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Martha Lydia Macías-Rubalcava, Marbella Claudia García-Méndez, Beatriz King-Díaz, Norma Angélica Macías-Ruvalcaba
We investigated the mechanism of action on the photosynthesis light reactions of three major secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Xylaria feejeensis strain SM3e-1b, isolated from Sapium macrocarpum; and four novel derivatives of coriloxine, a major compound produced by X. feejeensis. The natural phytotoxins include one epoxycyclohexenone derivative, coriloxine (1), and two quinone derivatives (2-3). The semisynthetic derivatives of coriloxine are two cyclohexenone (4-6) and two quinone compounds (5-7)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Yufan Chen, Mingfa Lv, Lisheng Liao, Yanfang Gu, Zhibin Liang, Zurong Shi, Shiyin Liu, Jianuan Zhou, Lianhui Zhang
The frequent outbreaks of rice foot rot disease caused by Dickeya zeae have become a significant concern in rice planting regions and countries, but the regulatory mechanisms that govern the virulence of this important pathogen remain vague. Given that the second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is associated with modulation of various virulence-related traits in various microorganisms, here we set to investigate the role of the genes encoding c-di-GMP metabolism in the regulation of the bacterial physiology and virulence by construction all in-frame deletion mutants targeting the annotated c-di-GMP turnover genes in D...
2016: PloS One
M C Vaccaro, M E Alfieri, N Malafronte, N De Tommasi, A Leone
Transcriptional activation of genes belonging to the plastidial MEP-derived isoprenoid pathway by elicitation with methyl jasmonate and coronatine enhanced the content of bioactive abietane diterpenes in Salvia sclarea hairy roots. We have shown that aethiopinone, an abietane diterpene synthesized in Salvia sclarea roots is cytotoxic and induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells. To develop a production platform for this compound and other abietane diterpenes, hairy root technology was combined with the elicitation of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or the phytotoxin coronatine (Cor)...
November 16, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Kohtaro Watanabe, Hirokazu Takahashi, Saori Sato, Shunsaku Nishiuchi, Fumie Omori, Al Imran Malik, Timothy David Colmer, Yoshiro Mano, Mikio Nakazono
A radial oxygen loss (ROL) barrier in roots of waterlogging-tolerant plants promotes oxygen movement via aerenchyma to the root tip, and impedes soil phytotoxin entry. The molecular mechanism and genetic regulation of ROL barrier formation are largely unknown. Zea nicaraguensis, a waterlogging-tolerant wild relative of maize (Z. mays ssp. mays), forms a tight ROL barrier in its roots when waterlogged. We used Z. nicaraguensis chromosome segment introgression lines (ILs) in maize (inbred line Mi29) to elucidate the chromosomal region involved in regulating root ROL barrier formation...
October 20, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Antoine Porquier, Guillaume Morgant, Javier Moraga, Bérengère Dalmais, Isabelle Luyten, Adeline Simon, Jean-Marc Pradier, Joëlle Amselem, Isidro González Collado, Muriel Viaud
Botrydial (BOT) is a non-host specific phytotoxin produced by the polyphagous phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. The genomic region of the BOT biosynthetic gene cluster was investigated and revealed two additional genes named Bcbot6 and Bcbot7. Analysis revealed that the G+C/A+T-equilibrated regions that contain the Bcbot genes alternate with A+T-rich regions made of relics of transposable elements that have undergone repeat-induced point mutations (RIP). Furthermore, BcBot6, a Zn(II)2Cys6 putative transcription factor was identified as a nuclear protein and the major positive regulator of BOT biosynthesis...
