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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150304/are-the-estrogenic-hormonal-effects-of-environmental-toxins-affecting-small-intestinal-bacterial-and-microfilaria-overgrowth
#1
Edward Lichten
The important role of microfilaria (worms) in human and animal disease remains an area of key disagreement between the naturopathic and allopathic physicians. While microfilaria infections are rampart in undeveloped countries, they rarely rise to identification as a cause of disease in Western countries. New research studies in the diagnosis and treatment of SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth) and (IBD) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's Disease and microcytic colitis may make both sides equally correct...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108604/global-issues-in-allergy-and-immunology-parasitic-infections-and-allergy
#2
REVIEW
Alvaro A Cruz, Philip J Cooper, Camila A Figueiredo, Neuza M Alcantara-Neves, Laura C Rodrigues, Mauricio L Barreto
Allergic diseases are on the increase globally in parallel with a decrease in parasitic infection. The inverse association between parasitic infections and allergy at an ecological level suggests a causal association. Studies in human subjects have generated a large knowledge base on the complexity of the interrelationship between parasitic infection and allergy. There is evidence for causal links, but the data from animal models are the most compelling: despite the strong type 2 immune responses they induce, helminth infections can suppress allergy through regulatory pathways...
November 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068485/is-the-hygiene-hypothesis-relevant-for-the-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis
#3
REVIEW
M Wendel-Haga, E G Celius
The hygiene hypothesis, suggesting that low exposure to pathogens early in life can increase the risk for immune-mediated diseases, has been proposed as an explanation for the increase in incidence of allergy and autoimmune diseases in industrialized countries during the last decades. Several aspects of the hygiene hypothesis have been related to MS. Already in 1966, the risk of MS was suggested to be higher in individuals with high hygienic standard during childhood. Further, an episode of infectious mononucleosis is an independent risk factor for MS and can be regarded as an indicator of low exposure to pathogens early in life, as infection with Epstein-Barr virus often is asymptomatic when it occurs in young children...
November 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064448/production-and-use-of-hymenolepis-diminuta-cysticercoids-as-anti-inflammatory-therapeutics
#4
Kendra Smyth, Claire Morton, Amanda Mathew, Sahil Karuturi, Cliff Haley, Min Zhang, Zoie E Holzknecht, Chelsea Swanson, Shu S Lin, William Parker
Helminthic therapy has shown considerable promise as a means of alleviating some inflammatory diseases that have proven resistant to pharmaceutical intervention. However, research in the field has been limited by a lack of availability to clinician scientists of a helminth that is relatively benign, non-communicable, affordable, and effectively treats disease. Previous socio-medical studies have found that some individuals self-treating with helminths to alleviate various diseases are using the rat tapeworm (cysticercoid developmental stage of Hymenolepis diminuta; HDC)...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061197/in-vivo-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-sophora-moorcroftiana-alkaloids-in-combination-with-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-treatment-for-cystic-echinococcosis-in-mice
#5
G Zhang, J Wang, Y Luo, M Yuan, Q Gao, H Gao, X Song, Y Shi, K Dong, X Ma
Human cystic echinococcosis is a widespread, chronic, endemic, helminthic zoonosis caused by larval tapeworms of the species Echinococcus granulosus. At present, there is no rational and effective therapy for patients with echinococcosis. The present study evaluated whether the combination of alkaloids from Sophora moorcroftiana seeds (SMSa2) and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) was effective in the treatment of experimental echinococcosis. After 20 weeks of secondary infection with protoscoleces, mice were randomly allocated to five groups and treated for 6 weeks by daily intragastric administration of albendazole (ABZ, 100 mg/kg), SMSa2 (100 mg/kg), BCG (abdominal subcutaneous injection at 5 × 106 CFU), SMSa2 + BCG (100 mg/kg SMSa2 and 5 × 106 CFU BCG) or normal saline (untreated group), respectively...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037782/paeoniflorin-targets-apoptosis-and-ameliorates-fibrosis-in-murine-schistosomiasis-mansoni-a-novel-insight
#6
Naglaa Fathy Abd El-Aal, Rania Said Hamza, Ola Harb
Schistosomiasis is a chronic helminthic disease causing hepatic fibrosis. Some studies demonstrated direct effect of targeting apoptosis on fibrosis regression. This study is a novel trial of Paeoniflorin (PAE) on S. mansoni induced hepatic fibrosis in murine model compared to Praziquantel (PZQ) evaluating their anti-parasitic and anti-fibrotic properties aiming to discover a new therapy that decrease schistosomiasis morbidity. Thirty two laboratory bred Swiss albino male CD-1 mice were used in this study...
