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Autis* OR Asperger

Tamanna Jahan Mony, Jae Won Lee, Cheryl Dreyfus, Emanuel DiCicco-Bloom, Hee Jae Lee
Objective: We reported that postnatal exposure of rats to valproic acid (VPA) stimulated proliferation of glial precursors during cortical gliogenesis. However, there are no reports whether enhanced postnatal gliogenesis affects behaviors related to neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods: After VPA treatment during the postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 4, four behavioral test, such as open field locomotor test, elevated plus maze test, three-chamber social interaction test, and passive avoidance test, were performed at PND 21 or 22...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
John F Strang, Haley Meagher, Lauren Kenworthy, Annelou L C de Vries, Edgardo Menvielle, Scott Leibowitz, Aron Janssen, Peggy Cohen-Kettenis, Daniel E Shumer, Laura Edwards-Leeper, Richard R Pleak, Norman Spack, Dan H Karasic, Herbert Schreier, Anouk Balleur, Amy Tishelman, Diane Ehrensaft, Leslie Rodnan, Emily S Kuschner, Francie Mandel, Antonia Caretto, Hal C Lewis, Laura G Anthony
Evidence indicates an overrepresentation of youth with co-occurring autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and gender dysphoria (GD). The clinical assessment and treatment of adolescents with this co-occurrence is often complex, related to the developmental aspects of ASD. There are no guidelines for clinical care when ASD and GD co-occur; however, there are clinicians and researchers experienced in this co-occurrence. This study develops initial clinical consensus guidelines for the assessment and care of adolescents with co-occurring ASD and GD, from the best clinical practices of current experts in the field...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Francisco Jesús Martinez-Murcia, Meng-Chuan Lai, Juan Manuel Górriz, Javier Ramírez, Adam M H Young, Sean C L Deoni, Christine Ecker, Michael V Lombardo, Simon Baron-Cohen, Declan G M Murphy, Edward T Bullmore, John Suckling
Neuroimaging studies have reported structural and physiological differences that could help understand the causes and development of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Many of them rely on multisite designs, with the recruitment of larger samples increasing statistical power. However, recent large-scale studies have put some findings into question, considering the results to be strongly dependent on the database used, and demonstrating the substantial heterogeneity within this clinically defined category. One major source of variance may be the acquisition of the data in multiple centres...
October 24, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Lena Constantin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules with wide-ranging and subtle effects on protein production. Their activity during the development of the cerebellum provides a valuable exemplar of how non-coding molecules may assist the development and function of the central nervous system and drive neurodevelopmental disorders. Three distinct aspects of miRNA contribution to early cerebellar development will here be reviewed. Aspects are the establishment of the cerebellar anlage, the generation and maturation of at least two principal cell types of the developing cerebellar microcircuit, and the etiology and early progression of autism spectrum disorder...
October 24, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Richard E Frye
Recent studies have highlighted the fact that the enteric microbiome, the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human digestive tract, has a significant effect on health and disease. Methods for manipulating the enteric microbiome, particularly through probiotics and microbial ecosystem transplantation, have undergone some study in clinical trials. We review some of the evidence for microbiome alteration in relation to childhood disease and discuss the clinical trials that have examined the manipulation of the microbiome in an effort to prevent or treat childhood disease with a primary focus on probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics (ie, probiotics + prebiotics)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Helen E Vuong, Elaine Y Hsiao
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder that affects one in 45 children in the United States, with a similarly striking prevalence in countries around the world. However, mechanisms underlying its etiology and manifestations remain poorly understood. Although ASD is diagnosed based on the presence and severity of impaired social communication and repetitive behavior, immune dysregulation and gastrointestinal issues are common comorbidities. The microbiome is an integral part of human physiology; recent studies show that changes in the gut microbiota can modulate gastrointestinal physiology, immune function, and even behavior...
August 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Chloe Lane, Elizabeth Milne, Megan Freeth
Sotos syndrome is a congenital overgrowth disorder with an incidence of approximately 1 in 14,000. This study investigated behavioural characteristics of ASD within a large cohort of individuals with Sotos syndrome (n = 78). As measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale, second edition (SRS-2), 65 participants (83.33 %) met clinical cut-off (T-score ≥60). There was no significant gender difference in symptom severity. There was a significant effect of age, with lower scores observed in early childhood and adulthood, compared to childhood...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Laila Y AlAyadhi, Jamil A Hashmi, Muhammad Iqbal, Alia M Albalawi, Mohammad I Samman, Nadra E Elamin, Shahid Bashir, Sulman Basit
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) - based genotyping using microarray platform is now frequently used to detect copy number variants (CNVs) in the human genome. Here, we report CNVs identified using Illumina HumanOmni 2.5 M oligonucleotide microarrays in 11 multiplex families with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) referred to Autism Research and Treatment Center (ART) and Madinah Maternity and Children Hospital (MMCH). Of the 11 families, 22 patients with ASD (all males) and their parents, were recruited for the present study...
October 19, 2016: Neuroscience
Ashley de Marchena, Judith Miller
Many individuals with ASD have a distinctive behavioral presentation that is recognizable within moments, a phenomenon we call "frank" ASD. This phenomenon has been discussed informally for decades, perhaps as "classic" ASD; however, there is no unitary "classic" presentation, and classic autism does not seem to correspond to level of functioning. Thus, neither "frank" nor "classic" autism has been delineated or studied as a research construct. To initiate the empirical study of frank ASD, we surveyed 151 clinicians, from a range of disciplines that diagnose ASD, about this phenomenon...
