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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718836/the-biological-activities-of-sesterterpenoid-type-ophiobolins
#1
REVIEW
Wei Tian, Zixin Deng, Kui Hong
Ophiobolins (Ophs) are a group of tricarbocyclic sesterterpenoids whose structures contain a tricyclic 5-8-5 carbotricyclic skeleton. Thus far, 49 natural Ophs have been reported and assigned into A-W subgroups in order of discovery. While these sesterterpenoids were first characterized as highly effective phytotoxins, later investigations demonstrated that they display a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological characteristics such as phytotoxic, antimicrobial, nematocidal, cytotoxic, anti-influenza and inflammation-promoting activities...
July 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677296/pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-dc3000-polymutants-deploying-coronatine-and-two-type-iii-effectors-produce-quantifiable-chlorotic-spots-from-individual-bacterial-colonies-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-leaves
#2
Suma Chakravarthy, Jay N Worley, Adriana Montes-Rodriguez, Alan Collmer
Primary virulence factors of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 include the phytotoxin coronatine (COR) and a repertoire of 29 effector proteins injected into plant cells by the type III secretion system (T3SS). DC3000 derivatives differentially producing COR, the T3SS machinery, and subsets of key effectors were constructed and assayed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Bacteria were inoculated by dipping of whole plants and assayed for population growth and production of chlorotic spots on leaves. The strains fell into three classes...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664396/allelopathy-and-resource-competition-the-effects-of-phragmites-australis-invasion-in-plant-communities
#3
Md Nazim Uddin, Randall William Robinson
BACKGROUND: Phragmites australis, a ubiquitous wetland plant, has been considered one of the most invasive species in the world. Allelopathy appears to be one of the invasion mechanisms, however, the effects could be masked by resource competition among target plants. The difficulty of distinguishing allelopathy from resource competition among plants has hindered investigations of the role of phytotoxic allelochemicals in plant communities. This has been addressed via experiments conducted in both the greenhouse and laboratory by growing associated plants, Melaleuca ericifolia, Rumex conglomeratus, and model plant, Lactuca sativa at varying densities with the allelopathic plant, P...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652328/pathogen-exploitation-of-an-abscisic-acid-and-jasmonate-inducible-mapk-phosphatase-and-its-interception-by-arabidopsis-immunity
#4
Akira Mine, Matthias L Berens, Tatsuya Nobori, Shajahan Anver, Kaori Fukumoto, Thomas M Winkelmüller, Atsushi Takeda, Dieter Becker, Kenichi Tsuda
Phytopathogens promote virulence by, for example, exploiting signaling pathways mediated by phytohormones such as abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonate (JA). Some plants can counteract pathogen virulence by invoking a potent form of immunity called effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Here, we report that ABA and JA mediate inactivation of the immune-associated MAP kinases (MAPKs), MPK3 and MPK6, in Arabidopsis thaliana ABA induced expression of genes encoding the protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs), HAI1, HAI2, and HAI3 through ABF/AREB transcription factors...
June 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620673/first-evidence-of-pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-n-oxide-induced-hepatic-sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome-in-humans
#5
Mengbi Yang, Jianqing Ruan, Hong Gao, Na Li, Jiang Ma, Junyi Xue, Yang Ye, Peter Pi-Cheng Fu, Jiyao Wang, Ge Lin
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are among the most potent phytotoxins widely distributed in plant species around the world. PA is one of the major causes responsible for the development of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) and exerts hepatotoxicity via metabolic activation to form the reactive metabolites, which bind with cellular proteins to generate pyrrole-protein adducts, leading to hepatotoxicity. PA N-oxides coexist with their corresponding PAs in plants with varied quantities, sometimes even higher than that of PAs, but the toxicity of PA N-oxides remains unclear...
June 15, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617493/the-formation-of-sesquiterpenoid-presilphiperfolane-and-cameroonane-metabolites-in-the-bcbot4-null-mutant-of-botrytis-cinerea
#6
Gabriel Franco Dos Santos, Javier Moraga, Jacqueline A Takahashi, Muriel Viaud, James R Hanson, Rosario Hernández Galán, Isidro G Collado
Botrytis cinerea is a polyphagous fungal parasite which causes serious damage to more than 200 plant species and consequent economic losses for commercial crops. This pathogen produces two families of phytotoxins, the botryanes and botcinins, which are involved in the infection mechanism. The B. cinerea genome has provided a complete picture of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of its secondary metabolites. The botrydial biosynthetic gene cluster has been identified. This cluster consists of seven genes, where the genes BcBOT1, BcBOT3 and BcBOT4 encode three mono-oxygenases...