October 14, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990934/mast-cell-hyperactivity-underpins-the-development-of-oxygen-induced-retinopathy
#7
Kenshiro Matsuda, Noriko Okamoto, Masatoshi Kondo, Peter D Arkwright, Kaoru Karasawa, Saori Ishizaka, Shinichi Yokota, Akira Matsuda, Kyungsook Jung, Kumiko Oida, Yosuke Amagai, Hyosun Jang, Eiichiro Noda, Ryota Kakinuma, Koujirou Yasui, Uiko Kaku, Yasuo Mori, Nobuyuki Onai, Toshiaki Ohteki, Akane Tanaka, Hiroshi Matsuda
Mast cells are classically thought to play an important role in protection against helminth infections and in the induction of allergic diseases; however, recent studies indicate that these cells also contribute to neovascularization, which is critical for tissue remodeling, chronic inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that mast cells are essential for sprouting angiogenesis in a murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Although mouse strains lacking mast cells did not exhibit retinal neovascularization following hypoxia, these mice developed OIR following infusion of mast cells or after injection of mast cell tryptase (MCT)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970717/helminths-as-an-alternative-therapy-for-intestinal-diseases
#8
EDITORIAL
Aytan Miranda Sipahi, Daniel Machado Baptista
Animal models and clinical studies have shown that helminth infections exert immunomodulatory activity, altering intestinal permeability and providing a potential beneficial action on autoimmune and inflammatory disorders in human beings, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and celiac disease. This is consistent with the theory that intestinal microbiota is responsible for shaping human immunological responses. With the arrival of the immunobiologic era and the use of antibodies, we propose a distinctive pathway for treating patients with IBD and celiac disease...
September 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895020/role-of-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-allergic-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Lorenzo Cosmi, Francesco Liotta, Laura Maggi, Francesco Annunziato
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The adaptive immune response orchestrated by type 2 T helper (Th2) lymphocytes, strictly cooperates with the innate response of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), in the protection from helminths infection, as well as in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. The aim of this review is to explore the pathogenic role of ILC2 in different type 2-mediated disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that epithelial cell-derived cytokines and their responding cells, ILC2, play a pathogenic role in bronchial asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, and atopic dermatitis...
September 11, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863833/allergic-diseases-from-bench-to-clinic-contribution-of-the-discovery-of-interleukin-5
#10
REVIEW
Tsutomu Yanagibashi, Mitsuo Satoh, Yoshinori Nagai, Masamichi Koike, Kiyoshi Takatsu
T helper 2 cells produce a number of cytokines including inteleukin (IL)-5, IL-4 and IL-13. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) also produce IL-5 under sterile conditions. IL-5 is interdigitating homodimeric glycoprotein and a member of the four α helical bundle motifs conserved among hematopoietic cytokines. IL-5 exerts its effects on target cells via IL-5 receptor (IL-5R), composed of an IL-5R α and βc subunit. The membrane proximal proline-rich motif of the cytoplasmic domain of both IL-5R α and βc subunits is essential for IL-5 signal transduction...
October 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771620/a-benign-helminth-alters-the-host-immune-system-and-the-gut-microbiota-in-a-rat-model-system
#11
Laura Wegener Parfrey, Milan Jirků, Radek Šíma, Marie Jalovecká, Bohumil Sak, Karina Grigore, Kateřina Jirků Pomajbíková
Helminths and bacteria are major players in the mammalian gut ecosystem and each influences the host immune system and health. Declines in helminth prevalence and bacterial diversity appear to play a role in the dramatic rise of immune mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) in western populations. Helminths are potent modulators of immune system and their reintroduction is a promising therapeutic avenue for IMIDs. However, the introduction of helminths represents a disturbance for the host and it is important to understand the impact of helminth reintroduction on the host, including the immune system and gut microbiome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741440/commentary-on-some-recent-theses-relevant-to-combating-aging-august-2017
#12
Benjamin Zealley, Aubrey D N J de Grey
Theses reviewed in this issue include "Engineering Cellular Input-Output for the Robust Control of Mammalian Cell-Based Therapies"; "Enzyme-Instructed Self-Assembly (EISA) Selectively Targets Cancer Cells"; "Exploration of helminth-derived immunoregulatory molecules as options for therapeutic intervention in allograft rejection and autoimmune disease"; "Expression of the Medial HOXA genes is indispensible for self-renewal in human hematopoietic stem cells"; "Gamma frequency entrainment attenuates amyloid load and modifies microglia"; and "Heterogeneous Distribution of Microvascular Blood Flow Contributes to Impaired Skeletal Muscle Oxygenation in Diabetes"...
