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Cervical cancer epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652958/-hpv-vaccine-implementation-in-chile-an-appraisal-from-the-social-determinants-of-health-model
#1
Loreto Fernández González
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common neoplasm in women worldwide and its incidence is associated with profound social inequities. In Chile, it is the second cause of death in women of reproductive age. The Chilean clinical guideline identifies the vaccine against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) as the main preventive measure. Since 2014, the Ministry of Health has implemented free immunization against HPV for girls and female adolescents. This article critically analyzes this public policy from the viewpoint of health equity, using as framework the Social Determinants of Health Model...
December 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630008/ovarian-cancer-prevention-and-screening
#2
Usha Menon, Chloe Karpinskyj, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj
There has been much progress in ovarian cancer screening and prevention in recent years. Improved tools that combine genetic and epidemiologic factors to predict an individual's ovarian cancer risk are set to become available for tailoring preventive and screening approaches. The increasing evidence on tubal origins of a proportion of ovarian cancer has paved the way to use of opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy at tubal ligation and hysterectomy in the general population. Clinical trials are in progress to estimate the long-term effects on endocrine function...
May 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605054/investigating-black-white-disparities-in-gynecologic-oncology-theories-conceptual-models-and-applications
#3
REVIEW
Kemi M Doll
Within gynecologic oncology are two of the top five widest Black-White mortality gaps among all cancer diagnoses in the United States. A rich body of work from the social sciences, including anthropology, sociology and social epidemiology, have broadened the understanding of and research approaches to the study of health and healthcare inequity experienced by Black Americans. Yet, these intellectual advancements in understanding are virtually absent from the gynecologic oncology literature. The goal of this analytic essay will be to introduce three current frameworks of studying racial inequity: The Ecosocial Theory of Disease Distribution, The Fundamental Cause Theory, and The Public Health Critical Race Praxis...
April 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605048/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-over-time-in-the-treatment-and-mortality-of-women-with-gynecological-malignancies
#4
J Alejandro Rauh-Hain, Alexander Melamed, Diego Schaps, Amy J Bregar, Ryan Spencer, John O Schorge, Laurel W Rice, Marcela G Del Carmen
OBJECTIVE: To examine temporal trends in treatment and survival among black, Asian, Hispanic, and white women diagnosed with endometrial, ovarian, cervical, and vulvar cancer. METHODS: Using the National Cancer Database (2004-2014), we identified women diagnosed with endometrial, ovarian, cervical, and vulvar cancer. For each disease site, we analyzed race/ethnicity-specific trends in receipt of evidence-based practices. Professional societies' recommendations were used to define these practices...
April 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571929/pediatric-tonsil-cancer-a-national-and-institutional-perspective
#5
Eelam A Adil, Genevieve Medina, Michael J Cunningham
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate childhood and adolescent tonsil cancer incidence and to identify the clinical characteristics indicative of those patients who would benefit from urgent operative intervention. STUDY DESIGN: The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results 18 database, inclusive of national cancer statistics from 1973 to 2013, provided quantitative tonsil cancer incidence data. An institutional retrospective chart review of pediatric patients diagnosed with tonsil malignancy from January 2013 to January 2017 identified supplementary qualitative clinical presentation information...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556910/risk-of-second-primary-female-genital-malignancies-in-women-with-breast-cancer-a-seer-analysis
#6
Zhiyu Li, Qi Wu, Junlong Song, Yimin Zhang, Shan Zhu, Shengrong Sun
Breast cancer survivors are at an increased risk of second primary cancers, and the risk factors for the latter may have clinical significance. The aims of our study were to evaluate the incidences and risk factors of second primary female genital cancers (corpus uteri, cervix uteri plus ovary) in a large cohort of breast cancer survivors. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we examined the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and risk factors for second primary female genital cancers observed between 2000 and 2014...
March 19, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543815/chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-and-non-hepatocellular-cancers-a-hospital-registry-based-case-control-study
#7
Jihyun An, Jong Woo Kim, Ju Hyun Shim, Seungbong Han, Chang Sik Yu, Jaewon Choe, Danbi Lee, Kang Mo Kim, Young-Suk Lim, Young-Hwa Chung, Yung Sang Lee, Dong Jin Suh, Jin Hyoung Kim, Han Chu Lee
BACKGROUND: Prior epidemiological evidences suggest that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is linked to cancers other than hepatocellular carcinoma. This prospective hospital registry-based case-control study aimed to investigate the sero-epidemiological association between chronic HBV infection and various types of cancer. METHODS: 95,034 patients with first-diagnosed non-hepatocellular malignancy in a tertiary hospital between 2007 and 2014; and 118,891 non-cancer individuals as controls from a health promotion center were included...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516919/a-study-of-clinicopathological-characteristics-of-thyroid-carcinoma-at-a-tertiary-care-center
#8
Ankit A Shah, Preeti P Jain, Anjaney S Dubey, Ghanish N Panjwani, Hiral A Shah
Context: To share clinicopathological data of thyroid carcinoma from a high volume Tertiary Care Centre in East India. Aim: To share the epidemiology and clinicopathological presentation of thyroid cancer at a high volume Tertiary Care Center in East India. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study. Subjects and Methods: Forty-two consecutive patients of thyroid neoplasm diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and primarily underwent surgical treatment from July 2005 to June 2012 were included...
