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Gino A Vena, Maria Concetta Fargnoli, Nicoletta Cassano, Giuseppe Argenziano
The sudden eruption of melanocytic nevi has been associated with a number of conditions, such as bullous skin diseases, immunodeficiency and immunosuppression. The exact mechanisms leading to the development of eruptive melanocytic nevi are unknown. Areas covered: The aim of this article is to review the literature concerning eruptive melanocytic nevi following the administration of immunosuppressive drugs and other medications. Expert opinion: The literature regarding the development of eruptive nevi in association with pharmacological therapies includes a relatively low number of reports...
October 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Raphaela Mayerhofer, Esther E Fröhlich, Florian Reichmann, Aitak Farzi, Nora Kogelnik, Eleonore Fröhlich, Wolfgang Sattler, Peter Holzer
Microbial metabolites are known to affect immune system, brain, and behavior via activation of pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Unlike the effect of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the role of other TLR agonists in immune-brain communication is insufficiently understood. We therefore hypothesized that the TLR2 agonist lipoteichoic acid (LTA) causes immune activation in the periphery and brain, stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and has an adverse effect on blood-brain barrier (BBB) and emotional behavior...
October 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Margaret T Dillon, Emily Buss, English R King, Ellen J Deres, Sarah N Obarowski, Meredith L Anderson, Marcia C Adunka
OBJECTIVE: Assess whether differences in speech perception are observed after exclusive listening experience with high-definition continuous interleaved sampling (HDCIS) versus fine structure processing (FSP) coding strategies. METHODS: Subjects were randomly assigned at initial activation of the external speech processor to receive the HDCIS or FSP coding strategy. Frequency filter assignments were consistent across subjects. The speech perception test battery included CNC words in quiet, HINT sentences in quiet and steady noise (+10 dB SNR), AzBio sentences in quiet and a 10-talker babble (+10 dB SNR), and BKB-SIN...
October 18, 2016: Cochlear Implants International
Daniel R L Forrest, Marius Mather, Justin A Harris
Repeated presentation of a to-be-conditioned stimulus (CS) on its own results in an impairment in learning to respond to that CS when it is later paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US). Evidence for this latent inhibition (LI) effect in humans is said to require a so-called masking task which diverts attention from the CS during preexposure. We present three experiments investigating whether LI can be demonstrated in humans without masking. In a computer-based task, subjects responded as quickly as possible to an imperative cue (the US) presented within a continuous stimulus stream...
October 18, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Carmen Radecki Breitkopf, Lila J Finney Rutten, Victoria Findley, Debra J Jacobson, Patrick M Wilson, Monica Albertie, Robert M Jacobson, Gerardo Colón-Otero
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines offer primary prevention of cervical cancer and protection against other HPV-associated cancers. HPV vaccine coverage in the United States (U.S.) remains low, particularly among older adolescents/young adults, and the uninsured. We assessed awareness and knowledge of HPV disease, HPV-related cancers, and HPV vaccines among working, uninsured adults. Data from the 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4, Cycle 4) were used as a benchmark. Patients were surveyed in late 2014 at the Volunteers in Medicine free clinic in Duval County, Florida...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Petra Jansen, Sandra Kaltner, Daniel Memmert
In this study, we investigated if the enactment of an approaching or avoiding behavior influences the mental rotation performance. Thirty-five females and thirty males completed a chronometric mental rotation task either in an approaching or in an avoiding condition while manipulating their arm position. The results showed a significant influence of this embodied behavior dependent on gender and task difficulty. The approaching condition caused no gender difference in reaction times and a reduced gender difference in accuracy for the most difficult tasks, while the avoidance condition produced the well-known gender differences in mental rotation for both reaction time and accuracy...
October 15, 2016: Psychological Research
Yi-Bin Xi, Fan Guo, Hua Li, Xiao Chang, Jin-Bo Sun, Yuan-Qiang Zhu, Wen-Ming Liu, Long-Biao Cui, Gang Chen, Hua-Ning Wang, Hong Yin
Heterogeneous findings across studies of structural abnormality in schizophrenia (SZ) have impeded the development a unified theory of white matter pathology. As a cardinal symptom of SZ, auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) has been suspected to be associated with improper communication among several brain regions, which might indicated white matter pathology. Participants comprised 25 first-episode (FE) patients with AVH, 25 patients without AVH and 25 healthy subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures were calculated using the TBSS of FSL...
