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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334526/airborne-particulate-matter-human-exposure-health-effects
#1
Jonathan E Thompson
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) is estimated to cause millions of premature deaths annually. This work conveys known routes of exposure to PM and resultant health effects. METHODS: Review of available literature. RESULTS: Estimates for daily PM exposure are provided. Known mechanisms by which insoluble particles are transported and removed from the body are discussed. Biological effects of PM, including immune response, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity are reported...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333915/gaze-avoidance-and-perseverative-language-in-fragile-x-syndrome-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-brief-report
#2
Laura Friedman, Audra Sterling, Andrea Barton-Hulsey
Gaze avoidance and perseverative language impact pragmatics in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). We examined these features during conversation samples in boys with ASD (n = 10) and boys with FXS and ASD (FXS+ASD; n = 10). Both groups had similar high rates of gaze avoidance and topic and conversation device perseverations, yet these features were not correlated with one another. Boys with FXS+ASD produced a higher proportion of single utterance perseverations. Results from this study highlight the need for future research to identify potential mechanisms influencing the presence of language perseverations and gaze avoidance...
January 15, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333196/brief-report-reduced-anxiety-following-pivotal-response-treatment-in-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Jiedi Lei, Denis G Sukhodolsky, Sebiha M Abdullahi, Megan L Braconnier, Pamela Ventola
Up to 40% of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) exhibit co-occurring anxiety symptoms. Despite recent success in mitigating anxiety symptoms in school-aged children with ASD (mean age >9 years) using adapted versions of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, little is known about potential treatment outcomes for younger children. To address the gap in the literature, this open-label study evaluated change in anxiety following a 16-week open-label trial of Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) in children with ASD aged 4-8 years...
November 2017: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332605/antidepressant-use-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-systematic-review-of-observational-studies-and-methodological-considerations
#4
Daniel R Morales, Jim Slattery, Stephen Evans, Xavier Kurz
BACKGROUND: Antidepressant exposure during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in several observational studies. We performed a systematic review of these studies to highlight the effect that important methodological limitations have on such analyses and to consider approaches to the conduct, reporting and interpretation of future studies. METHODS: A review of MEDLINE and EMBASE identified case-control, cohort and sibling studies assessing the risk of ASD and ADHD with antidepressant use during pregnancy...
January 15, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332185/handedness-and-the-risk-of-glioma
#5
Briana Miller, Noah C Peeri, Louis Burt Nabors, Jordan H Creed, Zachary J Thompson, Carrie M Rozmeski, Renato V LaRocca, Sajeel Chowdhary, Jeffrey J Olson, Reid C Thompson, Kathleen M Egan
Gliomas are the most common type of malignant primary brain tumor and few risk factors have been linked to their development. Handedness has been associated with several pathologic neurological conditions such as schizophrenia, autism, and epilepsy, but few studies have evaluated a connection between handedness and risk of glioma. In this study, we examined the relationship between handedness and glioma risk in a large case-control study (1849 glioma cases and 1354 healthy controls) and a prospective cohort study (326,475 subjects with 375 incident gliomas)...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332179/profiles-and-correlates-of-parent-child-agreement-on-social-anxiety-symptoms-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Catherine A Burrows, Lauren V Usher, Emily M Becker-Haimes, Camilla M McMahon, Peter C Mundy, Amanda Jensen-Doss, Heather A Henderson
This study characterized patterns and correlates of parent-youth agreement on social anxiety in youth with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants (279 verbally-fluent youth aged 8-16 years, NASD = 144, NTD = 135) completed the SASC-R. Youth with ASD exhibited higher social anxiety across informants. While TD youth endorsed higher anxiety than did parents, self- and parent-reports did not differ in youth with ASD. For children with ASD, higher parent-youth agreement was associated with lower lifetime ASD symptoms and higher adaptive skills...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332178/association-of-autism-with-maternal-infections-perinatal-and-other-risk-factors-a-case-control-study
#7
Dikran Richard Guisso, Fadi S Saadeh, Dahlia Saab, Joud El Deek, Sarah Chamseddine, Hadi Abou El Hassan, Ghidaa Majari, Rose-Mary Boustany
This case-control study explores the association between pregnancy/birth complications and other factors with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Lebanese subjects aged 2-18 years. Researchers interviewed 136 ASD cases from the American University of Beirut Medical Center Special Kids Clinic, and 178 controls selected by systematic digit dialing in the Greater-Beirut area. Male gender (Adjusted Odds Ratio [95% CI]: 3.9 [2.2-7.0]); postpartum feeding difficulties (2.5 [1.2-5.4]); maternal infections/complications during pregnancy (2...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331932/cnv-biology-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Toru Takumi, Kota Tamada