October 21, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Hilde de Kluiver, Jacobine E Buizer-Voskamp, Conor V Dolan, Dorret I Boomsma
We review the hypotheses concerning the association between the paternal age at childbearing and childhood psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum- and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder) and adult disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar-, obsessive-compulsive-, and major depressive disorder) based on epidemiological studies. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the paternal age effect. We discuss the four main-not mutually exclusive-hypotheses. These are the de novo mutation hypothesis, the hypothesis concerning epigenetic alterations, the selection into late fatherhood hypothesis, and the environmental resource hypothesis...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Georgie Powell, Zoe Meredith, Rebecca McMillin, Tom C A Freeman
According to Bayesian models, perception and cognition depend on the optimal combination of noisy incoming evidence with prior knowledge of the world. Individual differences in perception should therefore be jointly determined by a person's sensitivity to incoming evidence and his or her prior expectations. It has been proposed that individuals with autism have flatter prior distributions than do nonautistic individuals, which suggests that prior variance is linked to the degree of autistic traits in the general population...
October 21, 2016: Psychological Science
C H M Cheung, R Bedford, M H Johnson, T Charman, T Gliga
An enhanced ability to detect visual targets amongst distractors, known as visual search (VS), has often been documented in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Yet, it is unclear when this behaviour emerges in development and if it is specific to ASD. We followed up infants at high and low familial risk for ASD to investigate how early VS abilities links to later ASD diagnosis, the potential underlying mechanisms of this association and the specificity of superior VS to ASD. Clinical diagnosis of ASD as well as dimensional measures of ASD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms were ascertained at 3 years...
September 30, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Alex Hall, Tracy Finch, Niina Kolehmainen, Deborah James
BACKGROUND: Implementing good-quality health and social care requires empowerment of staff members within organizations delivering care. Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) is an intervention using positive video feedback to empower staff through reflection on practice. This qualitative study explored the implementation of VIG within an autism care organization in England, from the perspective of staff members undergoing training to deliver VIG. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 7 participants working within the organization (5 staff undergoing training to deliver VIG; 2 senior managers influencing co-ordination of training)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Cecilia Llambias, Joyce Magill-Evans, Veronica Smith, Sharon Warren
Engagement in meaningful activities is essential to development and is often reduced in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have limited engagement in activities or relationships. A multiple-baseline design was used with 7 children with ASD ages 4-8 yr to assess the effect of including a horse in occupational therapy intervention on task engagement. The children showed improvements in engagement. Including horses in occupational therapy sessions may be a valuable addition to conventional treatments to increase task engagement of children with ASD...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Barbara M Schupak, Raju K Parasher, Genevieve Pinto Zipp
OBJECTIVE: We established test-retest reliability of electrodermal markers used to quantify physiological response to sensation using the Sensory Challenge Protocol in children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHOD: Electrodermal activity (EDA) was measured during rest and in response to sensory inputs. Fourteen children with ASD and 18 typically developing children were tested and retested after 2-6 wk on skin conductance response, skin conductance level, nonspecific skin conductance response, and habituation...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Marijn Bart Martens, Monica Frega, Jessica Classen, Lisa Epping, Elske Bijvank, Marco Benevento, Hans van Bokhoven, Paul Tiesinga, Dirk Schubert, Nael Nadif Kasri
Heterozygous mutations or deletions in the human Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) gene cause Kleefstra syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by autistic-like features and severe intellectual disability (ID). Neurodevelopmental disorders including ID and autism may be related to deficits in activity-dependent wiring of brain circuits during development. Although Kleefstra syndrome has been associated with dendritic and synaptic defects in mice and Drosophila, little is known about the role of EHMT1 in the development of cortical neuronal networks...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Stephen J Walker, Daniel P Beavers, John Fortunato, Arthur Krigsman
Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A significant proportion of children with ASD and gastrointestinal symptoms have histologic evidence of ileocolitis (inflammation of the terminal ileum and/or colon). We previously reported the molecular characterization of gastrointestinal biopsy tissue from ASD children with ileocolitis (ASD(IC+)) compared to anatomically similar inflamed tissue from typically developing children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; i.e...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hemi Malkki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Alessandro Minarini, Silvia Ferrari, Martina Galletti, Nina Giambalvo, Daniela Perrone, Giulia Rioli, Gian Maria Galeazzi
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely known for its role as a mucolytic and as an antidote to paracetamol overdose. There is increasing interest in the use of NAC in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. The rationale for the administration of NAC in psychiatric conditions is based on its role as a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione, and its action as a modulating agent of glutamatergic, dopaminergic, neurotropic and inflammatory pathways. Areas covered: This study reviews the available data regarding the use of NAC in different psychiatric disorders including substance use disorders, autism, obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder...
October 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Matthew T Brodhead, Gina Warren Abston, Meredith Mates, Emily A Abel
We compared the results of a brief video-based multiple-stimulus without replacement preference assessment with no access to chosen activities (MSWO-NO) to the results of the same assessment with access (MSWO-WA) with four children with autism. We also compared instructor rankings of activities to MSWO-WA results. Strong to moderate correlations between MSWO-NO and MSWO-WA assessment results were found across all participants. The correlation between MSWO-WA and instructor rankings ranged from strong to low across all participants...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
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