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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775687/effects-of-bronchodilation-on-biomarkers-of-peripheral-airway-inflammation-in-copd
#1
Pierachille Santus, Dejan Radovanovic, Susanna Mascetti, Alessia Pauletti, Vincenzo Valenti, Marco Mantero, Alberto Papi, Marco Contoli
Peripheral airway inflammation and dysfunction are key elements in the pathogenesis of COPD. The exhaled alveolar fraction of nitric oxide (CANO) is an indirect biomarker of lung peripheral inflammation. We tested whether inhaled long-acting bronchodilators (LABA) can affect CANO and we evaluated correlations with lung mechanics in patients with COPD. Two-centre, randomised, double blind, crossover study including COPD patients with moderate-to-severe airflow obstruction. Following a pharmacological washout, multi-flow exhaled fraction of NO (FENO), plethysmography, lung diffusion (DLCO), single breath nitrogen washout test and dyspnoea were measured in a crossover manner at baseline and 30, 60 and 180 minutes following administration of salmeterol (Sal) or formoterol fumarate (FF)...
May 15, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767634/measurement-and-estimation-of-human-forced-expiratory-noise-parameters-using-a-microphone-with-a-stethoscope-head-and-a-lapel-microphone
#2
Anna Yur'evna Glazova, Vladimir I Korenbaum, Anatoly E Kostiv, Oksana I Kabancova, Alexander A Tagiltcev, Svetlana N Shin
The time signature of tracheal noise in the 200-2000 Hz frequency band recorded during a forced expiratory manoeuvre (FETa) is a promising tool for diagnosis of bronchial obstructions. FETa is typically registered using a microphone with a stethoscope head placed on the neck over the trachea (stethoscope sensor). We studied basic time and spectral parameters of forced expiratory tracheal noises with a microphone placed near the mouth (lapel microphone, outside the flow of exhaled air) and compared these with measurements via stethoscope sensor, with the aim of providing patient home monitoring via standard personal computer facilities...
May 16, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702608/liver-injury-by-carbon-tetrachloride-intoxication-in-16-patients-treated-with-forced-ventilation-to-accelerate-toxin-removal-via-the-lungs-a-clinical-report
#3
REVIEW
Rolf Teschke
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) is an efficient but highly toxic solvent, used in households and commercially in the industry under regulatory surveillance to ensure safety at the working place and to protect the workers’ health. However, acute unintentional or intentional intoxications by CCl₄ may rarely occur and are potentially life-threatening. In this review article, therapy options are discussed that are based on a literature review of traditional poisoning cases and the clinical experience with 16 patients with acute poisoning by CCl₄...
April 27, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697832/2-5-dimethylfuran-as-a-validated-biomarker-of-smoking-status
#4
Mar Castellanos, Rosa Suñer, José M Fernández-Real, Juan M Sanchez Navarro
Introduction: Exposure biomarkers are required in tobacco use studies to accurately assess smoking status since self-reporting usually results in misclassification estimates. This study uses breath analysis and assesses some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as potential biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure. Methods: Forced-expiratory breath samples were obtained from 377 volunteers (174 smokers and 203 non-smokers). Exhaled breath levels of different VOCs previously related to tobacco smoke were evaluated...
April 24, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692617/both-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-and-sputum-eosinophil-were-associated-with-uncontrolled-asthma
#5
Jie Gao, Zhaocheng Chen, Xiang Jie, Ruihua Ye, Feng Wu
Background: Sputum eosinophil and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), noninvasive biomarkers of local eosinophilic airway inflammation, can be used to assess asthma outcome. Nevertheless, the clinical application of the association between FeNO and sputum eosinophil is controversial. The aim of the study was to investigate the predictive relationship between FeNO and sputum eosinophil in uncontrolled asthmatic patients and the correlation between sputum eosinophil and FeNO in bronchial reversibility and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR)...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690880/abnormal-pulmonary-function-tests-predict-the-development-of-radiation-induced-pneumonitis-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
L Torre-Bouscoulet, W R Muñoz-Montaño, D Martínez-Briseño, F J Lozano-Ruiz, R Fernández-Plata, J A Beck-Magaña, C García-Sancho, A Guzmán-Barragán, E Vergara, M Blake-Cerda, L Gochicoa-Rangel, F Maldonado, M Arroyo-Hernández, O Arrieta
BACKGROUND: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a frequent complication of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and is associated with severe symptoms that decrease quality of life and might result in pulmonary fibrosis or death. The aim of this study is to identify whether pulmonary function test (PFT) abnormalities may predict RP in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS: A prospective multi-institutional study was conducted with locally advanced and oligometastatic NSCLC patients...
