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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430956/achieving-high-reliability-in-histology-%C3%A2-an-improvement-series-to-reduce-errors
#1
Yael K Heher, Yigu Chen, Sergey Pyatibrat, Edward Yoon, Jeffrey D Goldsmith, Kenneth E Sands
Objectives: Despite sweeping medical advances in other fields, histology processes have by and large remained constant over the past 175 years. Patient label identification errors are a known liability in the laboratory and can be devastating, resulting in incorrect diagnoses and inappropriate treatment. The objective of this study was to identify vulnerable steps in the histology workflow and reduce the frequency of labeling errors (LEs). Methods: In this 36-month study period, a numerical step key (SK) was developed to capture LEs...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426779/reference-standards-for-lean-mass-measures-using-ge-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-caucasian-adults
#2
Mary T Imboden, Ann M Swartz, Holmes W Finch, Matthew P Harber, Leonard A Kaminsky
OBJECTIVE: To develop reference values by age and sex for LM measures using GE-Healthcare DXA systems. METHODS: A de-identified sample was obtained from Ball State University's Clinical Exercise Physiology Laboratory and University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee's Physical Activity & Health Research Laboratory. DXA scans of 2,076 women and 1,251 men were completed using a GE Lunar Prodigy or iDXA. Percentiles (%ile) were calculated for all variables of interest (LM, LMI, %LM, and ALMI) and a factorial ANOVA was used to assess differences for each variable between 10-year age groups and sex, as well as the interaction between age and sex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426531/high-fat-feeding-protects-mice-from-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-via-neutrophil-independent-mechanisms
#3
Michael R Wilson, Joanne E Petrie, Michael W Shaw, Cong Hu, Charlotte M Oakley, Samantha J Woods, Brijesh V Patel, Kieran P O'Dea, Masao Takata
OBJECTIVE: Obesity has a complex impact on acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, being associated with increased likelihood of developing the syndrome but reduced likelihood of dying. We propose that such observations are potentially explained by a model in which obesity influences the iatrogenic injury that occurs subsequent to intensive care admission. This study therefore investigated whether fat feeding protected mice from ventilator-induced lung injury. DESIGN: In vivo study...
April 19, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419243/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-pubertal-induction-using-17beta-estradiol-in-transgirls
#4
Sabine E Hannema, Sebastian E E Schagen, Peggy T Cohen-Kettenis, Henriette A Delemarre-van de Waal
Introduction.: Puberty suppression using GnRH agonists, followed by induction of desired sex characteristics using sex steroids, is recommended by current guidelines as the treatment of choice for gender dysphoric adolescents although little evidence is available. Aim.: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of estrogen treatment for pubertal induction in transgirls (female-identifying adolescents assigned male at birth). Methods.: 28 Adolescents treated with oral estrogen for at least 1 year were included...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410467/examination-of-the-interpersonal-model-of-loss-of-control-eating-in-the-laboratory
#5
Lisa M Shank, Ross D Crosby, Anne Claire Grammer, Lauren B Shomaker, Anna Vannucci, Natasha L Burke, Monika Stojek, Sheila M Brady, Merel Kozlosky, James C Reynolds, Jack A Yanovski, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff
BACKGROUND: The interpersonal model of loss of control (LOC) eating proposes that interpersonal problems lead to negative affect, which in turn contributes to the onset and/or persistence of LOC eating. Despite preliminary support, there are no data examining the construct validity of the interpersonal model of LOC eating using temporally sensitive reports of social stress, distinct negative affective states, and laboratory energy intake. METHOD: 117 healthy adolescent girls (BMI: 75th-97th %ile) were recruited for a prevention trial targeting excess weight gain in adolescent girls who reported LOC eating...
April 3, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384417/dehydration-causes-increased-reliance-on-protein-oxidation-in-mice-a-test-of-the-protein-for-water-hypothesis-in-a-mammal
#6
Marshall D McCue, Joey Sandoval, Jazmin Beltran, Alexander R Gerson
During fasting, animals rely on a mixture of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins that are derived solely from endogenous sources. The relative contributions of these metabolic fuels chiefly depend on the duration of the fast, but other factors including previous diet, environmental temperature, and activity level can modulate the fuel mixture. It has long been held that endogenous proteins are spared from catabolism until the final stages of prolonged fasting and contribute a significant proportion of energy once the other metabolic fuels have been depleted...
May 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363839/selection-for-high-aerobic-capacity-has-no-protective-effect-against-obesity-in-laboratory-mice
#7
Julita Sadowska, Andrzej K Gębczyński, Marek Konarzewski
Aerobic capacity (VO2max measured during intensive physical exercise) both trained and intrinsic (i.e. genetically determined) has recently been deemed a good predictor of cardiometabolic risks. However, the underlying mechanisms linking VO2max and health risk factors are not entirely clear, as it seems that not VO2max per se, but rather some correlated traits, like spontaneous physical activity (SPA) are responsible for sustaining the lean phenotype. Here we investigated the link between genetically determined aerobic capacity, SPA and resistance to diet-induced health risks using replicated lines of mice selected for high aerobic capacity during swimming in mid-cold water (25°C) and Randomly Bred control mice...
