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Forced exhalation

Marieke Verkleij, Anita Beelen, Bart E van Ewijk, Rinie Geenen
OBJECTIVE: For children with problematic severe asthma, achieving adequate control of asthma is difficult. The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the effects of intensive multidisciplinary inpatient treatment on multiple outcome variables in children with problematic severe asthma. METHODS: Participants were 89 children with problematic severe asthma (mean age 13.6 ± 2.5 years) treated in tertiary care clinics at high altitude (Switzerland) or sea level (Netherlands) and their parents (85 mothers, 55 fathers)...
October 13, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Hideki Inoue, Akio Niimi, Hisako Matsumoto, Isao Ito, Tsuyoshi Oguma, Kojiro Otsuka, Tomoshi Takeda, Hitoshi Nakaji, Tomoko Tajiri, Toshiyuki Iwata, Tadao Nagasaki, Michiaki Mishima
Patch formulation of tulobuterol has been used in asthma treatment as a long-acting β2 -agonist (LABA) through sustained skin absorption. Its treatment efficacy, especially in small airways, remains poorly understood. The study aim was to investigate LABA add-on effects of tulobuterol patch (TP) and salmeterol inhaler (SA) on pulmonary function, asthma control, and health status. Patients who had adult-onset under-controlled asthma, despite taking inhaled corticosteroids, were enrolled in a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, proof-of-concept study of 12-week add-on treatment with TP (n = 16) or SA (n = 17)...
October 8, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Kareem Mahmoud, Hussien Heshmat Kassem, Essam Baligh, Usama ElGameel, Yosri Akl, Hossam Kandil
Increased sympathetic tone and use of bronchodilators increase heart rate and this may worsen functional capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to look at the short-term effect of the heart rate lowering drug ivabradine on clinical status in COPD patients.We randomised 80 COPD patients with sinus heart rate ≥90 bpm into either taking ivabradine 7.5 mg twice per day or placebo for two weeks. We assessed all patients using the modified Borg scale and 6-minute walk test at baseline and then again 2 weeks after randomisation...
October 2016: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Tadahiro Goto, Carlos A Camargo, Kohei Hasegawa
PURPOSE: Recent studies propose TH2-mediated inflammation in patients with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, little is known about whether fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) differs between patients with ACOS and those with COPD alone. To address this knowledge gap, a nationally representative sample was analyzed to determine the difference in FeNO levels between patients with ACOS and those with COPD alone in the US population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 through 2012...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Asger Bjerregaard, Ingrid A Laing, Vibeke Backer, Markus Fally, Siew-Kim Khoo, Glenys Chidlow, Chisha Sikazwe, David W Smith, Peter Le Souëf, Celeste Porsbjerg
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Airway eosinophilia is associated with an increased risk of asthma exacerbations; however, the impact on the severity of exacerbations is largely unknown. We describe the sputum inflammatory phenotype during asthma exacerbation and correlate it with severity and treatment response. METHODS: Patients presenting to hospital with an asthma exacerbation were recruited during a 12-month period and followed up after 4 weeks. Induced sputum was collected at both visits...
September 21, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Zhan-Wei Hu, Yan-Ni Zhao, Yuan Cheng, Cui-Yan Guo, Xi Wang, Nan Li, Jun-Qing Liu, Hui Kang, Guo-Guang Xia, Ping Hu, Ping-Ji Zhang, Jing Ma, Ying Liu, Cheng Zhang, Li Su, Guang-Fa Wang
BACKGROUND: The effects of near-road pollution on lung function in China have not been well studied. We aimed to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on lung function, airway inflammation, and respiratory symptoms. METHODS: We enrolled 1003 residents aged 57.96 ± 8.99 years living in the Shichahai Community in Beijing. Distances between home addresses and the nearest major roads were measured to calculate home-road distance...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Mijee Koo, Sunkyung Hwang
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of exhalation breathing exercises using expirometer and that of inhalation breathing exercises using incentive spirometry on pulmonary function and complications in elderly patients with upper-abdominal surgery. METHODS: The research design was a nonequivalent control group non-synchronized design. Participants were 63 patients who underwent upper-abdominal surgery under general anesthesia (32 in experiment group, 31 in control group)...
