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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078680/children-s-preference-for-mixed-versus-fixed-ratio-schedules-of-reinforcement-a-translational-study-of-risky-choice
#1
Michael P Mullane, Brian K Martens, Emily L Baxter, Danica Ver Steeg
Laboratory research has shown that when subjects are given a choice between fixed-ratio and bi-valued mixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement, preference typically emerges for the mixed-ratio schedule even with a larger ratio requirement. The current study sought to replicate and extend these findings to children's math problem completion. Using an ABCBC reversal design, four fourth-grade students were given the choice of completing addition problems reinforced on either a fixed-ratio 5 schedule or one of three mixed-ratio schedules; an equivalent mixed-ratio (1, 9) schedule, a mixed-ratio (1, 11) schedule with a 20% larger ratio requirement, and an equally lean mixed-ratio (5, 7) schedule without the small fixed-ratio 1 component...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035346/diet-induced-weight-loss-is-sufficient-to-reduce-senescent-cell-number-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-weight-cycled-mice
#2
Edward O List, Elizabeth Jensen, Jesse Kowalski, Mathew Buchman, Darlene E Berryman, John J Kopchick
Previously, our laboratory reported that weight-cycled mice outlive their obese counterparts. To gain a better mechanistic understanding of these results, we evaluated cellular senescence in white adipose tissue (WAT) of lean, obese, and weight cycled mice. Our results show that at the end of a 28 day weight loss cycle cellular senescence is significantly reduced in multiple WAT depots compared to obese mice, which also corresponds to a reduction in circulating activin A (a marker of senescence). These findings suggest that a previously undescribed benefit to weight loss may be a reduction of cellular senescence in WAT...
October 27, 2016: Nutr Healthy Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005561/risk-factors-for-collegiate-swimmers-hospitalized-with-exertional-rhabdomyolysis
#3
Margo R Stanfa, Navjeet N Silles, Amanda Cooper, Sara Arena, Kristin Landis-Piwowar, Carrie Aprik, Tamara Hew-Butler
OBJECTIVE: To identify midseason risk factors for symptomatic exertional rhabdomyolysis (sER) in swimmers after a novel upper body workout. DESIGN: Retrospective (1) survey and (2) analyses of observational laboratory data conducted over a 16-week training period, 2 months before sER. SETTING: Midwest University. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-four collegiate swimmers. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: (1) Motivation, symptoms, and supplements for survey variables...
January 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999850/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-vitamin-d-in-immobilisation-part-a-modulation-of-appendicular-mass-content-composition-and-structure
#4
E L Bostock, C I Morse, K Winwood, I M McEwan, G L Onambélé
OBJECTIVES: Muscle size decreases in response to short-term limb immobilisation. This study set out to determine whether two potential protein-sparing modulators (eicosapentaenoic acid and vitamin D) would attenuate immobilisation-induced changes in muscle characteristics. DESIGN: The study used a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. SETTING: The study took part in a laboratory setting. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four male and female healthy participants, aged 23...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996337/steady-state-energy-balance-in-animal-models-of-obesity-and-weight-loss
#5
Magnus Kringstad Olsen, Helene Johannessen, Nikki Cassie, Perry Barrett, Koji Takeuchi, Bård Kulseng, Duan Chen, Chun-Mei Zhao
OBJECTIVE: We wanted to exam the steady-state energy balance by using high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and mice as models for positive energy balance, and gastric bypassed (GB) rats and gene knockout of muscarinic acetylcholine M3 receptor (M3KO) mice as models for negative energy balance. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-two rats and mice were used. Energy balance was measured by a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system. Gene expression was analysed by in situ hybridisation in M3KO mice...
December 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905858/seasonal-effects-on-body-composition-muscle-characteristics-and-performance-of-collegiate-swimmers-and-divers
#6
Erica J Roelofs, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Eric T Trexler, Katie R Hirsch
CONTEXT:  Previous researchers have indicated the importance of body composition and muscle quality in athletic performance. However, body composition and muscle-quality measures in swimmers and divers over a training season have yet to be evaluated. OBJECTIVE:  To identify changes in body composition and muscle characteristics over a competitive season and identify relationships between these variables and performance in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I swimmers and divers...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878919/effect-of-health-status-on-fattening-performance-in-young-crossbred-polish-holstein-friesian-%C3%A3-limousin-bulls-and-steers
#7
Zofia Wielgosz-Groth, Monika Sobczuk-Szul, Zenon Nogalski, Paulina Pogorzelska-Przybyłek, Cezary Purwin
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of disease incidence on selected parameters of cattle fattening performance and carcass quality, and the fatty acid profile of beef. The experimental materials comprised 16 bulls and 16 steers, Polish Holstein-Friesian × Limousin crossbreeds (including 10 healthy and six treated animals of each category). At 5 weeks of age, bloodless castration was carried out using a rubber elastrator. The calves were fed milk replacer provided in automatic feeding stations...
