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Forced exhalation

Xin-Yu Tian, Chun-Hong Liu, De-Xiang Wang, Xiu-Li Ji, Hui Shi, Chun-Yan Zheng, Meng-Shuang Xie, Wei Xiao
Background: The interpretation of spirometry varies on different reference values. Older people are usually underrepresented in published predictive values. This study aimed at developing spirometric reference equations for elderly Chinese in Jinan aged 60-84 years and to compare them to previous equations. Methods: The project covered all of Jinan city, and the recruitment period lasted 9 months from January 1, 2017 to September 30, 2017, 434 healthy people aged 60-84 years who had never smoked (226 females and 208 males) were recruited to undergo spirometry...
March 19, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Melanie Dreßler, Emilia Salzmann-Manrique, Stefan Zielen, Johannes Schulze
PURPOSE: Physical activity is an important part of life, and exercise-induced asthma (EIA) can reduce the quality of life. A standardized exercise challenge is needed to diagnose EIA, but this is a time consuming, effortful and expensive method. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) as a marker of eosinophil inflammation is determined rapidly and easily. The aim of this study was to investigate eNO as surrogate marker for predicting a positive reaction in an exercise challenge in a cold chamber (ECC)...
March 8, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
E Henckel, U Svenson, B Nordlund, E Berggren Broström, G Hedlin, S Degerman, K Bohlin
AIM: Inflammation is a major factor in the pathophysiology of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and it contributes to accelerated telomere shortening and cellular aging. This study aimed to determine its effect on telomere length and lung function in school-aged children born preterm with BPD. METHODS: We examined 29 children with BPD, born preterm in Stockholm county 1998-99, along with 28 children with allergic asthma born at term matched for age and gender. At 10 years of age, we measured relative telomere length (RTL) in blood by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, lung function by spirometry and inflammation by fractional exhaled nitric oxide and blood cytokines...
February 24, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Mikaela Qvarfordt, Martin Anderson, Magnus Svartengren
Spirometry requires the patient to cooperate and do the manoeuvre 'right' for reliable results. Algorithms to assess test quality as well as educational recommendations for personnel are defined in guidelines. We compared the quality of forced spirometry tests performed by spirometry technicians with little or no previous experience of spirometry using spirometry systems with different modes of feedback. In both cases, the spirometry technician received general feedback on the screen based on ATS/ERS guidelines, such as 'exhale faster' and 'exhale longer'...
February 19, 2018: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
Patrick Hoyer, Simone Graf
In this study, an adjustment of the vocal tract shape toward selected sound waves in the frequency range of the first and second formants without phonation is discussed. The sound waves of a loudspeaker in front of the open mouth and amplified by the vocal tract are used as biofeedback signals. It is shown that the resonance amplification of the vocal tract complies with the concept of forced oscillation, with the driver being the sound source and the resonator being the vocal tract. An adjustment toward increased amplification via vocal tract resonance can be related to smaller bandwidths and lower damping...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Hanneke Coumou, Guus A Westerhof, Selma B de Nijs, Aeilko H Zwinderman, Elisabeth H Bel
Little is known about the prognosis of adults with new-onset asthma. Cross-sectional studies suggest that these patients may exhibit accelerated decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ). However, risk factors for accelerated decline in lung function have not yet been identified.We aimed to identify these risk factors in a prospective 5-year follow-up study in 200 adults with newly diagnosed asthma. In the current study, clinical, functional and inflammatory parameters were assessed annually for 5 years...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Shu Xia, Zheng Zhu, Wei-Jie Guan, Yan-Qing Xie, Jia-Ying An, Tao Peng, Rong-Chang Chen, Jin-Ping Zheng
Allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma often coexist. The terminology combined allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome (CARAS) was introduced to describe patients with combined AR and asthma. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between eosinophilic inflammation in the upper and lower airways of patients with CARAS. Stable patients with CARAS initially presenting with AR or asthma were recruited. Healthy subjects and patients with AR alone were recruited as controls. Clinical characteristics, including disease history, lung function, nasal airway inspiratory resistance and upper and lower airway eosinophilic inflammation were evaluated and compared...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Mei Zhu, Line Wang, Xue Bai, Kevin A Peng
OBJECTIVES: The hard onset, also known as a hard attack, or glottal onset, is a technique of vocal production in which the vocal folds are adducted prior to exhalation and forced open to begin phonation. In this study, we assessed the short-term efficacy of voice therapy incorporating hard onset techniques for patients with functional hypoadduction and presbyphonia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center...