September 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Timm B Poeppl, Berthold Langguth, Rainer Rupprecht, Adam Safron, Danilo Bzdok, Angela R Laird, Simon B Eickhoff
Sexuality as to its etymology presupposes the duality of sexes. Using quantitative neuroimaging meta-analyses, we demonstrate robust sex differences in the neural processing of sexual stimuli in thalamus, hypothalamus, and basal ganglia. In a narrative review, we show how these relate to the well-established sex differences on the behavioral level. More specifically, we describe the neural bases of known poor agreement between self-reported and genital measures of female sexual arousal, of previously proposed male proneness to affective sexual conditioning, as well as hints of unconscious activation of bonding mechanisms during sexual stimulation in women...
October 11, 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Marián Švajdler, Michael Michal, Pavol Dubinský, Peter Švajdler, Ondrej Ondič, Michal Michal
We describe a case of an unusual endometrial endometrioid carcinoma occurring in a 67-year-old woman. The tumor involved uterine corpus as well as lower uterine segment and presented as polypoid tumor protruding through the cervical orifice. Microscopically, the tumor was characterized by broad zones of cytologically bland fibromyxoid stroma resembling nodular fasciitis, showing vaguely nodular architecture. Neoplastic glands were characterized by interconnected elongated slit-like and large cystic profiles, mostly lined by flattened epithelium with variable squamous differentiation, whereas typical columnar endometrioid cells were only focally present...
November 2016: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Matúš Medo, Giulio Cimini
Using bibliometric data artificially generated through a model of citation dynamics calibrated on empirical data, we compare several indicators for the scientific impact of individual researchers. The use of such a controlled setup has the advantage of avoiding the biases present in real databases, and it allows us to assess which aspects of the model dynamics and which traits of individual researchers a particular indicator actually reflects. We find that the simple average citation count of the authored papers performs well in capturing the intrinsic scientific ability of researchers, regardless of the length of their career...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
David Gil-Sanz, Mar Fernández-Modamio, Rosario Bengochea-Seco, Marta Arrieta-Rodríguez, Gabriela Pérez-Fuentes
OBJECTIVE: Social cognition is recognized to be a deficit in individuals suffering from schizophrenia. Numerous studies have explored the relationship between social cognition and social functioning in outpatients with schizophrenia through the use of different social cognition training programs. This study examines the efficacy of the Social Cognition Training Program (PECS in Spanish) in adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. METHODS: Data were derived from a sample of 44 non-hospitalized adult patients who presented with a DSM-IV-TR Axis I diagnosis of schizophrenia and 39 healthy controls...
2016: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
Priti Xavier, Keerthi M Nair, Lasitha K, Suryasarathi Bose
In this study we have assessed, using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), the confinement effects of the more mobile chain in partially miscible polymeric blends of PS/PVME (polystyrene/poly(vinyl methyl ether)) in the presence of anisotropically shaped MWCNTs (multiwalled carbon nanotubes). To understand if this confinement effect is very specific to MWCNTs, the characteristic dimensions of which are often close to the radius of gyration of the polymeric chains, a few other particles like spherical silver, stacked clay tactoids and platy graphene sheets at similar weight fractions were also incorporated and systematically studied...
October 12, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Christoph Partes, Can Yildirim, Swen Schuster, Martin Kind, Jan W Bats, Michael Zharnikov, Andreas Terfort
A series of three homologous arene[2,3-d]-oxazole-2-thiols (benzoxazole-2-thiol (BOxSH), naphthaleneoxazole-2-thiol (NOxSH), and anthraceneoxazoline-2-thiol (AOxSH)) were deposited onto Au(111) to obtain surfaces suitable as injection layers for organic electronics. The guiding idea was that the increasingly extended conjugated system would lower the band gap of the films while the introduction of the annellated heteroaromatic ring would provide the opportunity for pseudo-symmetric attachment of the sulfur anchor, what should lower the conformational freedom of the system...