Copy number variants (CNVs), characterized in recent years by cutting-edge technology, add complexity to our knowledge of the human genome. CNVs contribute not only to human diversity but also to different kinds of diseases including neurodevelopmental delay, autism spectrum disorder and neuropsychiatric diseases. Interestingly, many pathogenic CNVs are shared among these diseases. Studies suggest that pathophysiology of disease may not be simply attributed to a single driver gene within a CNV but also that multifactorial effects may be important...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331800/nucleus-accumbens-mu-opioid-receptors-regulate-context-specific-social-preferences-in-the-juvenile-rat
#9
Caroline J W Smith, Kevin B Wilkins, Sara Li, Maxwell T Tulimieri, Alexa H Veenema
The μ opioid receptor (MOR) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is involved in assigning pleasurable, or hedonic value to rewarding stimuli. Importantly, the hedonic value of a given rewarding stimulus likely depends on an individual's current motivational state. Here, we examined the involvement of MORs in the motivation to interact with a novel or a familiar (cage mate) conspecific in juvenile rats. First, we demonstrated that the selective MOR antagonist CTAP administered into the NAc reduces social novelty preference of juvenile males, by decreasing the interaction time with the novel conspecific and increasing the interaction time with the cage mate...
December 30, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331354/specificity-in-etiology-of-subtypes-of-bipolar-disorder-evidence-from-a-swedish-population-based-family-study
#10
Jie Song, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Arvid Sjölander, Sarah E Bergen, Henrik Larsson, Mikael Landén, Paul Lichtenstein
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty remains whether bipolar I disorder (BDI) and bipolar II disorder (BDII) differ etiologically. We used a population-based family sample to examine the etiological boundaries between BDI and BDII by assessing their familial aggregation/coaggregation and by assessing the coaggregation between them and schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, eating disorders, autism spectrum disorder, substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, and personality disorders...
November 20, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331093/sensitivity-to-audio-visual-synchrony-and-its-relation-to-language-abilities-in-children-with-and-without-asd
#11
Giulia Righi, Elena J Tenenbaum, Carolyn McCormick, Megan Blossom, Dima Amso, Stephen J Sheinkopf
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is often accompanied by deficits in speech and language processing. Speech processing relies heavily on the integration of auditory and visual information, and it has been suggested that the ability to detect correspondence between auditory and visual signals helps to lay the foundation for successful language development. The goal of the present study was to examine whether young children with ASD show reduced sensitivity to temporal asynchronies in a speech processing task when compared to typically developing controls, and to examine how this sensitivity might relate to language proficiency...
January 13, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331075/an-examination-of-the-clinical-outcomes-of-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-broad-autism-spectrum-traits-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-anorexia-nervosa-a-multi-centre-study
#12
Bruno Palazzo Nazar, Vanessa Peynenburg, Charlotte Rhind, Rebecca Hibbs, Ulrike Schmidt, Simon Gowers, Pamela Macdonald, Elizabeth Goddard, Gillian Todd, Nadia Micali, Janet Treasure
OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical outcomes of adolescents and young adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) comorbid with broad autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or ASD traits. METHOD: The developmental and well-being assessment and social aptitude scale were used to categorize adolescents and young adults with AN (N = 149) into those with ASD traits (N = 23), and those who also fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a possible/probable ASD (N = 6). We compared both eating disorders specific measures and broader outcome measures at intake and 12 months follow-up...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330487/a-biomarker-characterizing-neurodevelopment-with-applications-in-autism
#13
Di Wu, Jorge V José, John I Nurnberger, Elizabeth B Torres
Despite great advances in neuroscience and genetic studies, our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders is still quite limited. An important reason is not having objective psychiatric clinical tests. Here we propose a quantitative neurodevelopment assessment by studying natural movement outputs. Movement is central to behaviors: It involves complex coordination, temporal alterations, and precise dynamic controls. We carefully analyzed the continuous movement output data, collected with high definition electromagnetic sensors at millisecond time scales...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330474/a-de-novo-foxp1-truncating-mutation-in-a-patient-originally-diagnosed-as-c-syndrome
#14
Roser Urreizti, Sarah Damanti, Carla Esteve, Héctor Franco-Valls, Laura Castilla-Vallmanya, Raul Tonda, Bru Cormand, Lluïsa Vilageliu, John M Opitz, Giovanni Neri, Daniel Grinberg, Susana Balcells