March 29, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336392/diagnostic-laboratories-in-asia-pacific-region-investigation-on-quality-characteristics-and-time-of-reporting
#8
Tony C Badrick, Anton Gutscher, Nakako Sakamoto, Daniel Chin
This is the result of a Survey of various aspects of quality, cost and speed in a large sample of diagnostic laboratories in the Asia Pacific region. It is the first of its type to be published and represents a snapshot of the current performance in a large number of diagnostic laboratories in a broad range of countries in the Asia Pacific region. This demonstrates that there are common issues facing all the laboratories surveyed but also common solutions using a Quality Systems approach which involves Accreditation, Customer responsiveness, greater use of IT, automation and Lean principles...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278125/laboratory-validation-of-an-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-detection-of-ractopamine-clenbuterol-and-salbutamol-in-bovine-and-swine-muscle-at-sub-%C3%AE-g-kg-regulatory-limits
#9
Rodrigo H M M Granja, Karine V G Reche, Fabio M Giannotti, João K G de Souza, Sarita P G Ferrari, André Danioti Dos Santos, Amarylis C B A Wanschel, Alessandro G Salerno
Ractopamine (RAC), is a β-adrenergic agonist increasingly used in the swine and cattle industry. This compound redirects nutrients to favor leanness rather than fat deposition, improves growth and carcass traits gaining higher economic benefit to producers. Countries around the world are split over whether to allow the use of RAC, in meat production. Clenbuterol (CLB) and Salbutamol (SLB) are anillinic and phenolic β-agonists, respectively, with the same capacity of producing economic benefits for the meat sector...
February 28, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272815/clinically-healthy-overweight-and-obese-dogs-differ-from-lean-controls-in-select-cbc-and-serum-biochemistry-values
#10
Lauren B Radakovich, Matthew P Truelove, Stephen C Pannone, Christine S Olver, Kelly S Santangelo
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a global disease, affecting nearly half a billion people. Unfortunately, this trend is mirrored in our canine population. OBJECTIVES: As obesity is a complex inflammatory disease, there is a need to determine whether routine medical screening tests may indicate, or be influenced by, its presence. The objective of the current study was to determine if significant differences exist between CBC and biochemical profile values from control vs overweight/obese, client-owned dogs considered clinically healthy...
March 8, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271801/pediatric-aerobic-fitness-and-trainability
#11
Neil Armstrong
Three papers which between them raise controversial issues, apply laboratory measures to sport performance, and expose gaps in knowledge were selected for commentary. The first paper (Sports Med. 2016;46:1451-1460) reviews the literature on peak V̇O2 in relation to body size and recommends that peak V̇O2 in youth is best expressed via allometric scaling of lean body mass. The second paper (Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2016;28:456-465) reports that maturity status has no effect on peak V̇O2, respiratory compensation point, or ventilatory threshold in youth soccer players once data have been allometrically normalized by lower limb muscle volume...
February 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215399/restoring-standing-capabilities-with-feedback-control-of-functional-neuromuscular-stimulation-following-spinal-cord-injury
#12
REVIEW
Raviraj Nataraj, Musa L Audu, Ronald J Triolo
This paper reviews the field of feedback control for neuroprosthesis systems that restore advanced standing function to individuals with spinal cord injury. Investigations into closed-loop control of standing by functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) have spanned three decades. The ultimate goal for FNS standing control systems is to facilitate hands free standing and enabling the user to perform manual functions at self-selected leaning positions. However, most clinical systems for home usage currently only provide basic upright standing using preprogrammed stimulation patterns...