October 11, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Laura M Spring, Megan R Marshall, Erica T Warner
BACKGROUND: In 2009, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommended that the decision to initiate screening mammography before age 50 years should be individualized. Herein, the authors examined whether health care providers are communicating regarding mammography decision making with women and whether communication is associated with screening behavior. METHODS: Data were drawn from the 2011 to 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). A total of 5915 female respondents aged ≥ 40 years who responded to the following question were included: "Has a doctor or other health professional ever told you that you could choose whether or not to have a mammogram?" We used logistic regression to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for predictors of provider communication and assessed whether provider communication was associated with mammography in the previous 2 years overall and stratified by age...
October 11, 2016: Cancer
Alex L Jones, Robin S S Kramer
Forms of body decoration exist in all human cultures. However, in Western societies, women are more likely to engage in appearance modification, especially through the use of facial cosmetics. How effective are cosmetics at altering attractiveness? Previous research has hinted that the effect is not large, especially when compared to the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals due to differences in identity. In order to build a fuller understanding of how cosmetics and identity affect attractiveness, here we examine how professionally-applied cosmetics alter attractiveness and compare this effect with the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals...
2016: PloS One
Yan Zhang, Fei Bao, Yan Wang, Zhihong Wu
As two major non-operative methods, physiotherapy and acupuncture have been proved to be safe and effective in osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. However, only a little study focused on functions of both methods on cartilage repairing. The main goal of this research is to prove and compare effectiveness of acupuncture and physiotherapy on OA, and to explore their possible efficacy on cartilage repairing. One hundred knees of 50 participants with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) were randomly divided into acupuncture group and physiotherapy group...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Sandipa Indra, Ranjit Biswas
Heterogeneity and molecular motions in representative cryoprotectant mixtures made of trehalose and glycerol are investigated in the temperature range, , via time-resolved fluorescence Stokes shift and anisotropy measurements, and molecular dynamics simulations of four-point density-time correlations and H-bond relaxations. Mixtures containing 5 wt% and 20 wt% of trehalose along with neat glycerol are studied. Viscosity coefficients for these systems lie in the range, . Measured solute (Coumarin 153) rotation and solvation times reveal a substantial departure from the hydrodynamic viscosity dependence, suggesting strong micro-heterogeneous nature of these systems...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Jan Vrána, Petr Cápal, Hana Šimková, Miroslava Karafiátová, Jana Čížková, Jaroslav Doležel
Analysis and sorting of plant chromosomes (plant flow cytogenetics) is a special application of flow cytometry in plant genomics and its success depends critically on sample quality. This unit describes the methodology in a stepwise manner, starting with the induction of cell cycle synchrony and accumulation of dividing cells in mitotic metaphase, and continues with the preparation of suspensions of intact mitotic chromosomes, flow analysis and sorting of chromosomes, and finally processing of the sorted chromosomes...
October 10, 2016: Current Protocols in Cytometry
Marcin Drozd, Mariusz Pietrzak, Paweł G Parzuchowski, Elżbieta Malinowska
Catalytic nanomaterials, widely used as substitutes of peroxidase, exhibit unique properties, which are unattainable for native enzymes. However, their activity is usually examined by means of substrates developed and methods standardized for horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The aim of the presented work was to determine the scope of usefulness of chromogenic substrates for gold nanoparticle (AuNP) activity studies under conditions which significantly extend beyond the activity range of a native HRP. The applicability of chromogens such as 3,3'5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), o-phenylenediamine (OPD), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) beyond the typical range of pH, and for the samples of high concentration of hydrogen peroxide was examined...
October 8, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
S P Treviño-Morales, A Fuente, Á Sánchez-Monge, P Pilleri, J R Goicoechea, V Ossenkopf-Okada, E Roueff, J R Rizzo, M Gerin, O Berné, J Cernicharo, M Gónzalez-García, C Kramer, S García-Burillo, J Pety
The CO(+) reactive ion is thought to be a tracer of the boundary between a HII region and the hot molecular gas. In this study, we present the spatial distribution of the CO(+) rotational emission toward the Mon R2 star-forming region. The CO(+) emission presents a clumpy ring-like morphology, arising from a narrow dense layer around the HII region. We compare the CO(+) distribution with other species present in photon-dominated regions (PDR), such as [CII] 158 µm, H2 S(3) rotational line at 9.3 µm, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and HCO(+)...
September 15, 2016: Astronomy and Astrophysics
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