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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352298/hexokinase-ii-may-be-dispensable-for-cd4-t-cell-responses-against-a-virus-infection
#1
Siva Karthik Varanasi, Ujjaldeep Jaggi, Nissim Hay, Barry T Rouse
Activation of CD4 T cells leads to their metabolic reprogramming which includes enhanced glycolysis, catalyzed through hexokinase enzymes. Studies in some systems indicate that the HK2 isoform is the most up regulated isoform in activated T cells and in this report the relevance of this finding is evaluated in an infectious disease model. Genetic ablation of HK2 was achieved in only T cells and the outcome was evaluated by measures of T cell function. Our results show that CD4 T cells from both HK2 depleted and WT animals displayed similar responses to in vitro stimulation and yielded similar levels of Th1, Treg or Th17 subsets when differentiated in vitro...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351859/structural-and-immunological-characterization-of-hydroxyl-radical-modified-human-igg-clinical-correlation-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
Sidra Islam, Abdul Rouf Mir, Mir Yasir Arfat, Farzana Khan, Masihuz Zaman, Asif Ali, Moinuddin
Structural alterations in proteins under oxidative stress have been widely implicated in the immuno-pathology of various disorders. This study has evaluated the extent of damage in the conformational characteristics of IgG by hydroxyl radical (OH) and studied its implications in the immuno-pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Using various biophysical and biochemical techniques, changes in aromatic microenvironment of the IgG and the protein aggregation became evident after treatment with OH. The SDS-PAGE study confirmed the protein aggregation while far ultraviolet circular dichroism spectroscopy (Far-UV CD) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) inferred towards the alterations in secondary structure of IgG under OH stress...
January 10, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350327/hypermutated-tumors-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibition
#3
Kristen K Ciombor, Richard M Goldberg
Microsatellite instability-high/DNA mismatch repair deficient tumors are found across the cancer spectrum and often harbor markedly increased numbers of mutations when compared to microsatellite stable/DNA mismatch repair proficient tumors. As a result of this high mutational load, tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte density is increased and more immunogenic neoepitopes are expressed, leading to upregulation of immune checkpoints in these tumors. Checkpoint inhibitors such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab, both immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) monoclonal antibodies that block interactions between the programmed cell death receptor-1 and its ligands, have significant activity in this tumor class...
January 19, 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348318/response-optimizing-strategies-for-immune-checkpoint-imaging-with-immuno-pet-in-preclinical-study
#4
Aaron T Mayer, Sanjiv S Gambhir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348088/prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-and-its-risk-factors-in-blood-donors-in-district-peshawar
#5
Noor Rehman, M Bilal Orakzai, Azam Hayat, Sadiq Azam, Bashir Ahmad, Ibrar Khan, Zermina Zeb
The current study was designed in order to elucidate the most sensitive method for daily practice as well as to evaluate the risk factors for HCV infection associated with blood transfusion in District Peshawar. A total of 1400 healthy volunteer blood donors were tested for Anti-HCV. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the risk factors. Initial testing of all blood samples was done by Immuno Chromatographic Technique (ICT) and confirmed by micro particle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346349/early-treatment-of-siv-macaques-with-an-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-7-mab-alters-virus-distribution-and-preserves-cd4-t-cells-in-later-stages-of-infection
#6
P J Santangelo, C Cicala, S N Byrareddy, K T Ortiz, D Little, K E Lindsay, S Gumber, J J Hong, K Jelicic, K A Rogers, C Zurla, F Villinger, A A Ansari, A S Fauci, J Arthos
Integrin α4β7 mediates the trafficking of leukocytes, including CD4+ T cells, to lymphoid tissues in the gut. Virus mediated damage to the gut is implicated in HIV and SIV mediated chronic immune activation and leads to irreversible damage to the immune system. We employed an immuno-PET/CT imaging technique to evaluate the impact of an anti-integrin α4β7 mAb alone or in combination with ART, on the distribution of both SIV infected cells and CD4+ cells in rhesus macaques infected with SIV. We determined that α4β7 mAb reduced viral antigen in an array of tissues of the lung, spleen, axillary, and inguinal lymph nodes...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346076/ultrasensitive-electrochemical-immuno-sensing-platform-based-on-gold-nanoparticles-triggering-chlorpyrifos-detection-in-fruits-and-vegetables
#7
Anita Talan, Annu Mishra, Sergei A Eremin, Jagriti Narang, Ashok Kumar, Sonu Gandhi
Chlorpyrifos (chl) is an organophosphate pesticide extensively used in agriculture and highly toxic for human health. Fluorine doped tin-oxide (FTO) based electrochemical nanosensor was developed for chlorpyrifos detection with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and anti-chlorpyrifos antibodies (chl-Ab). AuNPs provides high electrical conductivity and specific resistivity, thus increases the sensitivity of immunoassay. High electrical conductivity of AuNPs reveals that it promotes the redox reaction for better cyclic voltammetry...