April 24, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682796/phase-2a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-multicenter-parallel-group-study-of-an-h-4-r-antagonist-jnj-39758979-in-adults-with-uncontrolled-asthma
#7
Alexa P Kollmeier, Andrew Greenspan, Xie L Xu, Philip E Silkoff, Elliot Barnathan, Matthew J Loza, Jingzhi Jiang, Bei Zhou, Bin Chen, Robin L Thurmond
BACKGROUND: The effects of H4 R antagonists in preclinical asthma models support the study of antagonists of the H4 R in the treatment of asthma in humans. JNJ-39758979 is a potent and highly-selective oral H4 R antagonist. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the H4 R-antagonist JNJ-39758979 in adult patients with uncontrolled asthma. METHODS: One hundred and fifteen eligible patients were randomly assigned to JNJ-39758979 300 mg or placebo once daily for 12 weeks in this phase 2a, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled study...
April 23, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668530/cardiorespiratory-effects-of-air-pollution-in-a-panel-study-of-winter-outdoor-physical-activity-in-older-adults
#8
David M Stieb, Robin Shutt, Lisa Marie Kauri, Gail Roth, Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz, Nina A Dobbin, Li Chen, Marc Rigden, Keith Van Ryswyk, Ryan Kulka, Branka Jovic, Marie Mulholland, Martin S Green, Ling Liu, Guillaume Pelletier, Scott A Weichenthal, Robert E Dales
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess cardiorespiratory effects of air pollution in older adults exercising outdoors in winter. METHODS: Adults 55 years of age and older completed daily measurements of blood pressure, peak expiratory flow and oximetry, and weekly measurements of heart rate variability, endothelial function, spirometry, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide and urinary oxidative stress markers, before and after outdoor exercise, for 10 weeks...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575336/simultaneously-elevated-feno-and-blood-eosinophils-relate-to-asthma-morbidity-in-asthmatics-from-nhanes-2007-12
#9
Ida Mogensen, Kjell Alving, Tiago Jacinto, João A Fonseca, Christer Janson, Andrei Malinovschi
BACKGROUND: Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and blood eosinophil (B-Eos) count are biomarkers for type 2 inflammation. However, they signal different inflammatory pathways. Simultaneously elevated, they are related to more asthma events in a general population and among younger asthmatics. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if simultaneously elevated FeNO and B-Eos relate to asthma outcomes and lung function among subjects with asthma at a wide age span, and how different cut offs for the markers affect these relations...
March 25, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566263/comparison-of-vesical-pressure-values-achieved-by-valsalva-maneuvers-a-standardization-proposal
#10
João A Pereira-Correia, Livia P L Rosa, Vinícius R da Silva Costa, Fabiola V D Berle, Barbara M Werneck, Karolina P R Dos Santos, Gustavo B de Sousa Araujo, Maria J de Carvalho Bittencourt Sodré, Rubina L R de Fassio, Valter J F Muller
AIMS: To perform a comparative evaluation of Valsalva maneuver techniques, in an attempt to identify the most suitable one for achieving leak point pressure (LPP) during the cystometric phase of the urodynamic study (UDS), in order to propose a method for technical standardization. METHODS: Urodynamic data from women with stress urinary incontinence at three urogynecological medical centers were randomly selected and prospectively analyzed. Valsalva maneuver was executed through forceful attempted exhalation against the dorsal surface of the hand (Group 1), through abdominal strain (Group 2), or through low-elasticity latex balloon-blowing (Group 3)...
March 22, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553052/spirometric-reference-equations-for-elderly-chinese-in-jinan-aged-60-84-years
#11
Xin-Yu Tian, Chun-Hong Liu, De-Xiang Wang, Xiu-Li Ji, Hui Shi, Chun-Yan Zheng, Meng-Shuang Xie, Wei Xiao
Background: The interpretation of spirometry varies on different reference values. Older people are usually underrepresented in published predictive values. This study aimed at developing spirometric reference equations for elderly Chinese in Jinan aged 60-84 years and to compare them to previous equations. Methods: The project covered all of Jinan city, and the recruitment period lasted 9 months from January 1, 2017 to September 30, 2017, 434 healthy people aged 60-84 years who had never smoked (226 females and 208 males) were recruited to undergo spirometry...
March 19, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526567/exhaled-no-as-a-predictor-of-exercise-induced-asthma-in-cold-air
#12
Melanie Dreßler, Emilia Salzmann-Manrique, Stefan Zielen, Johannes Schulze
PURPOSE: Physical activity is an important part of life, and exercise-induced asthma (EIA) can reduce the quality of life. A standardized exercise challenge is needed to diagnose EIA, but this is a time consuming, effortful and expensive method. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) as a marker of eosinophil inflammation is determined rapidly and easily. The aim of this study was to investigate eNO as surrogate marker for predicting a positive reaction in an exercise challenge in a cold chamber (ECC)...
