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Cervical cancer epidemiology

Sonia Menon, Aibibula Wusiman, Marie Claude Boily, Mbabazi Kariisa, Hillary Mabeya, Stanley Luchters, Frode Forland, Rodolfo Rossi, Steven Callens, Davy Vanden Broeck
BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of data on the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in the HIV positive population and in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in Kenya. This may be different from genotypes found in abnormal cytology. Yet, with the advent of preventive HPV vaccines that target HPV 16 and 18, and the nonavalent vaccine targeting 90% of all ICC cases, such HPV genotype distribution data are indispensable for predicting the impact of vaccination and HPV screening on prevention...
2016: PloS One
Juliana Lasmar Ayres do Amaral, Marizeli Viana de Aragão Araújo, George Alberto da Silva Dias, Esther Iris Christina Freifrau von Ledebur, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma, Hellen Thais Fuzii
Cervical cancer, the second most common cancer affecting women in Northern Brazil, is strongly associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Diseases affecting the immune state of a patient, including autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), can lead to persistent HPV infection and cancer. We evaluated cervical HPV prevalence and the associated risk factors in 70 women with SLE in the city of Belém, located in Brazilian Amazon. HPV DNA was detected by PCR using primers MY9 and MY11...
August 17, 2016: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
Lan He, Priscilla T Y Law, Siaw Shi Boon, Chuqing Zhang, Wendy C S Ho, Lawrence Banks, C K Wong, Juliana C N Chan, Paul K S Chan
Epidemiological evidence supports that infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) can interact with host and environmental risk factors to contribute to the development of cervical, oropharyngeal, and other anogenital cancers. In this study, we established a mouse epithelial cancer cell line, designated as Chinese University Papillomavirus-1 (CUP-1), from C57BL/KsJ mice through persistent expression of HPV-16 E7 oncogene. After continuous culturing of up to 200 days with over 60 passages, we showed that CUP-1 became an immortalized and transformed epithelial cell line with continuous E7 expression and persistent reduction of retinoblastoma protein (a known target of E7)...
2016: PloS One
Meredith S Shiels, Eric A Engels
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiology of cancers that occur at an elevated rate among people with HIV infection in the current treatment era, including discussion of the cause of these cancers, as well as changes in cancer incidence and burden over time. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and cervical cancer have declined sharply in developed countries during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, but remain elevated 800-fold, 10-fold and four-fold, respectively, compared with the general population...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Jinhyuk Choi, Chungyeul Kim, Hye Seung Lee, Yoo Jin Choi, Ha Yeon Kim, Jinhwan Lee, Hyeyoon Chang, Aeree Kim
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established oncogenic virus of cervical, anogenital, and oropharyngeal cancer. Various subtypes of HPV have been detected in 0% to 60% of breast cancers. The roles of HPV in the carcinogenesis of breast cancer remain controversial. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of HPV-positive breast cancer in Korean patients and to evaluate the possibility of carcinogenic effect of HPV on breast. Materials and Methods: Meta-analysis was performed in 22 case-control studies for HPV infection in breast cancer...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
Jane H Williams, Stacy M Carter
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer disproportionately burdens disadvantaged women. Organised cervical screening aims to make cancer prevention available to all women in a population, yet screening uptake and cancer incidence and mortality are strongly correlated with socioeconomic status (SES). Reaching underscreened populations is a stated priority in many screening programs, usually with an emphasis on something like 'equity'. Equity is a poorly defined and understood concept. We aimed to explain experts' perspectives on how cervical screening programs might justifiably respond to 'the underscreened'...
October 6, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Nicole G Campos, Monisha Sharma, Andrew Clark, Jane J Kim, Stephen C Resch
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women, with 85% of cases and deaths occurring in developing countries. While organized screening programs have reduced cervical cancer incidence in high-income countries through detection and treatment of precancerous lesions, the implementation of organized screening has not been effective in low-resource settings due to lack of infrastructure and limited budgets. Our objective was to estimate the cost of comprehensive primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention in low- and middle-income countries...
