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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549898/brainstem-mechanisms-underlying-the-cough-reflex-and-its-regulation
#1
REVIEW
Donatella Mutolo
Cough is a very important airway protective reflex. Cough-related inputs are conveyed to the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) that projects to the brainstem respiratory network. The latter is reconfigured to generate the cough motor pattern. A high degree of modulation is exerted on second-order neurons and the brainstem respiratory network by sensory inputs and higher brain areas. Two medullary structures proved to have key functions in cough production and to be strategic sites of action for centrally active drugs: the cNTS and the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG)...
May 23, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549874/hearing-in-noise-test-hint-brazil-in-normal-hearing-children
#2
Carolina Verônica Lino Novelli, Nádia Giulian de Carvalho, Maria Francisca Colella Santos
INTRODUCTION: The auditory processing is related to certain skills such as speech recognition in noise. The HINT-Brazil test allows the measurement of the Speech/Noise ratio however there are no studies in the national literature that establish parameters for the child population. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the performance of normal-hearing subjects aged 8-10 years old in tasks for speech recognition in noise using HINT test. METHODS: Sixty schoolchildren were evaluated...
May 9, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549773/cochlear-implantation-in-patients-with-otosclerosis-of-the-otic-capsule
#3
Jay Burmeister, Susan Rathgeb, Jacques Herzog
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcomes of cochlear implantation of patients with otosclerosis of the otic capsule. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case series of 6 patients (7 ears). PATIENTS: 6 patients (7 ears), 5 patients with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss; 1 patient with mild to profound sensorineural hearing loss, with radiologic evidence of otosclerosis. All patients were adult males, with or without history of stapes surgery...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546787/pepsinogen-c-expression-regulation-and-its-relationship-with-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Shixuan Shen, Jingyi Jiang, Yuan Yuan
Pepsinogen C (PGC) belongs to the aspartic protease family and is secreted by gastric chief cells. PGC could be activated to pepsin C and digests polypeptides and amino acids, but as a zymogen PGC's functions is unclear. In normal physiological conditions, PGC is initially detected in the late embryonic stage and is mainly expressed in gastric mucosa. The in situ expression of PGC in gastric mucosa is decreased considerably in the process of superficial gastritis → atrophic gastritis → gastric cancer (GC), proving that PGC is a comparatively ideal negative marker of GC...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545724/the-role-of-ca-2-in-cell-death-caused-by-oxidative-glutamate-toxicity-and-ferroptosis
#5
REVIEW
Pamela Maher, Klaus van Leyen, Partha Narayan Dey, Birgit Honrath, Amalia Dolga, Axel Methner
Ca(2+) ions play a fundamental role in cell death mediated by oxidative glutamate toxicity or oxytosis, a form of programmed cell death similar and possibly identical to other forms of cell death like ferroptosis. Ca(2+) influx from the extracellular space occurs late in a cascade characterized by depletion of the intracellular antioxidant glutathione, increases in cytosolic reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we aim to compare oxidative glutamate toxicity with ferroptosis, address the signaling pathways that culminate in Ca(2+) influx and cell death and discuss the proteins that mediate this...
May 12, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544679/sima-a-simplified-migration-assay-for-analyzing-neutrophil-migration
#6
Markus Weckmann, Tim Becker, Gyde Nissen, Martin Pech, Matthias V Kopp
In lung inflammation, neutrophils are the first leukocytes migrating to an inflammatory site, eliminating pathogens by multiple mechanisms. The term "migration" describes several stages of neutrophil movement to reach the site of inflammation, of which the passage of the interstitium and basal membrane of the airway are necessary to reach the site of bronchial inflammation. Currently, several methods exist (e.g., Boyden Chamber, under-agarose assay, or microfluidic systems) to assess neutrophil mobility. However, these methods do not allow for parameterization on single cell level, that is, the individual neutrophil pathway analysis is still considered challenging...
May 19, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543725/tutorial-for-the-structure-elucidation-of-small-molecules-by-means-of-the-lsd-software
#7
Jean-Marc Nuzillard, Bertrand Plainchont
Automatic structure elucidation of small molecules by means of the "Logic for Structure Elucidation" software (LSD) is introduced in the context of the automatic exploitation of chemical shift correlation data and with minimal input from chemical shift values. The first step in solving a structural problem by means of LSD is the extraction of pertinent data from the 1D and 2D spectra. This operation requires the labeling of the resonances and of their correlations; its reliability highly depends on the quality of the spectra...