De novo FOXP1 mutations have been associated with intellectual disability (ID), motor delay, autistic features and a wide spectrum of speech difficulties. C syndrome (Opitz C trigonocephaly syndrome) is a rare and genetically heterogeneous condition, characterized by trigonocephaly, craniofacial anomalies and ID. Several different chromosome deletions and and point mutations in distinct genes have been associated with the disease in patients originally diagnosed as Opitz C. By whole exome sequencing we identified a de novo splicing mutation in FOXP1 in a patient, initially diagnosed as C syndrome, who suffers from syndromic intellectual disability with trigonocephaly...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330412/high-expression-of-endogenous-retroviruses-from-intrauterine-life-to-adulthood-in-two-mouse-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Chiara Cipriani, Laura Ricceri, Claudia Matteucci, Alessia De Felice, Anna Maria Tartaglione, Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Francesca Pica, Sandro Grelli, Gemma Calamandrei, Paola Sinibaldi Vallebona, Emanuela Balestrieri
Retroelements, such as Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs), have been implicated in many complex diseases, including neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Previously, we demonstrated a distinctive expression profile of specific HERV families in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) patients, suggesting their involvement in ASD. Here we used two distinct ASD mouse models: inbred BTBR T+tf/J mice and CD-1 outbred mice prenatally exposed to valproic acid. Whole embryos, blood and brain samples from the offspring were collected at different ages and the expression of several ERV families (ETnI, ETnII-α, ETnII-β, ETnII-γ, MusD and IAP), proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and Toll-like receptors (TLR3 and TLR4) was assessed...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329513/the-behavioural-phenotype-of-potocki-lupski-syndrome-a-cross-syndrome-comparison
#16
Stacey Bissell, Lucy Wilde, Caroline Richards, Jo Moss, Chris Oliver
BACKGROUND: Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) are related genomic disorders, as duplication 17p11.2 (associated with PTLS) is the reciprocal recombination product of the SMS microdeletion. While SMS has a relatively well-delineated behavioural phenotype, the behavioural profile in PTLS is less well defined, despite purported associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the suggestion that some behaviours may be diametric to those seen in SMS. METHODS: Caregivers of individuals with PTLS (N = 34; M age = 12...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329511/classifying-and-characterizing-the-development-of-adaptive-behavior-in-a-naturalistic-longitudinal-study-of-young-children-with-autism
#17
Cristan Farmer, Lauren Swineford, Susan E Swedo, Audrey Thurm
BACKGROUND: Adaptive behavior, or the ability to function independently in ones' environment, is a key phenotypic construct in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies of the development of adaptive behavior during preschool to school-age are available, though existing data demonstrate that the degree of ability and impairment associated with ASD, and how it manifests over time, is heterogeneous. Growth mixture models are a statistical technique that can help parse this heterogeneity in trajectories...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329259/extreme-overvalued-beliefs-how-violent-extremist-beliefs-become-normalized
#18
Tahir Rahman
Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority...
January 12, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329089/neural-circuit-dysfunction-in-mouse-models-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Isabel Del Pino, Beatriz Rico, Oscar Marín
Neuropsychiatric disorders arise from the alteration of normal brain developmental trajectories disrupting the function of specific neuronal circuits. Recent advances in human genetics have greatly accelerated the identification of genes whose variation increases the susceptibility for neurodevelopmental disorders, most notably for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. In parallel, experimental studies in animal models-most typically in mice-are beginning to shed light on the role of these genes in the development and function of specific brain circuits...
January 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329050/factors-influencing-the-severity-of-behavioral-phenotype-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-implications-for-research
#20
Mingyang Zou, Caihong Sun, Jia Wang, Jing Kang, Zhanbin Xu, Yongjuan Ma, Lei Chen, Xinxi Zhang, Wei Xia, Lijie Wu
The phenotypic heterogeneity of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) presents particular research challenges in the assessment of symptom severity, while the standardized Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores present a severity metric, namely calibrated severity scores (CSS) that are relatively impervious to individual characteristics. To date, no studies have examined the convergent validity of CSS in Chinese sample populations. The present study investigated the validity of the ADOS-CSS using a sample of 321 children aged 2-18 years with ASD, and developed upon existing literature examining the influence of non-ASD-specific characteristics on other types of measures including Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS)...
January 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
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