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Adam S Lowet, Chaz Firestone, Brian J Scholl
An intrinsic part of seeing objects is seeing how similar or different they are relative to one another. This experience requires that objects be mentally represented in a common format over which such comparisons can be carried out. What is that representational format? Objects could be compared in terms of their superficial features (e.g., degree of pixel-by-pixel overlap), but a more intriguing possibility is that they are compared on the basis of a deeper structure. One especially promising candidate that has enjoyed success in the computer vision literature is the shape skeleton-a geometric transformation that represents objects according to their inferred underlying organization...
March 15, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Mateusz Borkowski
Optical molecular clocks promise unparalleled sensitivity to the temporal variation of the electron-to-proton mass ratio and insight into possible new physics beyond the standard model. We propose to realize a molecular clock with bosonic ^{174}Yb_{2} molecules, where the forbidden ^{1}S_{0}→^{3}P_{0} clock transition would be induced magnetically. The use of a bosonic species avoids possible complications due to the hyperfine structure present in fermionic species. While direct clock line photoassociation would be challenging, weakly bound ground state molecules could be produced by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage and used instead...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Xiaoxiao Li, Jianning Liu, Zhuonan Liu, Mesfin Tsige, Shi-Qing Wang
New experiments show that tensile stress vanishes shortly after preyield deformation of polymer glasses while tensile stress after postyield deformation stays high and relaxes on much longer time scales, thus hinting at a specific molecular origin of stress in ductile cold drawing: chain tension rather than intersegmental interactions. Molecular dynamics simulation based on a coarse-grained model for polystyrene confirms the conclusion that the chain network plays an essential role, causing the glassy state to yield and to respond with a high level of intrachain retractive stress...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Roey Schurr, Mor Nitzan, Ruth Eliahou, Laurent Spinelli, Margitta Seeck, Olaf Blanke, Shahar Arzy
In mental time travel (MTT) one is "traveling" back-and-forth in time, remembering, and imagining events. Despite intensive research regarding memory processes in the hippocampus, it was only recently shown that the hippocampus plays an essential role in encoding the temporal order of events remembered, and therefore plays an important role in MTT. Does it also encode the temporal relations of these events to the remembering self? We asked patients undergoing pre-surgical evaluation with depth electrodes penetrating the temporal lobes bilaterally toward the hippocampus to project themselves in time to a past, future, or present time-point, and then make judgments regarding various events...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Dean G Cruess, Kaylee E Burnham, David J Finitsis, Brett M Goshe, Lauren Strainge, Moira Kalichman, Tamar Grebler, Chauncey Cherry, Seth C Kalichman
Background: HIV disproportionately affects sexual minority men, and developing strategies to reduce transmission risk is a public health priority. Purpose: The goal was to empirically test a newly developed, Information, Motivation, Behavioral skills (IMB) theoretically derived, online HIV sexual risk reduction intervention (called HINTS) among a sample of sexual minority men living with HIV. Methods: Participants were 167 men randomized to either the four-session online HINTS intervention or to a time-matched, online control condition...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Thao P Nguyen, P Roy, Ji Hoon Shim
The relationship between structure and charge transport properties of phenacene organic semiconductors has been studied with focus on [6] → [10]phenacene. Upon inserting phenyl rings, the π-extended structure results in strong electronic coupling interactions and reduction of reorganization energy. Using the classical Marcus charge transport theory, we predict that hole mobility in the phenacene series increases gradually up to 8.0 cm2 V-1 s-1 at [10]phenacene. This is remarkably high among other discovered OSCs, surpassing that of pentacene...
March 14, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Joyjyoti Das, Somnath Maji, Tarun Agarwal, Suman Chakraborty, Tapas K Maiti
During metastatic dissemination, cancer cells experience shear stresses in narrow confinements of in vivo vasculature. Such stresses are currently known to influence a gamut of cellular processes. While a host of cells emanating from a primary tumor perish in circulation due to shear, some cells manage to migrate to distant niches and form secondary tumors. Current research focuses on how cancer cells avert such mechanical stresses and adapt themselves in order to survive. This study deals with the autophagic response of cervical cancer cells HeLa and its subline HeLa 229, exposed to physiological shear stresses in vitro, and evaluates its role as a pro-survival mechanism...