June 27, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570637/temperature-mediated-biosynthesis-of-the-phytotoxin-phaseolotoxin-by-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-phaseolicola-depends-on-the-autoregulated-expression-of-the-phtabc-genes
#7
Selene Aguilera, Ariel Alvarez-Morales, Jesús Murillo, José Luis Hernández-Flores, Jaime Bravo, Susana De la Torre-Zavala
Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola produces phaseolotoxin in a temperature dependent manner, being optimally synthesized between 18°C and 20°C, while no detectable amounts are present above 28°C. The Pht cluster, involved in the biosynthesis of phaseolotoxin, contains 23 genes that are organized in five transcriptional units. The function of most of the genes from the Pht cluster is still unknown and little information about the regulatory circuitry leading to expression of these genes has been reported...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516126/an-hplc-based-method-to-quantify-coronatine-production-by-bacteria
#8
Shweta Panchal, Zachary S Breitbach, Maeli Melotto
Coronatine is a polyketide phytotoxin produced by several pathovars of the plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. It is one of the most important virulence factors determining the success of bacterial pathogenesis in the plant at both epiphytic and endophytic stages of the disease cycle. This protocol describes an optimized procedure to culture bacterial cells for coronatine production and to quantify the amount of coronatine secreted in the culture medium using an HPLC-based method.
March 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467083/structural-revision-and-biosynthesis-of-the-fungal-phytotoxins-phyllostictines-a-and-b
#9
Francesco Trenti, Russell J Cox
The structure of the fungal phytotoxins known as the phyllostictines has been revised to a series of bicyclic 3-methylene tetramic acids. Genome sequencing of the producing organism Phyllostica cirsii has revealed a biosynthetic gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of the phyllostictines, and targeted knockout experiments have proven the link and produced an intermediate.
May 3, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462700/fungal-phytotoxins-in-sustainable-weed-management
#10
Maurizio Vurro, Angela Boari, Francesca Casella, Maria Chiara Zonno
Fungal phytotoxins are natural secondary metabolites produced by plant pathogenic fungi during host-pathogen interactions. They have received considerable particular attention for elucidating disease etiology, and consequently to design strategies for disease control. Due to wide differences in their chemical structures, these toxic metabolites have different ecological and environmental roles and mechanisms of action. This review aims at summarizing the studies on the possible use of thesemetabolites as tools in biological and integrated weed management, e...
April 26, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422495/cochliotoxin-a-dihydropyranopyran-4-5-dione-and-its-analogues-produced-by-cochliobolus-australiensis-display-phytotoxic-activity-against-buffelgrass-cenchrus-ciliaris
#11
Marco Masi, Susan Meyer, Suzette Clement, Alessio Cimmino, Massimo Cristofaro, Antonio Evidente
Buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare or Cenchrus ciliaris) is a perennial grass that has become highly invasive in the Sonoran Desert of southern Arizona. In the search for novel control strategies against this weed, strains of the foliar fungal pathogen Cochliobolus australiensis from buffelgrass have been screened for their ability to produce phytotoxic metabolites that could potentially be used as natural herbicides in an integrated pest management strategy. A new phytotoxin, named cochliotoxin, was isolated from liquid culture of this fungus together with radicinin, radicinol, and their 3-epimers...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403565/inhibitory-effect-of-thymus-vulgaris-and-origanum-vulgare-essential-oils-on-virulence-factors-of-phytopathogenic-pseudomonas-syringae-strains
#12
M E Carezzano, J P Sotelo, E Primo, E B Reinoso, M F Paletti Rovey, M S Demo, W F Giordano, M de Las M Oliva
Pseudomonas syringae is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes lesions in leaves during the colonisation process. The damage is associated with production of many virulence factors, such as biofilm and phytotoxins. The essential oils of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) have been demonstrated to inhibit P. syringae. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils on production of virulence factors of phytopathogenic P. syringae strains, including anti-biofilm and anti-toxins activities...
April 12, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278617/phytotoxic-activity-against-bromus-tectorum-for-secondary-metabolites-of-a-seed-pathogenic-fusarium-strain-belonging-to-the-f-tricinctum-species-complex
#13
Marco Masi, Susan Meyer, Gennaro Pescitelli, Alessio Cimmino, Suzette Clement, Beth Peacock, Antonio Evidente
The winter annual grass Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) has become highly invasive in semiarid ecosystems of western North America. In these areas, a natural phenomenon, complete cheatgrass stand failure ('die-off'), is apparently caused by a complex interaction among soilborne fungal pathogens. Several Fusarium strains belonging to the Fusarium tricinctum species complex were isolated from these soils and found to be pathogenic on B. tectorum seeds. One of these strains was produced in cheatgrass seed culture to evaluate its ability to produce phytotoxins...
March 6, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251756/functional-genomics-guided-discovery-of-a-light-activated-phytotoxin-in-the-wheat-pathogen-parastagonospora-nodorum-via-pathway-activation
#14
Yit-Heng Chooi, Guozhi Zhang, Jinyu Hu, Mariano Jordi Muria-Gonzalez, Phuong N Tran, Amber Pettitt, Alexander G Maier, Russell A Barrow, Peter S Solomon
Parastagonospora nodorum is an important pathogen of wheat. The contribution of secondary metabolites to this pathosystem is poorly understood. A biosynthetic gene cluster (SNOG_08608-08616) has been shown to be upregulated during the late stage of P. nodorum wheat leaf infection. The gene cluster shares several homologues with the Cercospora nicotianae CTB gene cluster encoding the biosynthesis of cercosporin. Activation of the gene cluster by overexpression (OE) of the transcription factor gene (SNOG_08609) in P...
