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helminthic therapy

Anders Dige, Tue Kruse Rasmussen, Peter Nejsum, Rikke Hagemann-Madsen, Andrew R Williams, Jørgen Agnholt, Jens F Dahlerup, Christian L Hvas
Helminthic therapy of immune-mediated diseases has gained attention in recent years, but we know little of how helminths modulate human immunity. In this study, we investigated how self-infection with Trichuris (T.) trichiura in an adult man without intestinal disease affected mucosal and systemic immunity. Colonic mucosal biopsies were obtained at baseline, during T. trichiura infection, and after its clearance following mebendazole treatment. Unexpectedly, the volunteer experienced a Campylobacter colitis following T...
October 15, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Haggai Bar-Yoseph, Yaniv Zohar, Margalit Lorber
Helminthic infection and HIV have been reported to coexist, particularly in sub-Saharan African patients living with HIV. Strongyloidiasis is one of the most common helminths, usually leading to cutaneous and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. In the immunocompromised host, this infection can lead to strongyloidiasis hyperinfection syndrome (SHS), not common in HIV-infected patients. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) can follow the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), with a variety of presentations...
October 12, 2016: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
José L Reyes, Fernando Lopes, Gabriella Leung, Nicole L Mancini, Chelsea E Matisz, Arthur Wang, Emma A Thomson, Nicholas Graves, John Gilleard, Derek M McKay
Awareness of the immunological underpinnings of host-parasite interactions may reveal immune signaling pathways that could be used to treat inflammatory disease in humans. Previously we showed that infection with the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta, used as a model helminth, or systemic delivery of worm antigen (HdAg) significantly reduced the severity of dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Extending these analyses, intraperitoneal injection of HdAg dose-dependently suppressed dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis and this was paralleled by reduced IFNγ, IL-17 and TNFα and increased IL-10 production from mitogen-activated splenocytes...
September 26, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Motoko Morimoto, Noritsugu Azuma, Hikaru Kadowaki, Tatsuya Abe, Yoshiko Suto
Helminth-induced type 2 cytokines increase the number of regulatory T cells and alternatively activated macrophages, resulting in modulation of the host-immune system. Studies on these parasite-induced immunoregulatory mechanisms might contribute to the development of new therapies for inflammatory diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Previous studies have suggested that progression of obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities is under pathophysiological control of CD4+ T cells. Glucose absorption through the intestinal epithelium reduced after infection in a STAT-6-dependent manner...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Fernando Lopes, Chelsea Matisz, José L Reyes, Humberto Jijon, Ahmed Al-Darmaki, Gilaad G Kaplan, Derek M McKay
By reputation, the parasite is a pariah, an unwelcome guest. Infection with helminth parasites evokes stereotypic immune responses in humans and mice that are dominated by T helper (Th)-2 responses; thus, a hypothesis arises that infection with helminths would limit immunopathology in concomitant inflammatory disease. Although infection with some species of helminths can cause devastating disease and affect the course of microbial infections, analyses of rodent models of inflammatory disease reveal that infection with helminth parasites, or treatment with helminth extracts, can limit the severity of autoinflammatory disease, including colitis...
October 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Lahari Rampur, Sunit P Jariwala, Golda Hudes, David L Rosenstreich, Gabriele de Vos
BACKGROUND: The immunomodulatory effects of helminths have been well described. However, there is a relative lack of literature regarding the link between parasites and allergic diseases. A number of patients with allergic symptoms have positive serologic test results for Strongyloides stercoralis. OBJECTIVE: To identify patients with allergy-type symptoms and coexisting Strongyloides infection and to analyze the effect of Strongyloides eradication therapy with ivermectin on these symptoms...