March 13, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Federico Gennaro, Eling D de Bruin
Assessment of the cortical role during bipedalism has been a methodological challenge. While surface electroencephalography (EEG) is capable of non-invasively measuring cortical activity during human locomotion, it is associated with movement artifacts obscuring cerebral sources of activity. Recently, statistical methods based on blind source separation revealed potential for resolving this issue, by segregating non-cerebral/artifactual from cerebral sources of activity. This step marked a new opportunity for the investigation of the brains' role while moving and was tagged mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI)...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Mandy Schott, Miriam M de Jel, Julia C Engelmann, Philipp Renner, Edward K Geissler, Anja K Bosserhoff, Silke Kuphal
Selenium-binding protein 1 (SELENBP1) expression is reduced in various epithelial cancer entities compared to corresponding normal tissue and has already been described as a tumor suppressor involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, senescence, migration and apoptosis. We identified SELENBP1 to be down-regulated in cutaneous melanoma, a malignant cancer of pigment-producing melanocytes in the skin, which leads to the assumption that SELENBP1 also functions as tumor suppressor in the skin, as shown by others e...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
D Crivelli, M D Sabogal Rueda, M Balconi
The present work aimed at exploring functional correlates of motor and linguistic representations of everyday actions, with a specific interest in potential sensorimotor activation effects induced by the use of related action sentences. While it is indeed known that observing simple motor acts (e.g., precision grasping) and listening to the sound of specific actions (e.g., walking) activate sensorimotor structures, less is known when we move to more complex behaviors and more abstract linguistic representations (e...
March 12, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Daniel R Peet, Nigel J Burroughs, Robert A Cross
Kinesin-1 is a nanoscale molecular motor that walks towards the fast-growing (plus) ends of microtubules, hauling molecular cargo to specific reaction sites in cells. Kinesin-driven transport is central to the self-organization of eukaryotic cells and shows great promise as a tool for nano-engineering1 . Recent work hints that kinesin may also play a role in modulating the stability of its microtubule track, both in vitro2,3 and in vivo4 , but the results are conflicting5-7 and the mechanisms are unclear. Here, we report a new dimension to the kinesin-microtubule interaction, whereby strong-binding state (adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-bound and apo) kinesin-1 motor domains inhibit the shrinkage of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) microtubules by up to two orders of magnitude and expand their lattice spacing by ~1...
March 12, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Anne-Marie Garnerone, Fernando Sorroche, Lan Zou, Céline Mathieu-Demazière, Chang Fu Tian, Catherine Masson-Boivin, Jacques Batut
An ongoing signal exchange fine-tunes the symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and legumes, ensuring the establishment and maintenance of mutualism. In a recently identified regulatory loop, endosymbiotic S. meliloti exert a negative feedback on root infection in response to unknown plant cues. Upon signal perception, three bacterial Adenylate Cyclases (ACs) of the inner membrane, CyaD1, CyaD2 and CyaK, synthesize the second messenger cAMP that, together with the cAMP-dependent Clr transcriptional activator, activates the expression of genes involved in root infection control...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Rahul Banerjee, Jesse B Yoder, David T Yue, L Mario Amzel, Gordon F Tomaselli, Sandra B Gabelli, Manu Ben-Johny
Calmodulin (CaM) regulation of voltage-gated calcium (CaV ) channels is a powerful Ca2+ feedback mechanism that adjusts Ca2+ influx, affording rich mechanistic insights into Ca2+ decoding. CaM possesses a dual-lobed architecture, a salient feature of the myriad Ca2+ -sensing proteins, where two homologous lobes that recognize similar targets hint at redundant signaling mechanisms. Here, by tethering CaM lobes, we demonstrate that bilobal architecture is obligatory for signaling to CaV channels. With one lobe bound, CaV carboxy tail rearranges itself, resulting in a preinhibited configuration precluded from Ca2+ feedback...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
D Yao, L Zhang, P L Wu, X L Gu, Y F Chen, L X Wang, X Y Huang
BACKGROUND: The primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL), with a low incidence, was highly misdiagnosed in clinic. The present study analyzes the clinical features, laboratory and imaging data, pathologic characteristics, and summarizes misdiagnosis reasons of PPL cases, aims to provide a better understanding and increase the accuracy of early diagnosis and minimize the misdiagnosis of PPL. METHODS: The clinical data of 19 cases were collected from the first affiliated hospital of Wenzhou medical university (PRC) from April 2010 to May 2016...