February 11, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
Yueh-Ying Han, Erick Forno, Nitin Shivappa, Michael D Wirth, James R Hébert, Juan C Celedón
BACKGROUND: A proinflammatory diet may increase allergic airway inflammation by affecting innate and adaptive immune responses. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examine the relation between the diet's inflammatory potential, measured by the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), and current asthma, current wheeze, and lung function in U.S. children and adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from 8,175 children (aged 6-17 years) and 22,294 adults (aged 18-79 years) who participated in the 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Luanda Dias da Silva Salviano, Karla Delevedove Taglia-Ferre, Sandra Lisboa, Ana Carolina Carioca da Costa, Hisbello da Silva Campos, Maria de Fátima Pombo March
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) values and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and the level of asthma control, as proposed by the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), in asthmatic children and adolescents attended at the National Institute of Women, Children and Adolescents Health Fernandes Figueira of Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (IFF/FIOCRUZ). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, with a review of medical records of 90 asthmatics between 7 and 17 years old, who were followed up at the IFF/FIOCRUZ Asthma Outpatient Clinic and were referred to perform respiratory function tests (RFT)between March 2013 and September 2014...
January 15, 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Vanessa Garcia-Larsen, Narjis Thawer, David Charles, Aedin Cassidy, Thibaut van Zele, Trine Thilsing, Matti Ahlström, Tari Haahtela, Thomas Keil, Paolo M Matricardi, Grzegorz Brożek, Marek L Kowalski, Joanna Makowska, Ewa Niżankowska-Mogilnicka, Barbara Rymarczyk, Carlos Loureiro, Ana Todo Bom, Claus Bachert, Bertil Forsberg, Christer Janson, Kjell Torén, James F Potts, Peter Gj Burney
BACKGROUND: Flavonoids exert anti-inflammatory properties and modulate oxidative stress in vitro, suggesting a protective effect on lung function, but epidemiological studies examining this association are scarce. METHODS: A stratified random sample was drawn from the GA²LEN screening survey, in which 55,000 adults aged 15 to 75 answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was obtained from 2850 subjects. Forced vital capacity (FVC), the ratio between the forced exhaled volume in 1 second (FEV₁) and FVC (FEV₁/FVC), FVC below lower limit of normal (FVC < LLN), and FEV₁/FVC < LLN were calculated...
January 15, 2018: Nutrients
M Margarida Castel-Branco, Ana Fontes, Isabel V Figueiredo
Background: A correct selection of drugs prescribed, but also the choice of the appropriate inhaler device, is crucial for the control of respiratory diseases. Objective: To evaluate the inhaler technique and identify potential errors of patients when treated with inhalers by testing a routinary procedure to be implemented in any community pharmacy. Methods: Adults with asthma/COPD and under inhalation therapy were invited to demonstrate how they use their inhalers...
October 2017: Pharmacy Practice
Catherine E Hanratty, John G Matthews, Joseph R Arron, David F Choy, Ian D Pavord, P Bradding, Christopher E Brightling, Rekha Chaudhuri, Douglas C Cowan, Ratko Djukanovic, Nicola Gallagher, Stephen J Fowler, Tim C Hardman, Tim Harrison, Cécile T Holweg, Peter H Howarth, James Lordan, Adel H Mansur, Andrew Menzies-Gow, Sofia Mosesova, Robert M Niven, Douglas S Robinson, Dominick E Shaw, Samantha Walker, Ashley Woodcock, Liam G Heaney
BACKGROUND: Patients with difficult-to-control asthma consume 50-60% of healthcare costs attributed to asthma and cost approximately five-times more than patients with mild stable disease. Recent evidence demonstrates that not all patients with asthma have a typical type 2 (T2)-driven eosinophilic inflammation. These asthmatics have been called 'T2-low asthma' and have a minimal response to corticosteroid therapy. Adjustment of corticosteroid treatment using sputum eosinophil counts from induced sputum has demonstrated reduced severe exacerbation rates and optimized corticosteroid dose...