October 6, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
M Soledade C Pedras, Myung Ryeol Park
Alternaria brassicicola (Schwein.) Wiltshire is a phytopathogenic fungus that together with A. brassicae causes Alternaria black spot disease in Brassica species. Brassicicolin A is the major host-selective phytotoxin produced in cultures of A. brassicicola. Biosynthetic studies to establish the metabolic precursors of brassicicolin A were carried out with isotopically labeled compounds. Incorporation of D-[(13)C6]glucose, L-[(15)N]valine, or L-[(2)H8]valine into brassicicolin A was established using (1)H, (13)C, (15)N NMR and INADEQUATE spectroscopy and HPLC-ESI-MS spectrometry...
September 22, 2016: Phytochemistry
Francesca Garganese, Leonardo Schena, Ilenia Siciliano, Maria Isabella Prigigallo, Davide Spadaro, Anna De Grassi, Antonio Ippolito, Simona Marianna Sanzani
Alternaria brown spot is one of the most important diseases of tangerines and their hybrids worldwide. Recently, outbreaks in Mediterranean areas related to susceptible cultivars, refocused attention on the disease. Twenty representatives were selected from a collection of 180 isolates of Alternaria spp. from citrus leaves and fruit. They were characterized along with reference strains of Alternaria spp. Micro- and macroscopic characteristics separated most Alternaria isolates into six morphotypes referable to A...
2016: PloS One
María Garrido-Arandia, Javier Silva-Navas, Carmen Ramírez-Castillejo, Nuria Cubells-Baeza, Cristina Gómez-Casado, Domingo Barber, Juan C Pozo, Pablo G Melendi, Luis F Pacios, Araceli Díaz-Perales
Spores of pathogenic fungi are virtually ubiquitous and cause human disease and severe losses in crops. The endophytic fungi Alternaria species produce host-selective phytotoxins. Alt a 1 is a strongly allergenic protein found in A. alternata that causes severe asthma. Despite the well-established pathogenicity of Alt a 1, the molecular mechanisms underlying its action and physiological function remain largely unknown. To gain insight into the role played by this protein in the pathogenicity of the fungus, we studied production of Alt a 1 and its activity in spores...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jitka Kochanek, Rowena L Long, Allan T Lisle, Gavin R Flematti
BACKGROUND: Karrikins are smoke-derived compounds that provide strong chemical cues to stimulate seed germination and seedling growth. The recent discovery in Arabidopsis that the karrikin perception system may be present throughout angiosperms implies a fundamental plant function. Here, we identify the most potent karrikin, karrikinolide (KAR1), in biochars and determine its role in species unique plant responses. METHODS: Biochars were prepared by three distinct commercial-scale pyrolysis technologies using systematically selected source material and their chemical properties, including karrikinolide, were quantified...
2016: PloS One
Javier Moraga, Bérengère Dalmais, Inmaculada Izquierdo-Bueno, Josefina Aleu, James R Hanson, Rosario Hernández-Galán, Muriel Viaud, Isidro G Collado
Over two hundred species of plants can be infected by the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea under a range of different environmental conditions. In response to these, the fungus produces unique terpenoid and polyketide metabolites. Parts of the plants may be killed by the phytotoxin botrydial, enabling the fungus to feed on the dead cells. In this paper, we describe the genetic and molecular basis of botrydial biosynthesis and the function of the five genes of the genome of B. cinerea that together constitute the botrydial biosynthetic gene cluster...
October 21, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Marco Evidente, Ernesto Santoro, Ana G Petrovic, Alessio Cimmino, Jun Koshoubu, Antonio Evidente, Nina Berova, Stefano Superchi
The absolute configuration of phytotoxins inuloxins B and C, produced by Inula viscosa, and with potential herbicidal activity for the management of parasitic plants, has been determined by Time-dependent density functional theory computational prediction of electronic circular dichroism and optical rotatory dispersion spectra. The inuloxin B has been converted to its 5-O-acetyl derivative, which due to its more constrained conformational features facilitated the computational analysis of its chiroptical properties...
