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Autis* OR Asperger

Madeline Williams, Smrithi Prem, Xiaofeng Zhou, Paul Matteson, Percy Luk Yeung, Chi-Wei Lu, Zhiping Pang, Linda Brzustowicz, James H Millonig, Emanuel Dicicco-Bloom
Human brain development proceeds through a series of precisely orchestrated processes, with earlier stages distinguished by proliferation, migration, and neurite outgrowth; and later stages characterized by axon/dendrite outgrowth and synapse formation. In neurodevelopmental disorders, often one or more of these processes are disrupted, leading to abnormalities in brain formation and function. With the advent of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology, researchers now have an abundant supply of human cells that can be differentiated into virtually any cell type, including neurons...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Amy E Kalkbrenner, Gayle C Windham, Cheng Zheng, Rob McConnell, Nora L Lee, James J Schauer, Brian Thayer, Juhi Pandey, Heather E Volk
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported associations of perinatal exposure to air toxics, including some metals and volatile organic compounds, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to further explore associations of perinatal air toxics with ASD and associated quantitative traits in high-risk multiplex families. METHODS: We included participants of a U.S. family-based study [the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE)] who were born between 1994 and 2007 and had address information...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Theodore S Tomeny, James A Rankin, Lorien K Baker, Sophia W Eldred, Tammy D Barry
Social support can buffer against stressors often associated with having family members with autism spectrum disorder. This study included 112 parents and typically developing siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder. Relations between self-reported typically developing sibling emotional and behavioral problems and discrepancy between social support frequency and importance were examined via polynomial regression with response surface analysis. Typically developing siblings who described social support as frequent and important reported relatively few problems...
March 1, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
José Pedro Ferreira, Chrystiane Vasconcelos Andrade Toscano, Aristides Machado Rodrigues, Guilherme Eustaquio Furtado, Mauro Gomes Barros, Rildo Souza Wanderley, Humberto Moreira Carvalho
Physical exercise has shown positive effects on symptomatology and on the reduction of comorbidities in population with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is still no consensus about the most appropriate exercise intervention model for children with ASD. The physical exercise program for children with autism (PEP-Aut) protocol designed allow us to (i) examine the multivariate associations between ASD symptoms, metabolic profile, physical activity level, physical fitness, and health-related quality of life of children with ASD; (ii) assess the effects of a 40-week exercise program on all these aspects of children with ASD...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Donna Hermawati, Farid Agung Rahmadi, Tanjung Ayu Sumekar, Tri Indah Winarni
Prevalence autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been on rise, but many studies suggests over-diagnosed. Currently, children have more access to electronic media on the daily basis than those of previous generation. Some studies suggest that increases screen time is associated with melanopsin-expressing neurons and decreasing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter, and thus results aberrant behavior, decreased cognitive, and language development. Early exposure of electronic media in early life (< 2 years old) gives an impact on language, but it still inconclusive...
February 2018: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Boram Lee, Jihong Lee, Jin-Hong Cheon, Hyun-Kyung Sung, Seung-Hun Cho, Gyu Tae Chang
Objectives. We aimed to summarize and critically evaluate the available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods. We searched 13 databases for studies published up to December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture for children with ASD were included. Outcome measures were the overall scores on scales evaluating the core symptoms of ASD and the scores for each symptom, such as social communication ability and skills, stereotypies, language ability, and cognitive function...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Marta Zamarbide, Adam W Oaks, Heather L Pond, Julia S Adelman, M Chiara Manzini
Hundreds of genes are mutated in non-syndromic intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with each gene often involved in only a handful of cases. Such heterogeneity can be daunting, but rare recessive loss of function (LOF) mutations can be a good starting point to provide insight into the mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disease. Biallelic LOF mutations in the signaling scaffold CC2D1A cause a rare form of autosomal recessive ID, sometimes associated with ASD and seizures. In parallel, we recently reported that Cc2d1a -deficient mice present with cognitive and social deficits, hyperactivity and anxiety...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Lieke A M W Wijnhoven, Daan H M Creemers, Ad A Vermulst, Isabela Granic
Anxiety is highly prevalent in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is inconsistency in studies investigating the prevalence and risk factors of anxiety in children with ASD. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to give an overview of the prevalence of anxiety symptoms in a clinical Dutch sample of children with ASD. The second aim was to investigate age, gender, ASD subtype, and IQ as potential risk factors for anxiety in this sample. In total, 172 children with ASD (age, 8-15 years) and their parents participated in this study...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Allison T Meyer, Patrick S Powell, Nicole Butera, Mark R Klinger, Laura G Klinger
Research suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have significant difficulties with adaptive behavior skills including daily living and functional communication skills. Few studies have examined the developmental trajectory of adaptive behavior across childhood and adolescence. The present study examined longitudinal trajectories of adaptive behavior in a community-based clinic sample of 186 individuals with ASD. The overall pattern indicated an initial increase in adaptive behavior during early childhood followed by a plateau in skills during adolescence for individuals of all IQ groups...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Guro E Løseth, Marie Eikemo, Peder Isager, Jostein Holmgren, Bruno Laeng, Vigdis Vindenes, Trine Hjørnevik, Siri Leknes
The μ-opioid system modulates responses to pain and psychosocial stress and mediates non-social and social reward. In humans, the μ-opioid agonist morphine can increase overt attention to the eye-region and visual exploration of faces with neutral expressions. However, little is known about how the human μ-opioid system influences sensitivity to and appraisal of subtle and explicit cues of social threats and reward. Here, we examined the effects of selective μ-opioid stimulation on perception of anger and happiness in faces with explicit, neutral or implicit emotion expressions...