August 2016: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
Fazil E Uslu, Kerem Pekkan
Hydrodynamic performance of the marine mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, is studied with time-resolved particle image velocimetry. We evaluated inhalant flow, exhalant jet flow, suction performance and flow control capabilities of the mussels quantitatively. Inhalant flow structures of mussels are measured at the coronal plane for the first time in literature. Nutrient fluid is convected into the mussel by three-dimensional sink flow. Inhalant velocity reaches its highest magnitude inside the mussel mantle while it is accelerating outward from the mussels...
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
Lin Liu, Wen Liu, Chunhong Liu, Dexiang Wang, Jiping Zhao, Junfei Wang, Jinxiang Wu, Tian Liu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Yahui Liu, Liuzhao Cao, Liang Dong
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The invasive techniques can be direct and objective to assess small airway function, but they have significant risks and inconveniences for patients and can not be repeated often. Some sophisticated techniques such as fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and impulse oscillometry (IOS) may surmount such restrictions. Therefore, we investigated the relation among FeNO, IOS and small airway function in asthmatic patients. METHODS: We recruited 140 asthmatic patients including 69 patients with small airway normal function and 71 patients with small airway dysfunction...
September 8, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Sanduru Thamarai Krishnan, Jasmine Pramila Devadhasan, Sanghyo Kim
The ammonia odor from the exhaled breath of renal patients is associated with high levels of blood urea nitrogen. Typically, in the liver, ammonia and ammonium ions are converted into urea through the urea cycle. In the case of renal dysfunction, urea is unable to be removed and that causes a buildup of excessive ammonia. As small molecules, ammonia and ammonium ions can be forced into the blood-lung barrier and occur in exhaled breath. Therefore, people with renal failure have an ammonia (fishy) odor in their exhaled breath...
September 5, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Rung-Chi Li, Umesh Singh, Hugh Porter Windom, Stephen Gorman, Jonathan A Bernstein
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of VCD is complicated by its symptom similarities to asthma. Although clinical history, spirometry, and fiberoptic nasolaryngoscopy are used for VCD diagnosis, videostroboscopy is considered the gold standard. However, little is know about patient characteristics that might suggest a VCD diagnosis is more likely. OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical characteristics of patients suspected of having VCD that would increase the likelihood of an accurate diagnosis before videostroboscopy...
October 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Teresa Morganti, Gitai Yahel, Marta Ribes, Rafel Coma
Benthic suspension feeders play essential roles in the functioning of marine ecosystems. By filtering large volumes of water, removing plankton and detritus, and excreting particulate and dissolved compounds, they serve as important agents for benthic-pelagic coupling. Accurately measuring the compounds removed and excreted by suspension feeders (such as sponges, ascidians, polychaetes, bivalves) is crucial for the study of their physiology, metabolism, and feeding ecology, and is fundamental to determine the ecological relevance of the nutrient fluxes mediated by these organisms...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
John M Weiler, Christine A Sorkness, Leslie Hendeles, Yaping Zhu, Sara Nichols
This was a pilot, randomized, double-blind, crossover, proof-of-concept, clinical endpoint study to examine the hypothesis that exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) in asthmatic subjects can demonstrate bioequivalence of fluticasone propionate in Test and Reference combination products. Subjects had ≥6-month history of asthma and screening eNO was ≥60 parts per billion. eNO was ≥55 parts per billion and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was ≥50% predicted, at start of each treatment period. Subjects presented once each consecutive morning in the clinic during each of three weekly treatment periods to measure eNO and receive once-daily doses of 100/50, 250/50, or 500/50 Advair® combination product...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Masahiko Iwaoka, Takeshi Tsuji
Objective We evaluated the short-term effects of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline on the lung function. Methods In this study, 81 subjects received 12 weeks of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline. No changes were made to any previously prescribed medications. A physical examination, blood sampling, and spirometry were performed at the first and last visit. Spirometric lung ages were calculated by a formula based on height and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The success group comprised 62 subjects who attained 4-week continuous abstinence confirmed by exhaled carbon monoxide testing; whereas the failure group comprised 19 subjects who did not attain this result...
