plant cells by the type III secretion system (T3SS). DC3000 derivatives differentially producing COR, the T3SS machinery, and subsets of key effectors were constructed and assayed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Bacteria were inoculated by dipping of whole plants and assayed for population growth and production of chlorotic spots on leaves. The strains fell into three classes...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664396/allelopathy-and-resource-competition-the-effects-of-phragmites-australis-invasion-in-plant-communities
#6
Md Nazim Uddin, Randall William Robinson
BACKGROUND: Phragmites australis, a ubiquitous wetland plant, has been considered one of the most invasive species in the world. Allelopathy appears to be one of the invasion mechanisms, however, the effects could be masked by resource competition among target plants. The difficulty of distinguishing allelopathy from resource competition among plants has hindered investigations of the role of phytotoxic allelochemicals in plant communities. This has been addressed via experiments conducted in both the greenhouse and laboratory by growing associated plants, Melaleuca ericifolia, Rumex conglomeratus, and model plant, Lactuca sativa at varying densities with the allelopathic plant, P...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652328/pathogen-exploitation-of-an-abscisic-acid-and-jasmonate-inducible-mapk-phosphatase-and-its-interception-by-arabidopsis-immunity
#7
Akira Mine, Matthias L Berens, Tatsuya Nobori, Shajahan Anver, Kaori Fukumoto, Thomas M Winkelmüller, Atsushi Takeda, Dieter Becker, Kenichi Tsuda
Phytopathogens promote virulence by, for example, exploiting signaling pathways mediated by phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonate (JA). Some plants can counteract pathogen virulence by invoking a potent form of immunity called effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Here, we report that ABA and JA mediate inactivation of the immune-associated MAP kinases (MAPKs), MPK3 and MPK6, in Arabidopsis thaliana ABA induced expression of genes encoding the protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs), HAI1, HAI2, and HAI3 through ABF/AREB transcription factors...
July 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620673/first-evidence-of-pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-n-oxide-induced-hepatic-sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome-in-humans
#8
Mengbi Yang, Jianqing Ruan, Hong Gao, Na Li, Jiang Ma, Junyi Xue, Yang Ye, Peter Pi-Cheng Fu, Jiyao Wang, Ge Lin
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are among the most potent phytotoxins widely distributed in plant species around the world. PA is one of the major causes responsible for the development of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) and exerts hepatotoxicity via metabolic activation to form the reactive metabolites, which bind with cellular proteins to generate pyrrole-protein adducts, leading to hepatotoxicity. PA N-oxides coexist with their corresponding PAs in plants with varied quantities, sometimes even higher than that of PAs, but the toxicity of PA N-oxides remains unclear...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617493/the-formation-of-sesquiterpenoid-presilphiperfolane-and-cameroonane-metabolites-in-the-bcbot4-null-mutant-of-botrytis-cinerea
#9
Gabriel Franco Dos Santos, Javier Moraga, Jacqueline A Takahashi, Muriel Viaud, James R Hanson, Rosario Hernández Galán, Isidro G Collado
Botrytis cinerea is a polyphagous fungal parasite which causes serious damage to more than 200 plant species and consequent economic losses for commercial crops. This pathogen produces two families of phytotoxins, the botryanes and botcinins, which are involved in the infection mechanism. The B. cinerea genome has provided a complete picture of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of its secondary metabolites. The botrydial biosynthetic gene cluster has been identified. This cluster consists of seven genes, where the genes BcBOT1, BcBOT3 and BcBOT4 encode three mono-oxygenases...
June 27, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570637/temperature-mediated-biosynthesis-of-the-phytotoxin-phaseolotoxin-by-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-phaseolicola-depends-on-the-autoregulated-expression-of-the-phtabc-genes
#10
Selene Aguilera, Ariel Alvarez-Morales, Jesús Murillo, José Luis Hernández-Flores, Jaime Bravo, Susana De la Torre-Zavala
Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola produces phaseolotoxin in a temperature dependent manner, being optimally synthesized between 18°C and 20°C, while no detectable amounts are present above 28°C. The Pht cluster, involved in the biosynthesis of phaseolotoxin, contains 23 genes that are organized in five transcriptional units. The function of most of the genes from the Pht cluster is still unknown and little information about the regulatory circuitry leading to expression of these genes has been reported...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516126/an-hplc-based-method-to-quantify-coronatine-production-by-bacteria
#11
Shweta Panchal, Zachary S Breitbach, Maeli Melotto
Coronatine is a polyketide phytotoxin produced by several pathovars of the plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. It is one of the most important virulence factors determining the success of bacterial pathogenesis in the plant at both epiphytic and endophytic stages of the disease cycle. This protocol describes an optimized procedure to culture bacterial cells for coronatine production and to quantify the amount of coronatine secreted in the culture medium using an HPLC-based method.
March 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467083/structural-revision-and-biosynthesis-of-the-fungal-phytotoxins-phyllostictines-a-and-b
#12
Francesco Trenti, Russell J Cox
The structure of the fungal phytotoxins known as the phyllostictines has been revised to a series of bicyclic 3-methylene tetramic acids. Genome sequencing of the producing organism Phyllostica cirsii has revealed a biosynthetic gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of the phyllostictines, and targeted knockout experiments have proven the link and produced an intermediate.
May 3, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462700/fungal-phytotoxins-in-sustainable-weed-management
#13
Maurizio Vurro, Angela Boari, Francesca Casella, Maria Chiara Zonno
Fungal phytotoxins are natural secondary metabolites produced by plant pathogenic fungi during host-pathogen interactions. They have received considerable particular attention for elucidating disease etiology, and consequently to design strategies for disease control. Due to wide differences in their chemical structures, these toxic metabolites have different ecological and environmental roles and mechanisms of action. This review aims at summarizing the studies on the possible use of thesemetabolites as tools in biological and integrated weed management, e...
