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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336392/diagnostic-laboratories-in-asia-pacific-region-investigation-on-quality-characteristics-and-time-of-reporting
#1
Tony C Badrick, Anton Gutscher, Nakako Sakamoto, Daniel Chin
This is the result of a Survey of various aspects of quality, cost and speed in a large sample of diagnostic laboratories in the Asia Pacific region. It is the first of its type to be published and represents a snapshot of the current performance in a large number of diagnostic laboratories in a broad range of countries in the Asia Pacific region. This demonstrates that there are common issues facing all the laboratories surveyed but also common solutions using a Quality Systems approach which involves Accreditation, Customer responsiveness, greater use of IT, automation and Lean principles...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278125/laboratory-validation-of-an-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-detection-of-ractopamine-clenbuterol-and-salbutamol-in-bovine-and-swine-muscle-at-sub-%C3%AE-g-kg-regulatory-limits
#2
Rodrigo H M M Granja, Karine V G Reche, Fabio M Giannotti, João K G de Souza, Sarita P G Ferrari, André Danioti Dos Santos, Amarylis C B A Wanschel, Alessandro G Salerno
Ractopamine (RAC), is a β-adrenergic agonist increasingly used in the swine and cattle industry. This compound redirects nutrients to favor leanness rather than fat deposition, improves growth and carcass traits gaining higher economic benefit to producers. Countries around the world are split over whether to allow the use of RAC, in meat production. Clenbuterol (CLB) and Salbutamol (SLB) are anillinic and phenolic β-agonists, respectively, with the same capacity of producing economic benefits for the meat sector...
February 28, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272815/clinically-healthy-overweight-and-obese-dogs-differ-from-lean-controls-in-select-cbc-and-serum-biochemistry-values
#3
Lauren B Radakovich, Matthew P Truelove, Stephen C Pannone, Christine S Olver, Kelly S Santangelo
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a global disease, affecting nearly half a billion people. Unfortunately, this trend is mirrored in our canine population. OBJECTIVES: As obesity is a complex inflammatory disease, there is a need to determine whether routine medical screening tests may indicate, or be influenced by, its presence. The objective of the current study was to determine if significant differences exist between CBC and biochemical profile values from control vs overweight/obese, client-owned dogs considered clinically healthy...
March 8, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271801/pediatric-aerobic-fitness-and-trainability
#4
Neil Armstrong
Three papers which between them raise controversial issues, apply laboratory measures to sport performance, and expose gaps in knowledge were selected for commentary. The first paper (Sports Med. 2016;46:1451-1460) reviews the literature on peak V̇O2 in relation to body size and recommends that peak V̇O2 in youth is best expressed via allometric scaling of lean body mass. The second paper (Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2016;28:456-465) reports that maturity status has no effect on peak V̇O2, respiratory compensation point, or ventilatory threshold in youth soccer players once data have been allometrically normalized by lower limb muscle volume...
February 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215399/restoring-standing-capabilities-with-feedback-control-of-functional-neuromuscular-stimulation-following-spinal-cord-injury
#5
REVIEW
Raviraj Nataraj, Musa L Audu, Ronald J Triolo
This paper reviews the field of feedback control for neuroprosthesis systems that restore advanced standing function to individuals with spinal cord injury. Investigations into closed-loop control of standing by functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) have spanned three decades. The ultimate goal for FNS standing control systems is to facilitate hands free standing and enabling the user to perform manual functions at self-selected leaning positions. However, most clinical systems for home usage currently only provide basic upright standing using preprogrammed stimulation patterns...
February 15, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205271/lean-six-sigma-methodologies-improve-clinical-laboratory-efficiency-and-reduce-turnaround-times
#6
Tamer C Inal, Ozlem Goruroglu Ozturk, Filiz Kibar, Salih Cetiner, Selcuk Matyar, Gulcin Daglioglu, Akgun Yaman
BACKGROUND: Organizing work flow is a major task of laboratory management. Recently, clinical laboratories have started to adopt methodologies such as Lean Six Sigma and some successful implementations have been reported. This study used Lean Six Sigma to simplify the laboratory work process and decrease the turnaround time by eliminating non-value-adding steps. METHODS: The five-stage Six Sigma system known as define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) is used to identify and solve problems...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145422/proximate-causes-for-diet-induced-obesity-in-laboratory-mice-a-case-study
#7
REVIEW
C Kless, N Rink, J Rozman, M Klingenspor
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Detailed protocols and recommendations for the assessment of energy balance have been provided to address the problems associated with different body mass and body composition as apparent for mouse models in obesity research. Here, we applied these guidelines to investigate energy balance in two inbred mouse strains with contrasting susceptibilities for diet-induced obesity (DIO). Mice of the AKR/J strain are highly susceptible, whereas the SWR/J mice are almost completely resistant...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104106/peritoneal-dialysis-in-class-2-3-obesity-a-single-center-experience
#8
Yougandhar V Akula, Tibor Fülöp, Mehul P Dixit
Extreme obesity may hamper successful peritoneal dialysis (PD) delivery. Among our PD patients, we have identified 15 markedly obese (class 2-3 obesity: body mass index [BMI] ≥35kg/m(2)) and 20 lean (BMI: 20-25kg/m(2)) dialysis patients and reviewed multiple clinical, laboratory and dialysis-related parameters. Extreme outliers of obesity (BMI > 40; 6 subjects) received detailed review. Although weight (P < 0.0001) and BMI (P < 0.0001) differed significantly, weekly Kt/V (obese versus lean: 2.05 ± 0...