January 9, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346037/development-of-an-ultrasensitive-pcr-assay-for-polycyclic-musk-determination-in-fish
#8
Xiaohan Zhang, Huisheng Zhuang
Polycyclic musks (PCMs) in the aquatic environment and organisms have become an emerging environmental issue because of their potential risk. The most used method for polycyclic musk determination is gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with different sample extractions, which are somewhat expensive to operate, complex and laborious. In this study, a novel and ultrasensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with multiple signal amplification of carboxylic-DNA by gold nanoparticle-polyamidoamine conjugation (Au-PAMAM) was developed for determining polycyclic musks in fish...
January 18, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345757/whole-genome-sequencing-analysis-for-cancer-genomics-and-precision-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Hidewaki Nakagawa, Masashi Fujita
Explosive advances of next-generation sequencer (NGS) and computational analyses have been exploring somatic protein-altered mutations in most cancer types and these coding mutation data are intensively accumulated. However, there is limited information on somatic mutations in non-coding regions including introns, regulatory elements, and non-coding RNAs, structural variants and pathogen in cancer genomes remain widely unexplored. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) approaches can comprehensively explore all types of genomic alterations in cancer and help us to better understand the whole landscape of driver mutations and mutational signature in cancer genomes and elucidate functional or clinical implications of these unexplored genomic regions and mutational signature...
January 18, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344867/immuno-laser-capture-microdissection-for-the-isolation-of-enriched-glial-populations-from-frozen-post-mortem-human-brain
#10
Julie E Simpson, Stephen B Wharton, Paul R Heath
Laser-capture microdissection (LCM) has revolutionized the isolation of defined regions and specific cell populations from human tissue. This approach used in combination with immunohistochemistry (immuno-LCM) has become a valuable method for isolating individual cell-types from a complex heterogeneous population. Here, we describe the detailed methodology required for the isolation of enriched populations of GFAP+ astrocytes, OSP+ oligodendrocytes, and CD68+ microglia from frozen post-mortem human central nervous system tissue using immuno-LCM...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344866/immuno-guided-laser-capture-microdissection-of-glial-cells-for-mrna-analysis
#11
Arnaud B Nicot, Justine Rambeau, Flora Guillot, Alexandra Garcia, David A Laplaud
Laser-capture microdissection (LCM) allows for retrieval of specific cell populations in situ. By combining immunofluorescent labeling with LCM, mRNAs can be probed by qRT-PCR for determining in situ gene expression during health and disease. This approach permits obtaining and analyzing histologically enriched cell populations in a tissue that can be hardly obtained from other methods such as white matter astrocytes from rodents or any individual cell population from archival human or rodent brain tissues...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343878/cxcl14-like-immunoreactivity-exists-in-somatostatin-containing-endocrine-cells-and-in-the-lamina-propria-and-submucosal-somatostatinergic-nervous-system-of-mouse-alimentary-tract
#12
Hirohumi Suzuki, Kentaro Yamada, Yasuhiro Matsuda, Minoru Onozuka, Toshiharu Yamamoto
In the present study, we investigated the distribution of CXCL14 immunoreactive endocrine cells and neurons in mouse alimentary tract by immunohistochemistry. CXCL14 immunoreactive endocrine cells were found as closed-type cells in the stomach and open-type cells in the small intestine. The immunostaining of these endocrine cells corresponded with that of the somatostatin-containing endocrine cells. Only a few CXCL14 immunoreactive endocrine cells were seen in the large intestine. CXCL14 immunoreactive fibers were observed in the muscular layer from the stomach to the rectum with most abundance in the rectum...