January 4, 2018: Trials
Rachida Rafiq, Willemien Thijs, Robert Prein, Renate T de Jongh, Christian Taube, Pieter S Hiemstra, Renée de Mutsert, Martin den Heijer
Vitamin D is hypothesized to have a beneficial effect on lung function and respiratory infections. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations with lung function, airway inflammation and common colds. We performed a cross-sectional analysis in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study, a population-based cohort study. We included participants with measurements of serum 25(OH)D, Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s (FEV₁), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO ), and data on self-reported common colds ( n = 6138)...
January 3, 2018: Nutrients
Gregory H Bennett, Laurie Carpenter, Wei Hao, Peter Song, Joel Steinberg, Alan P Baptist
BACKGROUND: Asthma in older adults is associated with increased morbidity and mortality compared with asthma in younger patients. Fixed airflow obstruction (FAO) is associated with decreased survival in younger patients, but its significance remains unclear in older adults with asthma. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors and outcomes related to FAO in older adults with asthma. METHODS: Subjects older than 55 years with a physician diagnosis of persistent asthma were evaluated...
February 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Brian Stone, Jill R Davis, Frank Trudo, Bradd Schiffman, Carlos Alzola, David Brown, Kathleen M Fox
BACKGROUND: Severe asthma is recognized in the European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society guidelines as a major unmet need in the management of asthma. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to describe the clinical burden of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) steps 4-5 asthma for patients treated by specialists in the U.S. community setting. METHODS: Patients, ages ≥12 years, with asthma who received GINA step 4 or 5 treatment and were treated at a large U...
January 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Stephanie P Kurti, Sam R Emerson, Joshua R Smith, Sara K Rosenkranz, Samantha A Alexander, Garrett M Lovoy, Craig A Harms
INTRODUCTION: Development of late-onset respiratory diseases is associated with elevated 8-isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress, in the airways. However, sex differences exist in development of these diseases. Using an exhaustive exercise bout as a physiological stressor may elucidate whether there is a sex difference with aging in pre- to post-exercise airway 8-isoprostane generation. PURPOSE: To determine whether older women exhibit a greater airway 8-isoprostane response to exhaustive exercise compared to older men and younger controls...
December 14, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
James Fingleton, Kewu Huang, Mark Weatherall, Yanfei Guo, Stefan Ivanov, Piet Bruijnzeel, Hong Zhang, Wei Wang, Richard Beasley, Chen Wang
It is uncertain whether phenotypes of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) vary between populations with different genetic and environmental characteristics. Here, our objective was to compare the phenotypes of airways disease in two separate populations.This was a cross-sectional observational study in adult populations from New Zealand and China. Participants aged 40-75 years who reported wheeze and breathlessness in the last 12 months were randomly selected from the general population and underwent detailed characterisation...
December 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
John M Weiler, Christine A Sorkness, Leslie Hendeles, Sara Nichols, Yaping Zhu
This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover, clinical-end-point pilot study examining the hypothesis that inhaled fluticasone propionate decreases exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) concentrations within a week of beginning treatment and shows evidence of dose separation across the marketed dose range. Subjects had a ≥6-month history of asthma and screening eNO ≥60 parts per billion. At the start of each treatment period, eNO was ≥55 parts per billion, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second was ≥50% predicted...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Sophie F Demarche, Florence N Schleich, Monique A Henket, Virginie A Paulus, Thierry J Van Hees, Renaud E Louis
OBJECTIVES: The impact of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on eosinophilic inflammation in asthma is well established, but their effect in a real-life setting has not been extensively studied. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of ICS on airway and systemic inflammation as well as on clinical outcomes in patients with asthma from clinical practice. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a retrospective analysis on asthmatics from a secondary care centre in whom ICS were initiated/increased (n=101), stopped/decreased (n=60) or remained stable (n=63, used as a control group) between two visits with available sputum and blood cell counts...
November 28, 2017: BMJ Open
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