January 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078680/children-s-preference-for-mixed-versus-fixed-ratio-schedules-of-reinforcement-a-translational-study-of-risky-choice
#9
Michael P Mullane, Brian K Martens, Emily L Baxter, Danica Ver Steeg
Laboratory research has shown that when subjects are given a choice between fixed-ratio and bi-valued mixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement, preference typically emerges for the mixed-ratio schedule even with a larger ratio requirement. The current study sought to replicate and extend these findings to children's math problem completion. Using an ABCBC reversal design, four fourth-grade students were given the choice of completing addition problems reinforced on either a fixed-ratio 5 schedule or one of three mixed-ratio schedules; an equivalent mixed-ratio (1, 9) schedule, a mixed-ratio (1, 11) schedule with a 20% larger ratio requirement, and an equally lean mixed-ratio (5, 7) schedule without the small fixed-ratio 1 component...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035346/diet-induced-weight-loss-is-sufficient-to-reduce-senescent-cell-number-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-weight-cycled-mice
#10
Edward O List, Elizabeth Jensen, Jesse Kowalski, Mathew Buchman, Darlene E Berryman, John J Kopchick
Previously, our laboratory reported that weight-cycled mice outlive their obese counterparts. To gain a better mechanistic understanding of these results, we evaluated cellular senescence in white adipose tissue (WAT) of lean, obese, and weight cycled mice. Our results show that at the end of a 28 day weight loss cycle cellular senescence is significantly reduced in multiple WAT depots compared to obese mice, which also corresponds to a reduction in circulating activin A (a marker of senescence). These findings suggest that a previously undescribed benefit to weight loss may be a reduction of cellular senescence in WAT...
October 27, 2016: Nutr Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005561/risk-factors-for-collegiate-swimmers-hospitalized-with-exertional-rhabdomyolysis
#11
Margo R Stanfa, Navjeet N Silles, Amanda Cooper, Sara Arena, Kristin Landis-Piwowar, Carrie Aprik, Tamara Hew-Butler
OBJECTIVE: To identify midseason risk factors for symptomatic exertional rhabdomyolysis (sER) in swimmers after a novel upper body workout. DESIGN: Retrospective (1) survey and (2) analyses of observational laboratory data conducted over a 16-week training period, 2 months before sER. SETTING: Midwest University. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-four collegiate swimmers. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: (1) Motivation, symptoms, and supplements for survey variables...
January 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999850/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-vitamin-d-in-immobilisation-part-a-modulation-of-appendicular-mass-content-composition-and-structure
#12
E L Bostock, C I Morse, K Winwood, I M McEwan, G L Onambélé
OBJECTIVES: Muscle size decreases in response to short-term limb immobilisation. This study set out to determine whether two potential protein-sparing modulators (eicosapentaenoic acid and vitamin D) would attenuate immobilisation-induced changes in muscle characteristics. DESIGN: The study used a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. SETTING: The study took part in a laboratory setting. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four male and female healthy participants, aged 23...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996337/steady-state-energy-balance-in-animal-models-of-obesity-and-weight-loss
#13
Magnus Kringstad Olsen, Helene Johannessen, Nikki Cassie, Perry Barrett, Koji Takeuchi, Bård Kulseng, Duan Chen, Chun-Mei Zhao
OBJECTIVE: We wanted to exam the steady-state energy balance by using high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and mice as models for positive energy balance, and gastric bypassed (GB) rats and gene knockout of muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor (M3KO) mice as models for negative energy balance. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-two rats and mice were used. Energy balance was measured by a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system. Gene expression was analysed by in situ hybridisation in M3KO mice...