January 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497146/opportunities-and-challenges-for-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-in-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Richard B S Roden, Peter L Stern
The discovery of genotype 16 as the prototype oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) initiated a quarter century of laboratory and epidemiological studies that demonstrated their necessary, but not sufficient, aetiological role in cervical and several other anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Early virus-induced immune deviation can lead to persistent subclinical infection that brings the risk of progression to cancer. Effective secondary prevention of cervical cancer through cytological and/or HPV screening depends on regular and widespread use in the general population, but coverage is inadequate in low-resource settings...
March 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482746/the-role-of-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-gynecologic-oncology
#10
REVIEW
Sherelle L Laifer-Narin, Wendy F Genestine, Nancy C Okechukwu, Elizabeth M Hecht, Jeffrey H Newhouse
This article discusses the role of Computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging in gynecologic malignancies by reviewing epidemiology, histologic subtypes, and staging systems. Imaging findings specific to different gynecologic malignancies on CT and MR imaging are reviewed and the advantages of each imaging modality discussed. Imaging of endometrial, cervical, and ovarian cancer is reviewed in depth, with a brief discussion of rare gynecologic cancers.
April 2018: PET Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479954/cervical-cancer-prevalence-incidence-and-mortality-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#11
Aamod Dhoj Shrestha, Dinesh Neupane, Peter Vedsted, Per Kallestrup
Introduction: Cervical cancer rates vary across the world, being highest in Eastern Africa (including Zimbabwe) and lowest in Western Asia. It is the second most common type of cancer in women in the South East Asia region and a major cause of cancer deaths among women of low and middle income countries (LMICs) like Nepal. This review is an attempt to make a comprehensive report of prevalence, incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in LMICs. Methods: The review was conducted applying a computerized search with the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) major topics “Cervical Cancer”, “Cervical neoplasm” “Epidemiology”, (“prevalence” OR “incidence” OR “mortality”) and “HPV” OR “Human papillomavirus” as MeSH subheading...
February 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462389/neoplasia-and-precursor-lesions-of-the-female-genital-tract-in-ibd-epidemiology-role-of-immunosuppressants-and-clinical-implications
#12
Hanna M J L Hazenberg, Nanne K H de Boer, Chris J J Mulder, Stijn H Mom, Ad A van Bodegraven, Greetje J Tack Md PhD
In this review the risk of breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancer and cervical and vulvovaginal (pre)malignant abnormalities in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with or without immune suppressive treatment will be discussed. So far, this has not been studied thoroughly and large studies taking into account diverse potential confounding factors are lacking. IBD per se has not been associated with development of cervical cancer, yet patients with Crohn's disease who smoke, have a younger age at diagnosis or who use(d) thiopurines might be more at risk...
February 15, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459359/impact-of-dietary-patterns-and-the-main-food-groups-on-mortality-and-recurrence-in-cancer-survivors-a-systematic-review-of-current-epidemiological-literature
#13
Sylvia H J Jochems, Frits H M Van Osch, Richard T Bryan, Anke Wesselius, Frederik J van Schooten, Kar Keung Cheng, Maurice P Zeegers
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is an association between dietary patterns/indices and foods from the main food groups (highest vs lowest intakes) prior to or after cancer diagnosis and mortality and cancer recurrence in cancer survivors. PARTICIPANTS: Survivors of common cancers with a 10-year survival rate of ≥50%: bladder, bowel, breast, cervical, kidney, laryngeal, prostate, testicular, uterine cancer, malignant melanoma and (non-)Hodgkin's lymphoma...
February 19, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454092/analysis-of-human-papillomavirus-16-e6-e7-genes-and-long-control-region-in-cervical-samples-from-uruguayan-women
#14
Viviana Ramas, Santiago Mirazo, Sylvia Bonilla, Dora Ruchansky, Juan Arbiza
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the HPV16 variant distribution by sequence analyses of E6, E7 oncogenes and the Long Control Region (LCR), from cervical cells collected from Uruguayan women, and to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among variants. METHODS: Forty-seven HPV16 variants, obtained from women with HSIL, LSIL, ASCUS and NILM cytological classes were analyzed for LCR and 12 were further studied for E6 and E7. Detailed sequence comparison, genetic heterogeneity analyses and phylogenetic reconstruction were performed...