June 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476624/telomere-length-was-similar-in-school-age-children-with-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-and-allergic-asthma
#13
E Henckel, U Svenson, B Nordlund, E Berggren Broström, G Hedlin, S Degerman, K Bohlin
AIM: Inflammation is a major factor in the pathophysiology of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and it contributes to accelerated telomere shortening and cellular ageing. This study aimed to determine its effect on telomere length and lung function in school-aged children born preterm with BPD. METHODS: We examined 29 children with BPD, born preterm in Stockholm county 1998-99, along with 28 children with allergic asthma born at term matched for age and gender. At 10 years of age, we measured relative telomere length (RTL) in blood by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, lung function by spirometry and inflammation by fractional exhaled nitric oxide and blood cytokines...
February 24, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459619/quality-and-learning-aspects-of-the-first-9000-spirometries-of-the-lifegene-study
#14
Mikaela Qvarfordt, Martin Anderson, Magnus Svartengren
Spirometry requires the patient to cooperate and do the manoeuvre 'right' for reliable results. Algorithms to assess test quality as well as educational recommendations for personnel are defined in guidelines. We compared the quality of forced spirometry tests performed by spirometry technicians with little or no previous experience of spirometry using spirometry systems with different modes of feedback. In both cases, the spirometry technician received general feedback on the screen based on ATS/ERS guidelines, such as 'exhale faster' and 'exhale longer'...
February 19, 2018: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454552/adjustment-of-the-vocal-tract-shape-via-biofeedback-a-case-study
#15
Patrick Hoyer, Simone Graf
In this study, an adjustment of the vocal tract shape toward selected sound waves in the frequency range of the first and second formants without phonation is discussed. The sound waves of a loudspeaker in front of the open mouth and amplified by the vocal tract are used as biofeedback signals. It is shown that the resonance amplification of the vocal tract complies with the concept of forced oscillation, with the driver being the sound source and the resonator being the vocal tract. An adjustment toward increased amplification via vocal tract resonance can be related to smaller bandwidths and lower damping...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444915/predictors-of-accelerated-decline-in-lung-function-in-adult-onset-asthma
#16
Hanneke Coumou, Guus A Westerhof, Selma B de Nijs, Aeilko H Zwinderman, Elisabeth H Bel
Little is known about the prognosis of adults with new-onset asthma. Cross-sectional studies suggest that these patients may exhibit accelerated decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ). However, risk factors for accelerated decline in lung function have not yet been identified.We aimed to identify these risk factors in a prospective 5-year follow-up study in 200 adults with newly diagnosed asthma. In the current study, clinical, functional and inflammatory parameters were assessed annually for 5 years...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434763/correlation-between-upper-and-lower-airway-inflammations-in-patients-with-combined-allergic-rhinitis-and-asthma-syndrome-a-comparison-of-patients-initially-presenting-with-allergic-rhinitis-and-those-initially-presenting-with-asthma
#17
Shu Xia, Zheng Zhu, Wei-Jie Guan, Yan-Qing Xie, Jia-Ying An, Tao Peng, Rong-Chang Chen, Jin-Ping Zheng
Allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma often coexist. The terminology combined allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome (CARAS) was introduced to describe patients with combined AR and asthma. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between eosinophilic inflammation in the upper and lower airways of patients with CARAS. Stable patients with CARAS initially presenting with AR or asthma were recruited. Healthy subjects and patients with AR alone were recruited as controls. Clinical characteristics, including disease history, lung function, nasal airway inspiratory resistance and upper and lower airway eosinophilic inflammation were evaluated and compared...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430876/hard-onset-therapy-for-functional-hypoadduction-and-presbylaryngis-our-experience-in-22-patients
#18
LETTER
M Zhu, L Wang, X Bai, K A Peng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426751/the-dietary-inflammatory-index-and-current-wheeze-among-children-and-adults-in-the-united-states
#19
Yueh-Ying Han, Erick Forno, Nitin Shivappa, Michael D Wirth, James R Hébert, Juan C Celedón
BACKGROUND: A proinflammatory diet may increase allergic airway inflammation by affecting innate and adaptive immune responses. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examine the relation between the diet's inflammatory potential, measured by the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), and current asthma, current wheeze, and lung function in U.S. children and adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from 8,175 children (aged 6-17 years) and 22,294 adults (aged 18-79 years) who participated in the 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412429/association-between-fraction-of-exhaled-nitric-oxide-and-spirometry-data-and-clinical-control-of-asthma-in-children-and-adolescents
#20
Luanda Dias da Silva Salviano, Karla Delevedove Taglia-Ferre, Sandra Lisboa, Ana Carolina Carioca da Costa, Hisbello da Silva Campos, Maria de Fátima Pombo March
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) values and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and the level of asthma control, as proposed by the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), in asthmatic children and adolescents attended at the National Institute of Women, Children and Adolescents Health Fernandes Figueira of Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (IFF/FIOCRUZ). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, with a review of medical records of 90 asthmatics between 7 and 17 years old, who were followed up at the IFF/FIOCRUZ Asthma Outpatient Clinic and were referred to perform respiratory function tests (RFT)between March 2013 and September 2014...
January 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
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