April 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905858/seasonal-effects-on-body-composition-muscle-characteristics-and-performance-of-collegiate-swimmers-and-divers
#14
Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch
CONTEXT:  Previous researchers have indicated the importance of body composition and muscle quality in athletic performance. However, body composition and muscle-quality measures in swimmers and divers over a training season have yet to be evaluated. OBJECTIVE:  To identify changes in body composition and muscle characteristics over a competitive season and identify relationships between these variables and performance in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I swimmers and divers...
January 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878919/effect-of-health-status-on-fattening-performance-in-young-crossbred-polish-holstein-friesian-%C3%A3-limousin-bulls-and-steers
#15
Zofia Wielgosz-Groth, Monika Sobczuk-Szul, Zenon Nogalski, Paulina Pogorzelska-Przybyłek, Cezary Purwin
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of disease incidence on selected parameters of cattle fattening performance and carcass quality, and the fatty acid profile of beef. The experimental materials comprised 16 bulls and 16 steers, Polish Holstein-Friesian × Limousin crossbreeds (including 10 healthy and six treated animals of each category). At 5 weeks of age, bloodless castration was carried out using a rubber elastrator. The calves were fed milk replacer provided in automatic feeding stations...
November 23, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872396/comparison-of-estimates-of-body-fat-content-in-childhood-onset-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#16
N A Sinicato, F A Peres, K de Oliveira Peliçari, A de Oliveira Santos, C D Ramos, R Marini, S Appenzeller
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare estimates of body fat content with respect to their ability to predict the percentage of body fat, confirmed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. METHODS: We included 64 consecutive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 64 healthy age and sex-matched controls in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data, body mass index and body adiposity index were calculated for all subjects...
November 21, 2016: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827911/changes-in-body-composition-in-the-two-years-after-initiation-of-haemodialysis-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#17
David Keane, Claire Gardiner, Elizabeth Lindley, Simon Lines, Graham Woodrow, Mark Wright
Malnutrition is common in haemodialysis (HD) and is linked to poor outcomes. This study aimed to describe changes in body composition after the initiation of HD and investigate whether any routinely collected parameters were associated with these changes. The study cohort came from the HD population of a single centre between 2009 and 2014. Body composition measurements were obtained from a database of bioimpedance results using the Body Composition Monitor (BCM), while demographics and laboratory values came from the renal unit database...
November 4, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812153/a-90-day-feeding-study-in-rats-to-assess-the-safety-of-genetically-engineered-pork
#18
Gao-Jun Xiao, Sheng-Wang Jiang, Li-Li Qian, Chun-Bo Cai, Qing-Qing Wang, De-Zun Ma, Biao Li, Shan-Shan Xie, Wen-Tao Cui, Kui Li
Our laboratory recently produced genetically engineered (GE) Meishan pigs containing a ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant. These GE pigs develop and grow as normal as wild type pigs but produce pork with greater lean yield and lower fat mass. To assess any potential subchronic toxicity risks of this GE pork, a 90-day feeding study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, and fed for 90 days with basic diet and basic diets formulated with low dose and high dose pork prepared from wild type pigs and GE pigs, respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739584/trial-by-dutch-laboratories-for-evaluation-of-non-invasive-prenatal-testing-part-ii-women-s-perspectives
#19
Rachèl V van Schendel, G C Lieve Page-Christiaens, Lean Beulen, Catia M Bilardo, Marjon A de Boer, Audrey B C Coumans, Brigitte H Faas, Irene M van Langen, Klaske D Lichtenbelt, Merel C van Maarle, Merryn V E Macville, Dick Oepkes, Eva Pajkrt, Lidewij Henneman
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate preferences and decision-making among high-risk pregnant women offered a choice between Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT), invasive testing or no further testing. METHODS: Nationwide implementation study (TRIDENT) offering NIPT as contingent screening test for women at increased risk for fetal aneuploidy based on first-trimester combined testing (>1:200) or medical history. A questionnaire was completed after counseling assessing knowledge, attitudes and participation following the Multidimensional Measure of Informed Choice...
December 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723362/changing-sagittal-plane-landing-styles-to-modulate-impact-and-tibiofemoral-force-magnitude-and-directions-relative-to-the-tibia
#20
Yohei Shimokochi, Jatin P Ambegaonkar, Eric G Meyer
CONTEXT: Ground reaction force (GRF) and tibiofemoral force magnitudes and directions have been shown to affect anterior cruciate ligament loading during landing. However, the kinematic and kinetic factors modifying these 2 forces during landing are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the intersegmental kinematic and kinetic links underlying the alteration of the GRF and tibiofemoral force vectors secondary to changes in the sagittal-plane body position during single-legged landing...
September 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
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