February 14, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447263/insurance-status-and-cancer-treatment-mediate-the-association-between-race-ethnicity-and-cervical-cancer-survival
#15
Sarah C Markt, Tianyu Tang, Angel M Cronin, Ingrid T Katz, Brooke E Howitt, Neil S Horowitz, Larissa J Lee, Alexi A Wright
Cervical cancer outcomes remain poor among disadvantaged populations, including ethnic minorities, low-income, and underinsured women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms that underlie the observed association between race/ethnicity and cervical cancer survival. We identified 13,698 women, ages 21 to 64 years, diagnosed with stages I-III primary cervical cancer between 2007-2013 in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models evaluated associations between race/ethnicity (Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, Other) and cervical cancer-specific mortality...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441569/epidemiologic-associations-of-hpv-positive-oropharyngeal-cancer-and-pre-cancerous-cervical-lesions
#16
M M Rietbergen, A A J D van Bokhoven, B I Lissenberg-Witte, D A M Heideman, C R Leemans, R H Brakenhoff, E Bloemena
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) remains increasing worldwide. We aimed to investigate if the HPV-prevalence of OPSCC in the Netherlands is rising as well, also in female patients. In addition, we evaluated the association between HPV-positive OPSCC and suspicious Pap results of the cervix in these female patients. Patients with OPSCC treated in the period 2000-2015 at the VU University Medical Center Amsterdam, were included (n = 926). The presence of an oncogenic HPV infection was determined by p16-immunostaining, followed by a high-risk HPV general primer 5+/6+ DNA PCR on the p16-immunopositive cases...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438321/the-intersection-of-hpv-epidemiology-genomics-and-mechanistic-studies-of-hpv-mediated-carcinogenesis
#17
Lisa Mirabello, Megan A Clarke, Chase W Nelson, Michael Dean, Nicolas Wentzensen, Meredith Yeager, Michael Cullen, Joseph F Boland, Mark Schiffman, Robert D Burk
Of the ~60 human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes that infect the cervicovaginal epithelium, only 12-13 "high-risk" types are well-established as causing cervical cancer, with HPV16 accounting for over half of all cases worldwide. While HPV16 is the most important carcinogenic type, variants of HPV16 can differ in their carcinogenicity by 10-fold or more in epidemiologic studies. Strong genotype-phenotype associations embedded in the small 8-kb HPV16 genome motivate molecular studies to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427549/linking-type-2-diabetes-and-gynecological-cancer-an-introductory-overview
#18
REVIEW
Emanuela Anastasi, Tiziana Filardi, Sara Tartaglione, Andrea Lenzi, Antonio Angeloni, Susanna Morano
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic disease with a growing prevalence and a leading cause of death in many countries. Several epidemiological studies observed an association between T2D and increased risk of many types of cancer, such as gynecologic neoplasms (endometrial, cervical, ovarian and vulvar cancer). Insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and high free ovarian steroid hormones are considered the possible mechanisms behind this complex relationship. A higher risk of endometrial cancer was observed in T2D, even though this association largely attenuated after adjusting for obesity...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424085/achieving-public-and-global-health-competencies-a-teaching-case-study-of-botswana-s-cervical-cancer-screening-program
#19
Harriet Okatch, Timothy Joseph Sowicz, Helen Teng, Doreen Ramogola-Masire, Alison M Buttenheim
OBJECTIVES: To design and implement a case study on the cervical cancer screening program in Botswana to teach public and global health competencies to undergraduate nursing students. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: The case study was developed following a review of the literature on the epidemiology and health policies of cervical cancer in Botswana, and an interview with an obstetrician/gynecologist engaged in both clinical practice and research in Botswana. The case study has been implemented over seven semesters to students enrolled in the Nursing in the Community course at the University of Pennsylvania...
February 9, 2018: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416813/the-prognostic-value-of-negative-lymph-node-count-for-patients-with-cervical-cancer-after-radical-surgery
#20
Hao Lu, Rong Guo, Haotian Yang, Haolu Wang, Xiaowen Liang, Zhiqian Hu, Xinxing Li
Negative lymph node (NLN) count has been recognized as a prognostic indicator in various cancers. However, the relationship between NLN count and the prognosis of cervical cancer is still unknown. In this study, 10, 500 cervical cancer patients after radical surgery were selected from Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data. Clinicopathological characteristics were collected for analysis, including year of diagnosis, age, race, grade, primary site, FIGO stage and cause specific survival (CSS). Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess risk factors for survival of patients...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
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