October 2016: Phytochemistry
M S Archana
Paracelsus contrasted poisons from nonpoisons, stating that "All things are poisons, and there is nothing that is harmless; the dose alone decides that something is a poison". Living organisms, such as plants, animals, and microorganisms, constitute a huge source of pharmaceutically useful medicines and toxins. Depending on their source, toxins can be categorized as phytotoxins, mycotoxins, or zootoxins, which include venoms and bacterial toxins. Any toxin can be harmful or beneficial. Within the last 100 years, the perception of botulinum neurotoxin (BTX) has evolved from that of a poison to a versatile clinical agent with various uses...
April 2016: Saudi Dental Journal
J C Kim, J Y Min, H T Kim, K Y Cho, S H Yu
A new pyriculol-related phytotoxin, designated as pyricuol (1), was isolated from a liquid culture of Magnaporthe grisea, the causal fungus of rice blast disease, together with two known metabolites, pyriculol (2) and dihydropyriculol. Its structure was determined on the basis of physicochemical and spectroscopic data to be 2-(3-hydroxymethyl-1,4-hexadienyl)-6-hydroxybenzaldehyde.
1998: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Y Kimura, A Kouge, K Nakamura, H Koshino, J Uzawa, S Fujioka, T Kawano
Pestalotiopsis theae is known to be a causal fungus for tea gray blight disease. Pesthetoxin was isolated from P. theae as a potent leaf-necrosis substance against tea. The structure of pesthetoxin was established principally by NMR studies to be of four different enolic forms, viz the pairs of internal tautomers (1a)/(1b) and (1c)/(1d) with external tautomerism between them.
1998: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
H Oikawa, T Yokota, C Sakano, Y Suzuki, A Naya, A Ichihara
Two minor components of solanapyrones D and E, phytotoxins from Alternaria solani, were isolated. The absolute stereochemistry of D and the optical purity of solanapyrones A and D were determined by chemical transformation and measurement of the CD spectrum. In addition, complete signal assignment of the (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra of solanapyrones A and D, and their solution conformations were studied. Feeding experiments with various isotopically labeled acetates and methionine established the biosynthetic pathway of solanapyrones...
1998: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
C W Lee, K Yoneyama, Y Takeuchi, M Konnai, S Tamogami, O Kodama
Momilactones A and B in rice straw harvested at different growth stages were quantified by HPLC-MS-MS. They increased to their maximal levels at the heading stage and then gradually decreased. In addition, these phytotoxins were found to be relatively easily extracted with water.
1999: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Urszula Krasuska, Olga Andrzejczak, Paweł Staszek, Renata Bogatek, Agnieszka Gniazdowska
Canavanine (CAN), a structural analog of arginine (Arg), is used as a selective inhibitor of inducible NOS in mammals. CAN is incorporated into proteins' structure in the place of Arg, leading to the formation of aberrant compounds. This non-protein amino acid is found in legumes, e.g., Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. or Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R.Br. and acts as a strong toxin against herbivores or plants. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings were treated for 24-72 h with CAN (10 or 50 μM) inhibiting root growth by 50 or 100%, without lethal effect...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
H Nakajima, K Fukuyama, Y Kimura, T Hamasaki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1992: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
T Nagata, Y Ando, A Hirota
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1992: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Samuel Jourdan, Isolde Maria Francis, Min Jung Kim, Joren Jeico C Salazar, Sören Planckaert, Jean-Marie Frère, André Matagne, Frédéric Kerff, Bart Devreese, Rosemary Loria, Sébastien Rigali
Streptomyces scabies is an economically important plant pathogen well-known for damaging root and tuber crops by causing scab lesions. Thaxtomin A is the main causative agent responsible for the pathogenicity of S. scabies and cello-oligosaccharides are environmental triggers that induce the production of this phytotoxin. How cello-oligosaccharides are sensed or transported in order to induce the virulent behavior of S. scabies? Here we report that the cellobiose and cellotriose binding protein CebE, and MsiK, the ATPase providing energy for carbohydrates transport, are the protagonists of the cello-oligosaccharide mediated induction of thaxtomin production in S...
2016: Scientific Reports
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