May 24, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541662/in-operando-quantification-of-three-dimensional-water-distribution-in-nanoporous-carbon-based-layers-in-polymer-electrolyte-membrane-fuel-cells
#8
Saad Alrwashdeh, Ingo Manke, Henning Markötter, Merle Klages, Martin Göbel, Jan Haußmann, Joachim Scholta, John Banhart
Understanding the function of nanoporous materials employed in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is crucial to improve their performance, durability and cost efficiency. Up to now, the water distribution in the nm-sized pore structures was hardly accessible during operation of the cells. Here we demonstrate that phase contrast synchrotron X-ray tomography allows for an in-operando quantification of the three-dimensional water distribution within the nm-sized pores of carbon-based micro porous layers (MPLs)...
May 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537935/cardiovascular-toxicity-of-abacavir-a-clinical-controversy-in-need-of-a-pharmacological-explanation
#9
Angeles Alvarez, Samuel Orden, Isabel Andújar, Victor Collado-Diaz, Sara Núñez-Delgado, Maria Jose Galindo, Vicente Estrada, Nadezda Apostolova, Juan V Esplugues
: There is a long-lasting controversy surrounding an association between Abacavir (ABC) and an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease in HIV-positive subjects. While differing in their specifics, a number of published cohort studies and clinical trials support such an association, usually relating it to recent exposure to the drug, independently of traditional predisposing factors. However, other clinical trials have failed to reveal such a relation, and have pointed to methodological differences to explain discrepancies...
May 23, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535985/recalcitrant-deep-and-shallow-nodes-in-aristolochia-aristolochiaceae-illuminated-using-anchored-hybrid-enrichment
#10
Stefan Wanke, Carolina Granados Mendoza, Sebastian Müller, Anna Paizanni Guillén, Christoph Neinhuis, Alan R Lemmon, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Marie-Stéphanie Samain
Recalcitrant relationships are characterized by very short internodes that can be found among shallow and deep phylogenetic scales all over the tree of life. Adding large amounts of presumably informative sequences, while decreasing systematic error, has been suggested as a possible approach to increase phylogenetic resolution. The development of enrichment strategies, coupled with next generation sequencing, resulted in a cost-effective way to facilitate the reconstruction of recalcitrant relationships. By applying the anchored hybrid enrichment (AHE) genome partitioning strategy to Aristolochia using an angiosperm probe set, we obtained 231 to 233 out of 517 single or low copy nuclear loci originally contained in the enrichment kit, resulting in a total alignment length of 154,756 bp to 160,150 bp...
May 20, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535980/nogo-receptor-1-antagonization-in-combination-with-neurotrophin-4-5-is-not-superior-to-single-factor-treatment-in-promoting-survival-and-morphological-complexity-of-cultured-dopaminergic-neurons
#11
Stefanie Seiler, Stefano Di Santo, Sebastian Sahli, Lukas Andereggen, Hans Rudolf Widmer
Cell transplantation using ventral mesencephalic tissue is an experimental approach to treat Parkinson's disease. This approach is limited by poor survival of the transplants and the high number of dopaminergic neurons needed for grafting. Increasing the yield of dopaminergic neurons in donor tissue is of great importance. We have previously shown that antagonization of the Nogo-receptor 1 by NEP1-40 promoted survival of cultured dopaminergic neurons and exposure to neurotrophin-4/5 increased dopaminergic cell densities in organotypic midbrain cultures...
May 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534238/a-fast-algorithm-for-bayesian-multi-locus-model-in-genome-wide-association-studies
#12
Weiwei Duan, Yang Zhao, Yongyue Wei, Sheng Yang, Jianling Bai, Sipeng Shen, Mulong Du, Lihong Huang, Zhibin Hu, Feng Chen
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a large amount of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with complex traits. A recently developed linear mixed model for estimating heritability by simultaneously fitting all SNPs suggests that common variants can explain a substantial fraction of heritability, which hints at the low power of single variant analysis typically used in GWAS. Consequently, many multi-locus shrinkage models have been proposed under a Bayesian framework. However, most use Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm, which are time-consuming and challenging to apply to GWAS data...
May 22, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532987/hints-of-lyme-disseminated-borreliosis-involving-the-mitral-and-tricuspid-valves
#13
Ankit Maheshwari, Robert J Bache
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531892/emery-dreifuss-muscular-dystrophy-associated-mutant-forms-of-lamin-a-recruit-the-stress-responsive-protein-ankrd2-into-the-nucleus-affecting-the-cellular-response-to-oxidative-stress
#14
Silvia Angori, Cristina Capanni, Georgine Faulkner, Camilla Bean, Giuseppe Boriani, Giovanna Lattanzi, Vittoria Cenni
BACKGROUND: Ankrd2 is a stress responsive protein mainly expressed in muscle cells. Upon the application of oxidative stress, Ankrd2 translocates into the nucleus where it regulates the activity of genes involved in cellular response to stress. Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy 2 (EDMD2) is a muscular disorder caused by mutations of the gene encoding lamin A, LMNA. As well as many phenotypic abnormalities, EDMD2 muscle cells also feature a permanent basal stress state, the underlying molecular mechanisms of which are currently unclear...