November 23, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872396/comparison-of-estimates-of-body-fat-content-in-childhood-onset-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#8
N A Sinicato, F A Peres, K de Oliveira Peliçari, A de Oliveira Santos, C D Ramos, R Marini, S Appenzeller
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare estimates of body fat content with respect to their ability to predict the percentage of body fat, confirmed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. METHODS: We included 64 consecutive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 64 healthy age and sex-matched controls in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data, body mass index and body adiposity index were calculated for all subjects...
November 21, 2016: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827911/changes-in-body-composition-in-the-two-years-after-initiation-of-haemodialysis-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
David Keane, Claire Gardiner, Elizabeth Lindley, Simon Lines, Graham Woodrow, Mark Wright
Malnutrition is common in haemodialysis (HD) and is linked to poor outcomes. This study aimed to describe changes in body composition after the initiation of HD and investigate whether any routinely collected parameters were associated with these changes. The study cohort came from the HD population of a single centre between 2009 and 2014. Body composition measurements were obtained from a database of bioimpedance results using the Body Composition Monitor (BCM), while demographics and laboratory values came from the renal unit database...
November 4, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812153/a-90-day-feeding-study-in-rats-to-assess-the-safety-of-genetically-engineered-pork
#10
Gao-Jun Xiao, Sheng-Wang Jiang, Li-Li Qian, Chun-Bo Cai, Qing-Qing Wang, De-Zun Ma, Biao Li, Shan-Shan Xie, Wen-Tao Cui, Kui Li
Our laboratory recently produced genetically engineered (GE) Meishan pigs containing a ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant. These GE pigs develop and grow as normal as wild type pigs but produce pork with greater lean yield and lower fat mass. To assess any potential subchronic toxicity risks of this GE pork, a 90-day feeding study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, and fed for 90 days with basic diet and basic diets formulated with low dose and high dose pork prepared from wild type pigs and GE pigs, respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739584/trial-by-dutch-laboratories-for-evaluation-of-non-invasive-prenatal-testing-part-ii-women-s-perspectives
#11
Rachèl V van Schendel, G C Lieve Page-Christiaens, Lean Beulen, Catia M Bilardo, Marjon A de Boer, Audrey B C Coumans, Brigitte H Faas, Irene M van Langen, Klaske D Lichtenbelt, Merel C van Maarle, Merryn V E Macville, Dick Oepkes, Eva Pajkrt, Lidewij Henneman
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate preferences and decision-making among high-risk pregnant women offered a choice between Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT), invasive testing or no further testing. METHODS: Nationwide implementation study (TRIDENT) offering NIPT as contingent screening test for women at increased risk for fetal aneuploidy based on first-trimester combined testing (>1:200) or medical history. A questionnaire was completed after counseling assessing knowledge, attitudes and participation following the Multidimensional Measure of Informed Choice...
December 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723362/changing-sagittal-plane-landing-styles-to-modulate-impact-and-tibiofemoral-force-magnitude-and-directions-relative-to-the-tibia
#12
Yohei Shimokochi, Jatin P Ambegaonkar, Eric G Meyer
CONTEXT: Ground reaction force (GRF) and tibiofemoral force magnitudes and directions have been shown to affect anterior cruciate ligament loading during landing. However, the kinematic and kinetic factors modifying these 2 forces during landing are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the intersegmental kinematic and kinetic links underlying the alteration of the GRF and tibiofemoral force vectors secondary to changes in the sagittal-plane body position during single-legged landing...
September 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697104/validation-of-the-applied-biosystems-rapidfinder-shiga-toxin-producing-e-coli-stec-detection-workflow
#13
Sharon Matheny, Robert Tebbs, Erin Crowley, David Goins, Angelia Burrell, Patrick Bird, Michelle Swimley, M Joseph Benzinger, Jonathan Flannery, Jonathan Cloke, James Agin, Benjamin Bastin
The Applied Biosystems™ RapidFinder™ STEC Detection Workflow (Thermo Fisher Scientific) is a complete protocol for the rapid qualitative detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 and the "Big 6" non-O157 Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serotypes (defined as serogroups: O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145). The RapidFinder STEC Detection Workflow makes use of either the automated preparation of PCR-ready DNA using the Applied Biosystems PrepSEQ™ Nucleic Acid Extraction Kit in conjunction with the Applied Biosystems MagMAX™ Express 96-well magnetic particle processor or the Applied Biosystems PrepSEQ Rapid Spin kit for manual preparation of PCR-ready DNA...