April 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205271/lean-six-sigma-methodologies-improve-clinical-laboratory-efficiency-and-reduce-turnaround-times
#13
Tamer C Inal, Ozlem Goruroglu Ozturk, Filiz Kibar, Salih Cetiner, Selcuk Matyar, Gulcin Daglioglu, Akgun Yaman
BACKGROUND: Organizing work flow is a major task of laboratory management. Recently, clinical laboratories have started to adopt methodologies such as Lean Six Sigma and some successful implementations have been reported. This study used Lean Six Sigma to simplify the laboratory work process and decrease the turnaround time by eliminating non-value-adding steps. METHODS: The five-stage Six Sigma system known as define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) is used to identify and solve problems...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145422/proximate-causes-for-diet-induced-obesity-in-laboratory-mice-a-case-study
#14
REVIEW
C Kless, N Rink, J Rozman, M Klingenspor
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Detailed protocols and recommendations for the assessment of energy balance have been provided to address the problems associated with different body mass and body composition as apparent for mouse models in obesity research. Here, we applied these guidelines to investigate energy balance in two inbred mouse strains with contrasting susceptibilities for diet-induced obesity (DIO). Mice of the AKR/J strain are highly susceptible, whereas the SWR/J mice are almost completely resistant...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104106/peritoneal-dialysis-in-class-2-3-obesity-a-single-center-experience
#15
Yougandhar V Akula, Tibor Fülöp, Mehul P Dixit
Extreme obesity may hamper successful peritoneal dialysis (PD) delivery. Among our PD patients, we have identified 15 markedly obese (class 2-3 obesity: body mass index [BMI] ≥35kg/m(2)) and 20 lean (BMI: 20-25kg/m(2)) dialysis patients and reviewed multiple clinical, laboratory and dialysis-related parameters. Extreme outliers of obesity (BMI > 40; 6 subjects) received detailed review. Although weight (P < 0.0001) and BMI (P < 0.0001) differed significantly, weekly Kt/V (obese versus lean: 2.05 ± 0...
January 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078680/children-s-preference-for-mixed-versus-fixed-ratio-schedules-of-reinforcement-a-translational-study-of-risky-choice
#16
Michael P Mullane, Brian K Martens, Emily L Baxter, Danica Ver Steeg
Laboratory research has shown that when subjects are given a choice between fixed-ratio and bi-valued mixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement, preference typically emerges for the mixed-ratio schedule even with a larger ratio requirement. The current study sought to replicate and extend these findings to children's math problem completion. Using an ABCBC reversal design, four fourth-grade students were given the choice of completing addition problems reinforced on either a fixed-ratio 5 schedule or one of three mixed-ratio schedules; an equivalent mixed-ratio (1, 9) schedule, a mixed-ratio (1, 11) schedule with a 20% larger ratio requirement, and an equally lean mixed-ratio (5, 7) schedule without the small fixed-ratio 1 component...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035346/diet-induced-weight-loss-is-sufficient-to-reduce-senescent-cell-number-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-weight-cycled-mice
#17
Edward O List, Elizabeth Jensen, Jesse Kowalski, Mathew Buchman, Darlene E Berryman, John J Kopchick
Previously, our laboratory reported that weight-cycled mice outlive their obese counterparts. To gain a better mechanistic understanding of these results, we evaluated cellular senescence in white adipose tissue (WAT) of lean, obese, and weight cycled mice. Our results show that at the end of a 28 day weight loss cycle cellular senescence is significantly reduced in multiple WAT depots compared to obese mice, which also corresponds to a reduction in circulating activin A (a marker of senescence). These findings suggest that a previously undescribed benefit to weight loss may be a reduction of cellular senescence in WAT...
October 27, 2016: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005561/risk-factors-for-collegiate-swimmers-hospitalized-with-exertional-rhabdomyolysis
#18
Margo R Stanfa, Navjeet N Silles, Amanda Cooper, Sara Arena, Kristin Landis-Piwowar, Carrie Aprik, Tamara Hew-Butler
OBJECTIVE: To identify midseason risk factors for symptomatic exertional rhabdomyolysis (sER) in swimmers after a novel upper body workout. DESIGN: Retrospective (1) survey and (2) analyses of observational laboratory data conducted over a 16-week training period, 2 months before sER. SETTING: Midwest University. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-four collegiate swimmers. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: (1) Motivation, symptoms, and supplements for survey variables...
January 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999850/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-vitamin-d-in-immobilisation-part-a-modulation-of-appendicular-mass-content-composition-and-structure
#19
E L Bostock, C I Morse, K Winwood, I M McEwan, G L Onambélé
OBJECTIVES: Muscle size decreases in response to short-term limb immobilisation. This study set out to determine whether two potential protein-sparing modulators (eicosapentaenoic acid and vitamin D) would attenuate immobilisation-induced changes in muscle characteristics. DESIGN: The study used a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. SETTING: The study took part in a laboratory setting. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four male and female healthy participants, aged 23...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996337/steady-state-energy-balance-in-animal-models-of-obesity-and-weight-loss
#20
Magnus Kringstad Olsen, Helene Johannessen, Nikki Cassie, Perry Barrett, Koji Takeuchi, Bård Kulseng, Duan Chen, Chun-Mei Zhao
OBJECTIVE: We wanted to exam the steady-state energy balance by using high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and mice as models for positive energy balance, and gastric bypassed (GB) rats and gene knockout of muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor (M3KO) mice as models for negative energy balance. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-two rats and mice were used. Energy balance was measured by a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system. Gene expression was analysed by in situ hybridisation in M3KO mice...
April 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
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