April 26, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422495/cochliotoxin-a-dihydropyranopyran-4-5-dione-and-its-analogues-produced-by-cochliobolus-australiensis-display-phytotoxic-activity-against-buffelgrass-cenchrus-ciliaris
#14
Marco Masi, Susan Meyer, Suzette Clement, Alessio Cimmino, Massimo Cristofaro, Antonio Evidente
Buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare or Cenchrus ciliaris) is a perennial grass that has become highly invasive in the Sonoran Desert of southern Arizona. In the search for novel control strategies against this weed, strains of the foliar fungal pathogen Cochliobolus australiensis from buffelgrass have been screened for their ability to produce phytotoxic metabolites that could potentially be used as natural herbicides in an integrated pest management strategy. A new phytotoxin, named cochliotoxin, was isolated from liquid culture of this fungus together with radicinin, radicinol, and their 3-epimers...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403565/inhibitory-effect-of-thymus-vulgaris-and-origanum-vulgare-essential-oils-on-virulence-factors-of-phytopathogenic-pseudomonas-syringae-strains
#15
M E Carezzano, J P Sotelo, E Primo, E B Reinoso, M F Paletti Rovey, M S Demo, W F Giordano, M de Las M Oliva
Pseudomonas syringae is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes lesions in leaves during the colonisation process. The damage is associated with production of many virulence factors, such as biofilm and phytotoxins. The essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) have been demonstrated to inhibit P. syringae. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils on production of virulence factors of phytopathogenic P. syringae strains, including anti-biofilm and anti-toxins activities...
April 12, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278617/phytotoxic-activity-against-bromus-tectorum-for-secondary-metabolites-of-a-seed-pathogenic-fusarium-strain-belonging-to-the-f-tricinctum-species-complex
#16
Marco Masi, Susan Meyer, Gennaro Pescitelli, Alessio Cimmino, Suzette Clement, Beth Peacock, Antonio Evidente
The winter annual grass Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) has become highly invasive in semiarid ecosystems of western North America. In these areas, a natural phenomenon, complete cheatgrass stand failure ('die-off'), is apparently caused by a complex interaction among soilborne fungal pathogens. Several Fusarium strains belonging to the Fusarium tricinctum species complex were isolated from these soils and found to be pathogenic on B. tectorum seeds. One of these strains was produced in cheatgrass seed culture to evaluate its ability to produce phytotoxins...
March 6, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251756/functional-genomics-guided-discovery-of-a-light-activated-phytotoxin-in-the-wheat-pathogen-parastagonospora-nodorum-via-pathway-activation
#17
Yit-Heng Chooi, Guozhi Zhang, Jinyu Hu, Mariano Jordi Muria-Gonzalez, Phuong N Tran, Amber Pettitt, Alexander G Maier, Russell A Barrow, Peter S Solomon
Parastagonospora nodorum is an important pathogen of wheat. The contribution of secondary metabolites to this pathosystem is poorly understood. A biosynthetic gene cluster (SNOG_08608-08616) has been shown to be upregulated during the late stage of P. nodorum wheat leaf infection. The gene cluster shares several homologues with the Cercospora nicotianae CTB gene cluster encoding the biosynthesis of cercosporin. Activation of the gene cluster by overexpression (OE) of the transcription factor gene (SNOG_08609) in P...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239986/molecular-analysis-of-the-early-interaction-between-the-grapevine-flower-and-botrytis-cinerea-reveals-that-prompt-activation-of-specific-host-pathways-leads-to-fungus-quiescence
#18
Zeraye Mehari Haile, Stefania Pilati, Paolo Sonego, Giulia Malacarne, Urska Vrhovsek, Kristof Engelen, Paul Tudzynski, Michela Zottini, Elena Baraldi, Claudio Moser
Grape quality and yield can be impaired by bunch rot, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Infection often occurs at flowering, and the pathogen stays quiescent until fruit maturity. Here, we report a molecular analysis of the early interaction between B. cinerea and Vitis vinifera flowers, using a controlled infection system, confocal microscopy and integrated transcriptomic and metabolic analysis of the host and the pathogen. Flowers from fruiting cuttings of the cultivar Pinot Noir were infected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled B...
February 27, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160348/phoma-crystallifera-with-phytotoxic-effects-and-pathogenic-potential-against-field-bindweed-convolvulus-arvensis-l-in-iran
#19
P Razaghi, D Zafari
AIMS: To identify a potential pathogenic isolate of fungus on Convolvulus arvensis and to determine its phytotoxic activity, which revealed the presence of toxic metabolites responsible for the toxicity against the target weed. METHODS AND RESULTS: A high virulent isolate of the fungus, Phoma crystallifera was isolated from symptomatic field bindweed in the west of Iran and was screened for the production of phytotoxins, which promoted necrosis on the detached leaves and seedlings of field bindweed in the bioassays...
May 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113065/allelopathic-effects-of-volatile-organic-compounds-from-eucalyptus-grandis-rhizosphere-soil-on-eisenia-fetida-assessed-using-avoidance-bioassays-enzyme-activity-and-comet-assays
#20
Tang Zhiqun, Zhang Jian, Yu Junli, Wang Chunzi, Zhang Danju
Allelopathy has been identified as an underlying mechanism of detrimental environmental impacts within commercial plantations. Eucalyptus spp. are known to generate huge amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can function as phytotoxins and thus inhibit other plants. In the present study, biochemical markers, including activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and oxidative stress enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were assayed to assess changes in Eisenia fetida at the physiological level induced by different doses of VOCs as part of an acute toxicity test over 7 and 14-day exposures...
April 2017: Chemosphere
keyword
keyword
114093
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"