October 2016: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Martijn J Schuijs, Susanne Hartmann, Murray E Selkirk, Luke B Roberts, Peter J M Openshaw, Corinna Schnoeller
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a major pathogen causing low respiratory tract disease (bronchiolitis), primarily in infants. Helminthic infections may alter host immune responses to both helminths and to unrelated immune triggers. For example, we have previously shown that filarial cystatin (AvCystatin/Av17) ameliorates allergic airway inflammation. However, helminthic immunomodulators have so far not been tested in virus-induced disease. We now report that AvCystatin prevents Th2-based immunopathology in vaccine-enhanced RSV lung inflammation, a murine model for bronchiolitis...
2016: PloS One
Noemi Cowan, Alessia Raimondo, Jennifer Keiser
Infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are considered among the most persistent global health problems. The few available drugs have limitations including low efficacy against Trichuris trichiura infections. As a starting point toward drug repositioning, we studied a set of FDA-approved oncology drugs for activity against Trichuris muris since targets relevant to cancer therapy might have a function in helminth biology. Drugs were tested in vitro on the larval and adult stage of T. muris. Compounds active in vitro were tested in the T...
November 2016: Parasitology Research
Leah T Stiemsma, Lisa A Reynolds, Stuart E Turvey, B Brett Finlay
Developed countries have experienced a steady increase in atopic disease and disorders of immune dysregulation since the 1980s. This increase parallels a decrease in infectious diseases within the same time period, while developing countries seem to exhibit the opposite effect, with less immune dysregulation and a higher prevalence of infectious disease. The "hygiene hypothesis", proposed by Strachan in 1989, aimed to explain this peculiar generational rise in immune dysregulation. However, research over the past 10 years provides evidence connecting the commensal and symbiotic microbes (intestinal microbiota) and parasitic helminths with immune development, expanding the hygiene hypothesis into the "microflora" and "old friends" hypotheses, respectively...
2015: ImmunoTargets and Therapy
Mircea Filip, Raluca Moisescu
We present the case of a 61-year-old patient without previous ophthalmic or general history, who developed unilateral posterior pole granuloma and was diagnosed with posterior uveitis most likely due to a systemic Toxocara canis infection. Clinical examination and ancillary investigations showed elements that were also consistent with wet ARMD, but laboratory tests and successful use of oral anti-helminthic and corticosteroid therapy in decreasing the macular lesion and improving visual acuity, confirmed the diagnosis of posterior uveitis...
January 2015: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
Wei-June Chen
Protozoa and helminths are the two main groups that cause parasitic diseases with a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms. Protozoa are unicellular organisms like the malaria parasite Plasmodium, which is responsible for the majority of deaths associated with parasitic infections. Helminths are alternative parasites that can produce debilitating diseases in hosts, some of which result in chronic infections. The discovery of effective therapeutic drugs is the key to improving health in regions of poverty and poor sanitation where these parasites usually occur...
April 2016: Biomedical Journal
Murat Uçar, Ahsen Karagözlü Akgül, Fatih Çelik, Nizamettin Kılıç
PURPOSE: Cystic echinococcosis, which is one of the most important helminthic infestations, is a serious life-threatening health problem in developing countries. Hydatid cyst of the kidney is a rare condition in children that can be treated with medical therapy or surgical treatment in some resistant cases. Here, we present a case of renal hydatid cyst that was treated with laparoscopic excision with diode laser. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 15-year-old female patient was admitted with abdominal pain...
August 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Avishai Nahshoni, Sharon Baum, Aviv Barzilai, Eli Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Chronic urticaria often poses a therapeutic challenge. The human immune response to helminths has a high degree of similarity to an allergic response in terms of skin manifestations, eosinophilia, and IgE elevation. Unfortunately, it is often complicated to diagnose such infections. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the effect of empirical anthelmintic treatment among returning travellers diagnosed with chronic urticaria, without clear proof of helminthic infection...