March 12, 2018: BMC Cancer
Yuejun Wang, Yunsong Liu, Min Zhang, Longwei Lv, Xiao Zhang, Ping Zhang, Yongsheng Zhou
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a reliable resource for bone regeneration and tissue engineering, but the molecular mechanisms of differentiation remain unclear. The tumor antigen 15-leucine-rich repeat containing membrane protein (LRRC15) is a transmembrane protein demonstrated to play important roles in cancer. However, little is known about its role in osteogenesis. This study was to evaluate the functions of LRRC15 in osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. METHODS: Osteogenic-induction treatment and the ovariectomized (OVX) model were performed to investigate the potential relationship between LRRC15 and MSC osteogenesis...
March 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Sheng Chen, Juan Zhang, Qi-Bing Liu, Jing-Cong Zhuang, Lei Wu, Yong-Feng Xu, Hong-Fu Li, Zhi-Ying Wu, Bao-Gou Xiao
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common central nervous system autoimmune disorder. Increasing number of genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses hint that MS is strongly associated with genetics. Unfortunately, almost all the GWAS analyses were Caucasian population based. Numbers of risk loci might not be replicated in Chinese MS patients. Hence, we performed a MassArray Assay to genotype the previously reported variants located in the transcription regulation genes in order to elucidate their role in the Chinese MS patients...
March 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Guiqin Wang, Yuling Zeng, Jifeng Xu, Wengui Liu
We report a new method for calibrating the current gain of 1013 Ω amplifiers in both positive and negative mode used in thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS). This method uses any isotopic standard or sample to calibrate the gain factor as long as it can produce a stable current signal. It is simpler and more flexible than that recommended by Thermo-Fisher (the manufacture of the TIMS). In these analyses, the gains of five 1013 Ω amplifiers were assessed. The precision of gain factors was better than 100 ppm (2 RSD) in a day, and the long term reproducibility was better than 300 ppm (2 RSD) within 2 - 8 months...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Ilaria Boscolo Galazzo, Lorenza Brusini, Silvia Obertino, Mauro Zucchelli, Cristina Granziera, Gloria Menegaz
Recent tract-based analyses provided evidence for the exploitability of 3D-SHORE microstructural descriptors derived from diffusion MRI (dMRI) in revealing white matter (WM) plasticity. In this work, we focused on the main open issues left: (1) the comparative analysis with respect to classical tensor-derived indices, i.e., Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and Mean Diffusivity (MD); and (2) the ability to detect plasticity processes in gray matter (GM). Although signal modeling in GM is still largely unexplored, we investigated their sensibility to stroke-induced microstructural modifications occurring in the contralateral hemisphere...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Neha Vithani, Pravin Kumar Ankush Jagtap, Sunil Kumar Verma, Ravi Tripathi, Shalini Awasthi, Nisanth N Nair, Balaji Prakash
The nucleotidyl transfer reaction, catalyzed by sugar nucleotidyltransferases (SNTs), is assisted by two active site Mg2+ ions. While studying this reaction using X-ray crystallography, we captured snapshots of the pyrophosphate (product) as it exits along a pocket. Surprisingly, one of the active site Mg2+ ions remains coordinated to the exiting pyrophosphate. This hints at the participation of Mg2+ in the process of product release, besides its role in catalyzing nucleotidyl transfer. These observations are further supported by enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulations...
March 6, 2018: Structure
Yang-Hui Luo, Chen Chen, Dan-Li Hong, Xiao-Tong He, Jing-Wen Wang, Ting Ding, Bo-Jun Wang, Bai-Wang Sun
The organometallic cation 1 (Fe(bipy-NH2 )3 2+ , bipy-NH2 = 4,4'-diamino-2,2'-bipyridine), which was constructed in situ in solution, can bind CO2 from air effectively with a stoichiometric ratio of 1:4 (1/CO2 ), through the formation of "H-bonded CO2 " species: [CO2 -OH-CO2 ]- and [CO2 -CO2 -OH]- . These two species, along with the captured individual CO2 molecules, connected 1 into a novel 3D (three-dimensional) architecture, that was crystal 1·2(OH- )·4(CO2 ). The adsorption isotherms, recycling investigations, and the heat capacity of 1 have been investigated; the results revealed that the organometallic cation 1 can be recycled at least 10 times for the real-world CO2 capture applications...
March 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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