August 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740485/tuftsin-phosphorylcholine-maintains-normal-gut-microbiota-in-collagen-induced-arthritic-mice
#13
Hila Ben-Amram, Tomer Bashi, Nir Werbner, Hadar Neuman, Mati Fridkin, Miri Blank, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Omry Koren
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic autoinflammation of the joints, with a prevalence of about 1% in Western populations. Evidence in recent years has linked RA to changes in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis). Interestingly, helminths have been shown to have therapeutic activity in RA. Specifically, a glycoprotein containing phosphorylcholine (PC) extracted from helminths was found to have immunomodulatory activity. We have previously developed a novel chimeric compound composed of tuftsin-PC (TPC) that attenuates the joint destruction in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729070/abc-transporters-in-the-liver-fluke-opisthorchis-felineus
#14
Viatcheslav A Mordvinov, Nikita I Ershov, Darya S Pirozhkova, Yuri V Pakharukov, Maria Y Pakharukova
ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are essential components of normal cellular physiological machinery in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic species, including parasites. Some ABC transporters, e.g., P-glycoproteins, are involved in the efflux of toxins and xenobiotics from the cell. At present, nothing is known about ABC transporter genes in epidemiologically important liver flukes from the Opisthorchiidae family, including European liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus. Opisthorchiasis caused by O...
July 17, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717850/physio-biochemical-parameters-a-potential-tool-for-target-selective-treatment-of-haemonchosis-in-the-small-ruminants
#15
Bhupamani Das, Niranjan Kumar, Mehul M Jadav, Jayesh B Solanki, T K S Rao
This study aims to evaluate the conjunctiva colour-based FAMACHA score (FS) coupled with a body condition score (BCS), haemogram and stressor hormone level estimation, in identifying post-mortem (PM)/coproscopically proven individuals wanting therapy for economically important gastrointestinal (GI) helminths, Haemonchus contortus, in the small ruminants. The incidence of haemonchosis was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (60.81%) in the ruminants with FS = 3. The H. contortus count in the animals with FS 2, 3 and 4 was 23...
December 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668252/nanotechnology-as-a-potential-therapeutic-alternative-for-schistosomiasis
#16
REVIEW
Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier, Milena Menegazzo Miranda-Sapla, Laís Fernanda Machado, Bruna Taciane da Silva Bortoleti, Claudia Stoeglehner Sahd, Alan Ferreira Chagas, João Paulo Assolini, Francisco José de Abreu Oliveira, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Idessania Nazareth Costa, Francine Nesello Melanda
Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease that affects millions of people worldwide, recognized as the most important human helminth infection in terms of morbidity and mortality. The treatment of choice presents low bioavailability and water solubility, in addition to the induction of parasite resistance. In this context, researchers have been conducting studies seeking to develop new drugs to ensure safety, quality, and efficacy against this parasitosis. In this scenario, nanotechnology arises including the drug delivery systems in nanoscale: nanoemulsions, liposomes and nanoparticles...
June 29, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615884/intestinal-parasitic-infestation-among-paediatric-diarrhoea-patients-attending-hospitals-in-port-blair-andaman-and-nicobar-islands
#17
Ramanathan Thamizhmani, Attayur Purushottaman Sugunan, P Ramya Raghvan, Paluru Vijayachari
Acute childhood diarrhoea remains one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infestation among children aged 5 years and less suffering from acute diarrhoea disease attending hospitals in Andaman Islands. During the period from January 2012 to December 2013, a total of 675 acute diarrhoea patients were included in the study. Among these samples, 476 (70.5, 95 % CI 66.9, 73...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602842/immune-responses-and-parasitological-observations-induced-during-probiotic-treatment-with-medicinal-trichuris-suis-ova-in-a-healthy-volunteer
#18
Andrew R Williams, Anders Dige, Tue Kruse Rasmussen, Christian L Hvas, Jens F Dahlerup, Lars Iversen, C Rune Stensvold, Jørgen Agnholt, Peter Nejsum
Ingestion of eggs (ova) of the porcine nematode parasite Trichuris suis (TSO) may reduce the severity of autoimmune disorders, however the development of TSO treatment as a useful therapy for autoimmune diseases is hampered by a lack of knowledge on the development of the parasite and the nature of the local immune responses in humans. Here, we used colonoscopy to investigate the development of T. suis and related mucosal and systemic immune responses during TSO treatment in an intestinally healthy male volunteer...
August 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542260/hookworm-infection-is-associated-with-decreased-cd4-t-cell-counts-in-hiv-infected-adult-ugandans
#19
Bozena M Morawski, Miya Yunus, Emmanuel Kerukadho, Grace Turyasingura, Logose Barbra, Andrew Mijumbi Ojok, Andrew R DiNardo, Stefanie Sowinski, David R Boulware, Rojelio Mejia
Most studies evaluating epidemiologic relationships between helminths and HIV have been conducted in the pre-ART era, and evidence of the impact of helminth infections on HIV disease progression remains conflicting. Less is known about helminth infection and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sampled HIV-infected adults for eight gastrointestinal parasites and correlated parasitic infection with demographic predictors, and clinical and immunologic outcomes. Contrasting with previous studies, we measured parasitic infection with a quantitative, highly sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492420/helminthic-therapy-a-new-era-in-immune-mediated-diseases
#20
Jawad Bilal, Elly Varma, Hem Desai, Dominick G Sudano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
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