May 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529712/looking-into-pandora-s-box-the-content-of-sci-hub-and-its-usage
#15
Bastian Greshake
Despite the growth of Open Access, potentially illegally circumventing paywalls to access scholarly publications is becoming a more mainstream phenomenon. The web service Sci-Hub is amongst the biggest facilitators of this, offering free access to around 62 million publications. So far it is not well studied how and why its users are accessing publications through Sci-Hub. By utilizing the recently released corpus of Sci-Hub and comparing it to the data of  ~28 million downloads done through the service, this study tries to address some of these questions...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527316/effects-of-contextual-relevance-on-pragmatic-inference-during-conversation-an-fmri-study
#16
Wangshu Feng, Yue Wu, Catherine Jan, Hongbo Yu, Xiaoming Jiang, Xiaolin Zhou
Contextual relevance, which is vital for understanding conversational implicatures (CI), engages both the frontal-temporal language and theory-of-mind networks. Here we investigate how contextual relevance affects CI processing and regulates the connectivity between CI-processing-related brain regions. Participants listened to dialogues in which the level of contextual relevance to dialogue-final utterance (reply) was manipulated. This utterance was either direct, indirect but relevant, irrelevant with contextual hint, or irrelevant with no contextual hint...
May 17, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527052/action-mechanisms-of-onabotulinum-toxin-a-hints-for-selection-of-eligible-patients
#17
Carlo Lovati, Luca Giani
In the past few decades, the so-feared botulinum toxin has conversely acquired the role of a ever more versatile therapeutic substance, used in an increasing number of pathological situations, including chronic headache and more precisely in the prophylaxis of chronic migraine. The medical use of botulinum toxin allowed to better understand its multiple mechanisms of action. Investigations about the pathophysiology of primary and secondary headaches has shown a series of common biological elements that frequently are also targets of the action of botulinum toxin...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524206/co2-adsorption-on-different-organo-modified-sba-15-silicas-a-multidisciplinary-study-on-the-effects-of-basic-surface-groups
#18
G Gatti, D Costenaro, C Vittoni, G Paul, V Crocellà, E Mangano, S Brandani, S Bordiga, M Cossi, L Marchese, C Bisio
Hybrid organic-inorganic SBA-15 silicas functionalized with increasing amounts of amino groups were studied in this work aiming to evaluate the effects of their physico-chemical properties on CO2 capture ability. Three different amino-silane species were used: 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS), 3-(2-aminoethyl)aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (EAPTS) and 3-[2-(2-aminoethyl)aminoethyl] aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (PAPTS). More specifically, samples were prepared by using two methods, following a post-synthesis grafting procedure and a one-pot preparation method...
May 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523890/handy-hints-about-raynaud-s-phenomenon-in-children-a-critical-review
#19
REVIEW
Donato Rigante, Michele Fastiggi, Francesco Ricci, Francesca D'Errico, Benedetta Bracci, Cristina Guerriero
Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is a vasospastic disorder characterized by recurrent self-limited episodes of skin pallor, cyanosis, and hyperemia caused by paroxysmal spasms in the small arteries of the fingers and toes and can occur in any age group. Hands, feet, nose, ears, and nipples can be affected. The diagnosis is made clinically, assessing varying degrees of ischemia in the involved areas of skin, but this transient ischemia may also herald the onset of connective tissue disease. Investigation is recommended when RP starts in childhood to exclude an underlying autoimmune condition and close follow-up for its development...
May 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522923/the-use-of-supportive-communication-when-responding-to-older-people-s-emotional-distress-in-home-care-an-observational-study
#20
Linda Hafskjold, Vibeke Sundling, Sandra van Dulmen, Hilde Eide
BACKGROUND: Responding to older people's distress by acknowledging or encouraging further discussion of emotions is central to supportive, person-centred communication, and may enhance home care outcomes and thereby promote healthy aging. This observational study describes nursing staff's responses to older people's emotional distress, and identify factors that encourage further emotional disclosure. METHODS: Audio-recorded home care visits in Norway (n = 196), including 48 older people and 33 nursing staff, were analysed with the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences, identifying expressions of emotional distress and subsequent provider responses...
2017: BMC Nursing
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