2016: Internal Medicine
Andrew S Nickels, Kaiser G Lim
BACKGROUND: Compared with methacholine challenge, exhaled nitric oxide is less expensive, is performed as a simpler point-of-care maneuver, and may provide treatment guiding information. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether exhaled nitric oxide levels can predict the outcome of methacholine challenge in patients without obvious baseline obstruction. METHODS: This retrospective database and medical record review included adults presenting to a tertiary care center from November 1, 2009, through August 31, 2013, who underwent methacholine challenge and exhaled nitric oxide measurement within 2 weeks of each other...
October 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
J R Anderson, K Mortimer, L Pang, K M Smith, H Bailey, D B Hodgson, D E Shaw, A J Knox, T W Harrison
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) is a nuclear receptor that modulates inflammation in models of asthma. To determine whether pioglitazone improves measures of asthma control and airway inflammation, we performed a single-center randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. METHODS: Sixty-eight participants with mild asthma were randomized to 12 weeks pioglitazone (30 mg for 4 weeks, then 45 mg for 8 weeks) or placebo...
2016: PloS One
Tharoeun Thap, Heewon Chung, Changwon Jeong, Ki-Eun Hwang, Hak-Ryul Kim, Kwon-Ha Yoon, Jinseok Lee
In this paper, a smartphone-based lung function test, developed to estimate lung function parameters using a high-resolution time-frequency spectrum from a smartphone built-in microphone is presented. A method of estimation of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity (FEV₁/FVC) based on the variable frequency complex demodulation method (VFCDM) is first proposed. We evaluated our proposed method on 26 subjects, including 13 healthy subjects and 13 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, by comparing with the parameters clinically obtained from pulmonary function tests (PFTs)...
2016: Sensors
Yan Ostrovski, Philipp Hofemeier, Josué Sznitman
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that by coupling magnetic particles to inhaled therapeutics, the ability to target specific lung regions (eg, only acinar deposition), or even more so specific points in the lung (eg, tumor targeting), can be substantially improved. Although this method has been proven feasible in seminal in vivo studies, there is still a wide gap in our basic understanding of the transport phenomena of magnetic particles in the pulmonary acinar regions of the lungs, including particle dynamics and deposition characteristics...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Neil C Williams, Michael A Johnson, Dominick E Shaw, Ian Spendlove, Jelena Vulevic, Graham R Sharpe, Kirsty A Hunter
Gut microbes have a substantial influence on systemic immune function and allergic sensitisation. Manipulation of the gut microbiome through prebiotics may provide a potential strategy to influence the immunopathology of asthma. This study investigated the effects of prebiotic Bimuno-galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS) supplementation on hyperpnoea-induced bronchoconstriction (HIB), a surrogate for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, and airway inflammation. A total of ten adults with asthma and HIB and eight controls without asthma were randomised to receive 5·5 g/d of either B-GOS or placebo for 3 weeks separated by a 2-week washout period...
September 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Paweł Majak, Joanna Jerzyńska, Magdalena Bojo, Agnieszka Brzozowska, Magdalena Koczkowska, Piotr Sielski, Włodzimierz Stelmach, Rafał Stelmach, Anna Janas, Iwona Stelmach
INTRODUCTION: Markers of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) correlate with lung function impairment, airway remodeling and different aspects of the disease such as exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Aim of the study was to determine the cytokine profile in EBC of children with asthma after an exercise treadmill challenge in order to obtain clinically useful information about mechanisms of EIB; also, to assess correlations between cytokine concentrations in EBC and clinical characteristics of the patients...
August 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
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