March 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Trevor G Mazzucchelli, Marian Jenkins, Kate Sofronoff
BACKGROUND: Many parents of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) report that they are ill-equipped to support their children's behaviour, and these youths are known to be at substantially greater risk of emotional or behavioural problems compared to their typically developing peers. There is a need for an efficient and tailored parenting program for parents of adolescents with ASD that includes guidance on how to best support these youths' development and well-being. AIMS: The current study examined the feasibility of Building Bridges Triple P (BBTP), an eight-week (11...
March 15, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Caitlin M Hudac, Trent D DesChamps, Anne B Arnett, Brianna E Cairney, Ruqian Ma, Sara Jane Webb, Raphael A Bernier
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit difficulties processing and encoding sensory information in daily life. Cognitive response to environmental change in control individuals is naturally dynamic, meaning it habituates or reduces over time as one becomes accustomed to the deviance. The origin of atypical response to deviance in ASD may relate to differences in this dynamic habituation. The current study of 133 children and young adults with and without ASD examined classic electrophysiological responses (MMN and P3a), as well as temporal patterns of habituation (i...
March 15, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Dong-Oh Seo, Laura E Motard, Michael R Bruchas
Great efforts in clinical and basic research have shown progress in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia, and attention-deficit hyperactive disorders. Literature on this field have suggested that these disorders are affected by the complex interaction of genetic, biological, psychosocial and environmental risk factors. However, this complexity of interplaying risk factors during neurodevelopment has prevented a complete understanding of the causes of those neuropsychiatric symptoms...
March 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Gilles Martinez, Charlotte Alexandre, Célia Mam-Lam-Fook, Narjes Bendjemaa, Raphaël Gaillard, Patricia Garel, Isabel Dziobek, Isabelle Amado, Marie-Odile Krebs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Jokthan Guivarch, Clarisse Chatel, Jeremie Mortreux, Chantal Missirian, Nicole Philip, François Poinso
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders are serious neurodevelopmental disorders that affect approximately 1% of the population. These disorders are substantially influenced by genetics. Several recent linkage analyses have examined copy number variations associated with autism risk. Microdeletion of the 2q13 region is considered a pathogenic copy number variation. This microdeletion is involved in developmental delays, congenital heart defects, dysmorphism, and various psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders...
March 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
L Dell'Osso, M Corsi, C Gesi, C A Bertelloni, G Massimetti, D Peroni, A Bonuccelli, A Orsini, C Carmassi
Increasing literature has shown the usefulness of a dimensional approach to mental disorders, particularly when exploring subjects exposed to traumatic experiences such as a severe illness in one's child. Recent evidence suggests an increased vulnerability in subjects with autism spectrum symptoms to develop post-traumatic stress symptoms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of adult autism subthreshold spectrum in a sample of parents of children with epilepsy and its impact on post-traumatic stress spectrum symptoms in the same study sample...
February 12, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Colin J Palmer, Rebecca P Lawson, Shravanti Shankar, Colin W G Clifford, Geraint Rees
Progress in our understanding of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has recently been sought by characterising how systematic differences in canonical neural computations employed across the sensory cortex might contribute to clinical symptoms in diverse sensory, cognitive, and social domains. A key proposal is that ASD is characterised by reduced divisive normalisation of sensory responses. This provides a bridge between genetic and molecular evidence for an increased ratio of cortical excitation to inhibition in ASD and the functional characteristics of sensory coding that are relevant for understanding perception and behaviour...
February 21, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Penelope Hannant
A number of studies have evidenced marked difficulties in language in autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Studies have also shown that language and word knowledge are associated with the same area of brain that is also responsible for visual perception in typically developing (TD) individuals. However, in ASC, research suggests word meaning is mapped differently, on to situational sensorimotor components within the brain. Furthermore, motor coordination is associated with communication skills. The current study explores whether motor coordination and visual perception are impaired in children with ASC, and whether difficulties in coordination and visual perception correlate with receptive language levels...
March 14, 2018: Human Movement Science
Gary J Lewis, Nicolas G Shakeshaft, Robert Plomin
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and autism-like traits are associated with deficits in face memory ability, although it is not yet clear whether this deficit reflects a specific aspect of the ASD/autism-like phenotype. We addressed this issue using a neurotypical sample of adolescent twins (Ncomplete pairs  = 782) drawn from the Twins Early Development Study who were assessed on face and object memory performance alongside two core aspects of autism-like traits: (i) difficulties with social behavior/interactions, and (ii) attention to detail...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
MacKinsey A Christian, Maureen Samms-Vaughan, MinJae Lee, Jan Bressler, Manouchehr Hessabi, Megan L Grove, Sydonnie Shakespeare-Pellington, Charlene Coore Desai, Jody-Ann Reece, Katherine A Loveland, Eric Boerwinkle, Mohammad H Rahbar
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with poorly understood etiology. Many maternal exposures during pregnancy and breastfeeding potentially interfere with neurodevelopment. Using data from two age- and sex-matched case-control studies in Jamaica (n = 298 pairs), results of conditional logistic regression analyses suggest that maternal exposures to fever or infection (matched odds ratio (MOR) = 3.12, 95% CI 1.74-5.60), physical trauma (MOR 2.02, 95% CI 1.01-4.05), and oil-based paints (MOR 1...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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