2016: PloS One
Juan Zhou, San-Gang Wu, Jia-Yuan Sun, Feng-Yan Li, Huan-Xin Lin, Qiong-Hua Chen, Zhen-Yu He
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I to IVA squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma (AC), and adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) of the uterine cervix after definitive radiotherapy. METHODS: Patients with a primary diagnosis of FIGO stage I-IVA SCC, AC, and ASC of the uterine cervix who had undergone definitive beam radiation with implants or isotopes between 1988 and 2013 were identified using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Sharmila Chatterjee, Amit Chattopadhyay, Luna Samanta, Pinaki Panigrahi
Cervical cancer (CaCx) is the second most fatal cancer contributing to 14% of cancers in Indian females, which account for 25.4% and 26.5% of the global burden of CaCx prevalence and mortality, respectively. Persistent infection with high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV- strains 16 and 18) is the most important risk factor for precursors of invasive CaCx. Comprehensive prevention strategies for CaCx should include screening and HPV vaccination. Three screening modalities for CaCx are cytology, visual inspection with acetic acid, and HPV testing...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Alireza Milani, Marzieh Basirnejad, Sepideh Shahbazi, Azam Bolhassani
Carotenoids and retinoids have several similarities in biological activities such as antioxidant properties, the inhibition of malignant tumor growth, and the induction of apoptosis. Supplementation with carotenoids can influence cell growth regulation, and modulate gene expression and immune response. Epidemiologic studies have shown the correlation of high carotenoid intake from food sources with reduced risk of breast, cervical, ovarian, colorectal cancers, and cardiovascular or eye diseases. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary carotenoids involves some approaches including gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), growth factor signaling, cell cycle progression, differentiation-related proteins, retinoid-like receptors, antioxidant response element, nuclear receptors, AP-1 transcriptional complex, Wnt/β-Catenin pathway, and inflammatory cytokines...
September 16, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
P Jean-Pierre, B C McDonald
Cancer and treatment-related neurocognitive dysfunction (CRND) - impairments in aspects of cognition commonly including attention and memory, information-processing speed, and executive functioning - can negatively affect patients' and survivors' participation in routine activities of daily living and overall quality of life. CRND can be enduring, and varies in severity level. The epidemiology of CRND is not yet clearly established; reported incidence has ranged from 17% to 75% among patients and survivors of noncentral nervous system malignancies, including breast, prostate, cervical, and colorectal cancers...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Rebecca Landy, Francesca Pesola, Alejandra Castañón, Peter Sasieni
BACKGROUND: It is well established that screening can prevent cervical cancer, but the magnitude of the impact of regular screening on cervical cancer mortality is unknown. METHODS: Population-based case-control study using prospectively recorded cervical screening data, England 1988-2013. Case women had cervical cancer diagnosed during April 2007-March 2013 aged 25-79 years (N=11 619). Two cancer-free controls were individually age matched to each case. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of developing stage-specific cancer for women regularly screened or irregularly screened compared with women not screened in the preceding 15 years...
September 15, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Sanaa Elmajjaoui, Nabil Ismaili, Hanane El Kacemi, Tayeb Kebdani, Hassan Sifat, Noureddine Benjaafar
BACKGROUND: On behalf of the medical staff of the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat, we conducted a retrospective study to report epidemiology and 5-year outcomes of cervical carcinoma in Moroccan women. METHODS: We reviewed all women diagnosed with invasive cervical carcinoma in our institute between January 2006 and December 2006. Outcomes and prognoses are analyzed in patients who received at least one treatment. RESULTS: The analysis included 646 women...
2016: BMC Women's Health
Peter Hillemanns, Phillip Soergel, Hermann Hertel, Matthias Jentschke
The new German S3 guideline 'Prevention of Cervical Cancer' published in 2016 is based on the latest available evidence about cervical cancer screening and treatment of cervical precancer. Large randomized controlled trials indicate that human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening may provide better protection against cervical cancer than cytology alone through improved detection of premalignant disease in the first screening round prior to progression. Therefore, women aged 30 years and older should preferably be screened with HPV testing every 3-5 years (cytology alone every 2 years is an acceptable alternative)...