2016: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
J Liu, R A Morey, J K Wilson, W Parker
The successful use of helminths as therapeutic agents to resolve inflammatory disease was first recorded 40 years ago. Subsequent work in animal models and in humans has demonstrated that the organisms might effectively treat a wide range of inflammatory diseases, including allergies, autoimmune disorders and inflammation-associated neuropsychiatric disorders. However, available information regarding the therapeutic uses and effects of helminths in humans is limited. This study probes the practices and experiences of individuals 'self-treating' with helminths through the eyes of their physicians...
May 31, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
Helena Greter, Noemi Cowan, Bongo N Ngandolo, Hamit Kessely, Idriss O Alfaroukh, Jürg Utzinger, Jennifer Keiser, Jakob Zinsstag
Mobile pastoralists face challenges in accessing quality health care and medication for managing human and animal diseases. We determined livestock disease priorities, health seeking behaviour of people bearing helminthiases and - placing particular emphasis on trematode infections - treatment strategies and outcome satisfaction among mobile pastoralists of four ethnic groups in the Lake Chad area using focus group discussions. People suffering from schistosomiasis were interviewed about symptoms, health seeking behaviour and their satisfaction with respect to the provided treatment...
May 25, 2016: Acta Tropica
Giridhar Mudduluru, Wolfgang Walther, Dennis Kobelt, Mathias Dahlmann, Christoph Treese, Yehuda G Assaraf, Ulrike Stein
The increasing unraveling of the molecular basis of cancer offers manifold novel options for intervention strategies. However, the discovery and development of new drugs for potential clinical applications is a tremendously time-consuming and costly process. Translating a novel lead candidate compound into an approved clinical drug takes often more than a decade, and the success rate is very low due to versatile efforts including defining its pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, side effects as well as lack of sufficient efficacy...
May 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
R M Maizels
The profile of global health today presents a striking reciprocal distribution between parasitic diseases in many of the world's lower-income countries, and ever-increasing levels of inflammatory disorders such as allergy, autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel diseases in the more affluent societies. Attention is particularly focused on helminth worm parasites, which are associated with protection from allergy and inflammation in both epidemiologic and laboratory settings. One mechanistic explanation of this is that helminths drive the regulatory arm of the immune system, abrogating the ability of the host to expel the parasites, while also dampening reactivity to many bystander specificities...
June 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Rachel L Stewart, Brittany L Carpenter, Dava S West, Teresa Knifley, Lili Liu, Chi Wang, Heidi L Weiss, Tamas S Gal, Eric B Durbin, Susanne M Arnold, Kathleen L O'Connor, Min Chen
S100A4 (metastasin-1), a metastasis-associated protein and marker of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition, contributes to several hallmarks of cancer and has been implicated in the progression of several types of cancer. However, the impacts of S100A4 signaling in lung cancer progression and its potential use as a target for therapy in lung cancer have not been properly explored. Using established lung cancer cell lines, we demonstrate that S100A4 knockdown reduces cell proliferation, invasion and three-dimensional invasive growth, while overexpression of S100A4 increases invasive potential...
June 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Amin Zakeri, Hassan Borji, Alireza Haghparast
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential components of the innate immune system. They play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, especially asthma. Since TLRs significantly orchestrate innate and adaptive immune response, their manipulation has widely been considered as a potential approach to control asthma symptoms. It is well established that helminths have immunoregulatory effects on host immune responses, especially innate immunity. They release bioactive molecules such as excretory-secretory (ES) products manipulating TLRs expression and signaling...
May 3, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
Svenja Steinfelder, Noëlle Louise O'Regan, Susanne Hartmann
Helminths have evolved numerous pathways to prevent their expulsion or elimination from the host to ensure long-term survival. During infection, they target numerous host cells, including macrophages, to induce an alternatively activated phenotype, which aids elimination of infection, tissue repair, and wound healing. Multiple animal-based studies have demonstrated a significant reduction or complete reversal of disease by helminth infection, treatment with helminth products, or helminth-modulated macrophages in models of allergy, autoimmunity, and sepsis...
April 2016: PLoS Pathogens
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