October 1, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695810/effects-of-dietary-copper-zinc-and-ractopamine-hydrochloride-on-finishing-pig-growth-performance-carcass-characteristics-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-enteric-bacteria
#14
J A Feldpausch, R G Amachawadi, M D Tokach, H M Scott, T G Nagaraja, S S Dritz, R D Goodband, J C Woodworth, J M DeRouchey
A total of 480 pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 48.7 ± 2.3 kg) were used to determine the interactive effects of supplemental Cu, Zn, and ractopamine HCl (RAC) on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and antimicrobial susceptibility of enteric bacteria. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial with the main effects of added Cu (CuSO; 0 vs. 125 mg/kg Cu), Zn (ZnO; 0 vs. 150 mg/kg Zn), and RAC (0 vs. 10 mg/kg during the last 28 d prior to marketing). All diets contained 11 mg/kg Cu and 73 mg/kg Zn from the trace mineral premix...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694060/dynamic-gait-stability-of-treadmill-versus-overground-walking-in-young-adults
#15
Feng Yang, George A King
Treadmill has been broadly used in laboratory and rehabilitation settings for the purpose of facilitating human locomotion analysis and gait training. The objective of this study was to determine whether dynamic gait stability differs or resembles between the two walking conditions (overground vs. treadmill) among young adults. Fifty-four healthy young adults (age: 23.9±4.7years) participated in this study. Each participant completed five trials of overground walking followed by five trials of treadmill walking at a self-selected speed while their full body kinematics were gathered by a motion capture system...
December 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668161/low-prealbumin-levels-are-independently-associated-with-higher-mortality-in-patients-on-peritoneal-dialysis
#16
Kyung Hee Lee, Jang-Hee Cho, Owen Kwon, Sang-Un Kim, Ryang Hi Kim, Young Wook Cho, Hee-Yeon Jung, Ji-Young Choi, Chan-Duck Kim, Yong-Lim Kim, Sun-Hee Park
BACKGROUND: Prealbumin, a sensitive marker for protein-energy status, is also known as an independent risk factor for mortality in hemodialysis patients. We investigated the impact of prealbumin on survival in incident peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. METHODS: In total, 136 incident PD patients (mean age, 53.0 ± 15.8 years) between 2002 and 2007 were enrolled in the study. Laboratory data, dialysis adequacy, and nutritional parameters were assessed 3 months after PD initiation...
September 2016: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633075/vitamin-d-in-relation-to-bone-health-and-muscle-function-in-young-female-soccer-players
#17
André Brännström, Ji-Guo Yu, Per Jonsson, Torbjörn Åkerfeldt, Mats Stridsberg, Michael Svensson
The present work investigated serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) status in relation to bone and muscle qualities and functions in 19 female soccer players (13-16 years) resident at northern latitude with very low sun exposure (∼32-36 h/month) during winter season (late January to early March). Serum 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers osteocalcin (OC) and beta carboxy-terminal collagen cross-links (β-Ctx), as well as body composition and muscle performance were examined. Hormones were tested using routine laboratory methods...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632832/assessment-of-body-composition-and-sport-performance-of-brazilian-paralympic-swim-team-athletes
#18
Radamés M V Medeiros, Eduardo S Alves, Valdir A Lemos, Paulo A Schwingel, Andressa da Silva, Roberto Vital, Alexandre S Vieira, Murilo M Barreto, Edilson A Rocha, Sergio Tufik, Marco T de Mello
CONTEXT: Body-composition assessments of high-performance athletes are very important for identifying physical performance potential. Although the relationship between the kinanthropometric characteristics and performance abilities of Olympic swimmers is extremely important, this subject is not completely understood for Paralympic swimmers. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between body composition and sport performance in Brazilian Paralympic swimmers 6 mo after training...
December 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605560/chronic-binge-alcohol-administration-impairs-glucose-insulin-dynamics-and-decreases-adiponectin-in-asymptomatic-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-macaques
#19
Stephen M Ford, Liz Simon, Curtis Vande Stouwe, Tim Allerton, Donald E Mercante, Lauri O Byerley, Jason P Dufour, Gregory J Bagby, Steve Nelson, Patricia E Molina
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) frequently exist among persons living with HIV/AIDS. Chronic alcohol consumption, HIV infection, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are independently associated with impairments in glucose-insulin dynamics. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) administration decreases body mass index, attenuates weight gain, and accentuates skeletal muscle wasting at end-stage disease in non-ART-treated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected male rhesus macaques...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605320/pharmacist-prescribing-within-an-integrated-health-system-in-washington
#20
Roger Woolf, Amanda Locke, Catherine Potts
PURPOSE: Pharmacist prescribing as part of a collaborative drug therapy agreement (CDTA) within an integrated health system in Washington is described. SUMMARY: Virginia Mason Medical Center (VMMC) in Seattle, Washington, uses a team-based care model with broad-based CDTAs to provide quality patient care. The majority of patients are referred to the pharmacist after a diagnosis has been made and a clinical care plan has been started. The pharmacist manages the patient's care within his or her scope of practice as defined by state laws and further detailed by VMMC internal protocols...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
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