2016: Oncology Research and Treatment
Pamela Boundzanga Moussavou, Ismaël Hervé Koumakpayi, Andriniaina Andy Nkili-Meyong, Ingrid Labouba, Ulrich Bisvigou, Junie K Chansi, Corinne Engohan-Aloghe, Frederic Dissanami, Nathalie Ambounda, Anne-Sophie Delannoy-Vieillard, Laure Diancourt, Dieudonne Nkoghe, Eric M Leroy, Ernest Belembaogo, Nicolas Berthet
BACKGROUND: The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer, which is the leading cancer-related cause of death for women in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2013, the Gabonese Ministry of Health and the Sylvia Bongo Ondimba Foundation implemented cervical cancer screening programs based on the detection of cancerous lesions by visual inspection with acetic acid and/or Lugol's iodine (VIA/VILI). This pilot study was set up to determine the HPV profile and analyze the nucleotide sequence variation of HPV16 circulating in patients with cervical abnormalities detected by VIA/VILI testing...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Lameck Chinula, Agnes Moses, Satish Gopal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent developments for HIV-associated malignancies (HIVAM) in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) with particular focus on sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). RECENT FINDINGS: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up is leading to epidemiologic transitions in LMIC similar to high-income countries, with aging and growth of HIV-infected populations, declining infectious deaths, increasing cancer deaths, and transitions from AIDS-defining cancers to non-AIDS defining cancers...
September 7, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Dao-Zhe Lin, Ning Qu, Rong-Liang Shi, Zhong-Wu Lu, Qing-Hai Ji, Wei-Li Wu
The surgical management of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), especially regarding the necessity of central/lateral lymph node dissection, remains controversial. This study investigated the clinicopathologic factors predictive of lymph node metastasis (LNM) in patients diagnosed with PTMC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for PTMC patients identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database who were treated by surgery between 2002 and 2012, to determine the association of clinicopathologic factors with LNM...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Marta Félez-Sánchez, Marleny Vergara, Silvia de Sanjosé, Xavier Castellsagué, Laia Alemany, Ignacio G Bravo
Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are involved in the etiology of anogenital and head and neck cancers. The HPV DNA prevalence greatly differs by anatomical site. Indeed, the high rates of viral DNA prevalence in anal and cervical carcinomas contrast with the lower fraction of cancer cases attributable to HPVs in other anatomical sites, chiefly the vulva, the penis and head and neck. Here we analyzed 2635 Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded surgical samples that had previously tested negative for the presence of HPVs DNA using the SPF10/DEIA procedure, in order to identify the presence of other PVs not explicitly targeted by standard molecular epidemiologic approaches...
September 4, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Ning Qu, Rong-Liang Shi, Zhong-Wu Lu, Tian Liao, Duo Wen, Guo-Hua Sun, Duan-Shu Li, Qing-Hai Ji
Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) has a propensity to cervical lymph node metastases (LNM). Recent studies have shown that both the number of involved lymph nodes (LNs) and the metastatic lymph node ratio (MLNR) confer prognostic information. This study was to determine the predictive value of MLNR on cancer-specific survival (CSS) in SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results)-registered MTC patients treated with thyroidectomy and lymphadenectomy between 1991 and 2012, investigate the cutoff points for MLNR in stratifying risk of mortality and provide evidence for selection of appropriate treatment strategies...
August 31, 2016: Oncotarget
Rong-Liang Shi, Ning Qu, Shu-Wen Yang, Ben Ma, Zhong-Wu Lu, Duo Wen, Guo-Hua Sun, Yu Wang, Qing-Hai Ji
Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is common in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), but management of clinically negative DTC is controversial. This study evaluated primary tumor size as a predictor of LNM. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for DTC patients who were treated with surgery between 2002 and 2012 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, to determine the association of tumor size at 10 mm increments with LNM. A predictive model was then developed to estimate the risk of LNM in DTC, using tumor size and other clinicopathological characteristics identified from the multivariate analysis...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
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