March 2, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239986/molecular-analysis-of-the-early-interaction-between-the-grapevine-flower-and-botrytis-cinerea-reveals-that-prompt-activation-of-specific-host-pathways-leads-to-fungus-quiescence
#15
Zeraye Mehari Haile, Stefania Pilati, Paolo Sonego, Giulia Malacarne, Urska Vrhovsek, Kristof Engelen, Paul Tudzynski, Michela Zottini, Elena Baraldi, Claudio Moser
Grape quality and yield can be impaired by bunch rot, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Infection often occurs at flowering, and the pathogen stays quiescent until fruit maturity. Here, we report a molecular analysis of the early interaction between B. cinerea and Vitis vinifera flowers, using a controlled infection system, confocal microscopy and integrated transcriptomic and metabolic analysis of the host and the pathogen. Flowers from fruiting cuttings of the cultivar Pinot Noir were infected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled B...
February 27, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160348/phoma-crystallifera-with-phytotoxic-effects-and-pathogenic-potential-against-field-bindweed-convolvulus-arvensis-l-in-iran
#16
P Razaghi, D Zafari
AIMS: To identify a potential pathogenic isolate of fungus on Convolvulus arvensis and to determine its phytotoxic activity, which revealed the presence of toxic metabolites responsible for the toxicity against the target weed. METHODS AND RESULTS: A high virulent isolate of the fungus, Phoma crystallifera was isolated from symptomatic field bindweed in the west of Iran and was screened for the production of phytotoxins, which promoted necrosis on the detached leaves and seedlings of field bindweed in the bioassays...
May 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113065/allelopathic-effects-of-volatile-organic-compounds-from-eucalyptus-grandis-rhizosphere-soil-on-eisenia-fetida-assessed-using-avoidance-bioassays-enzyme-activity-and-comet-assays
#17
Tang Zhiqun, Zhang Jian, Yu Junli, Wang Chunzi, Zhang Danju
Allelopathy has been identified as an underlying mechanism of detrimental environmental impacts within commercial plantations. Eucalyptus spp. are known to generate huge amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can function as phytotoxins and thus inhibit other plants. In the present study, biochemical markers, including activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and oxidative stress enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were assayed to assess changes in Eisenia fetida at the physiological level induced by different doses of VOCs as part of an acute toxicity test over 7 and 14-day exposures...
April 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112374/ophiobolin-a-a-sesterpenoid-fungal-phytotoxin-displays-different-mechanisms-of-cell-death-in-mammalian-cells-depending-upon-the-cancer-cell-origin
#18
Rachel Morrison, Tiffany Lodge, Antonio Evidente, Robert Kiss, Helen Townley
Herein we have undertaken a systematic analysis of the effects of the fungal derivative ophiobolin A (OphA) on eight cancer cell lines from different tissue types. The LD50 for each cell line was determined and the change in cell size determined. Flow cytometric analysis and western blotting were used to assess the cell death markers for early apoptosis, late apoptosis and necrosis, and the involvement of the caspase signalling pathway. Alterations in calcium levels and reactive oxygen species were assessed due to their integral involvement in intracellular signalling...
March 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109049/production-of-the-antibiotic-secondary-metabolite-solanapyrone-a-by-the-fungal-plant-pathogen-ascochyta-rabiei-during-fruiting-body-formation-in-saprobic-growth
#19
Wonyong Kim, Jeong-Jin Park, Frank M Dugan, Tobin L Peever, David R Gang, George Vandemark, Weidong Chen
Fungi are noted producers of a diverse array of secondary metabolites, many of which are of pharmacological importance. However, the biological roles of the vast majority of these molecules during the fungal life cycle in nature remain elusive. Solanapyrones are polyketide-derived secondary metabolites produced by diverse fungal species including the plant pathogen Ascochyta rabiei. This molecule was originally thought to function as a phytotoxin facilitating pathogenesis of A. rabiei. Chemical profiling and gene expression studies showed that solanapyrone A was specifically produced during saprobic, but not parasitic growth of A...
January 21, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105943/comprehensive-analysis-of-draft-genomes-of-two-closely-related-pseudomonas-syringae-phylogroup-2b-strains-infecting-mono-and-dicotyledon-host-plants
#20
Rinat I Sultanov, Georgij P Arapidi, Svetlana V Vinogradova, Vadim M Govorun, Duglas G Luster, Alexander N Ignatov
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the damage caused by bacterial pathogens to major crops has been increasing worldwide. Pseudomonas syringae is a widespread bacterial species that infects almost all major crops. Different P. syringae strains use a wide range of biochemical mechanisms, including phytotoxins and effectors of the type III and type IV secretion systems, which determine the specific nature of the pathogen virulence. RESULTS: Strains 1845 (isolated from dicots) and 2507 (isolated from monocots) were selected for sequencing because they specialize on different groups of plants...
December 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
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