December 26, 2017: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340960/higher-levels-of-progranulin-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-lymphoma-and-carcinoma-with-cns-metastasis
#13
Akio Kimura, Masao Takemura, Ginette Serrero, Nobuaki Yoshikura, Yuichi Hayashi, Kuniaki Saito, Takashi Inuzuka
Assessing central nervous system (CNS) involvement in patients with lymphoma or carcinoma is important in determining therapy and prognosis. Progranulin (PGRN) is a secreted glycosylated protein with roles in cancer growth and survival; it is highly expressed in aggressive cancer cell lines and specimens from many cancer types. We examined PRGN levels by Enzyme Immuno-Assay (EIA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 230 patients, including 18 with lymphoma [12 with CNS metastasis (CNS+); 6 without CNS metastasis (CNS-)], 21 with carcinomas (10 CNS+; 11 CNS-), and 191 control patients with non-cancer neurological diseases, and compared PRGN levels among these disease groups...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339252/structure-based-design-of-human-immuno-and-constitutive-proteasomes-inhibitors
#14
Nicolas Richy, Daad Sarraf, Xavier Maréchal, Naëla Janmamode, Rémy Le Guével, Emilie Genin, Michèle Reboud-Ravaux, Joëlle Vidal
Starting from the X-ray structure of our previous tripeptidic linear mimics of TMC-95A in complex with yeast 20S proteasome, we introduced new structural features to induce a differential inhibition between human constitutive and immunoproteasome 20S particles. Libraries of 24 tripeptidic and 6 dipeptidic derivatives were synthesized. The optimized preparation of 3-hydroxyoxindolyl alanine residues from tryptophan and their incorporation in peptides were described. Several potent inhibitors of human constitutive proteasome and immunoproteasome acting at the nanomolar level (IC50 = 7...
January 8, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339122/regnase-1-an-immuno-modulator-limits-the-il-36-il-36r-auto-stimulatory-loop-in-keratinocytes-to-suppress-skin-inflammation
#15
Mikiro Takaishi, Takashi Satoh, Shizuo Akira, Shigetoshi Sano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339060/quantification-of-a-recombinant-antigen-in-an-immuno-stimulatory-whole-yeast-cell-based-therapeutic-vaccine
#16
Jenny Wang, Daniel Stenzel, Ally Liu, Dengfeng Liu, Darren Brown, Alexandre Ambrogelly
Therapeutic vaccines represent an emerging class of immune-modulatory treatments for cancer, infections, and chronic diseases. One such vaccine was designed as an immune stimulator of the T cell response against HBV antigens to eliminate HBV infected cells and offer a therapeutic avenue to treat patients suffering from chronic hepatitis B infection. Whole deactivated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells expressing a recombinant fusion of HBV X, S and Core antigens elicit T cell responses in mice and activate human T cells linked with viral clearance...
January 12, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339019/immuno-modulatory-functions-of-the-type-3-secretion-system-and-impacts-on-the-pulmonary-host-defense-a-role-for-exos-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-cystic-fibrosis
#17
REVIEW
Nawal Belmadi, Yongzheng Wu, Lhousseine Touqui
Number of previous reviews had described the structures and the various functions of the exotoxins produced by the type-3 secretion system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their roles in the interactions of this bacterium with host cells. In this review, we summarize some relevant data of literature on ExoS, an exotoxin from the type-3 secretion system of P. aeruginosa, with a particular focus on the role of this toxin in the airways innate response of the host to infection by this bacterium, and its implication in the elimination of Staphylococcus aureus from the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis...
January 12, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338786/a-systematic-review-of-transfusion-transmitted-malaria-in-non-endemic-areas
#18
Federica Verra, Andrea Angheben, Elisa Martello, Giovanni Giorli, Francesca Perandin, Zeno Bisoffi
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM) is an accidental Plasmodium infection caused by whole blood or a blood component transfusion from a malaria infected donor to a recipient. Infected blood transfusions directly release malaria parasites in the recipient's bloodstream triggering the development of high risk complications, and potentially leading to a fatal outcome especially in individuals with no previous exposure to malaria or in immuno-compromised patients. A systematic review was conducted on TTM case reports in non-endemic areas to describe the epidemiological characteristics of blood donors and recipients...
January 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338763/sero-prevalence-of-hbsag-in-naive-hiv-infected-patients-in-a-rural-locality-of-cameroon
#19
Jean-Patrick Molu, Marie Chantal Ngonde Essome, Chavely Gwladys Monamele, Richard Njouom
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed in order to fill the gap of knowledge regarding sero-epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) amongst Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and to assess the risk factors associated with HBV co-infection in a rural locality of Cameroon. A retrospective and cross-sectional study was carried out from January 2008 to April 2014 within the Mfou District Hospital. Naive HIV-infected patients were enrolled in the study and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)...
January 16, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338607/immunotherapies-in-transplantation-and-cancer-22nd-nat-meeting-2nd-nat-labex-igo-joint-meeting-1-2-june-2017-nantes-france
#20
Sylvain Simon, Maud Charpentier, Ignacio Anegon, Nathalie Labarriere
This 22nd edition of the Nantes Actualités Transplantation annual meeting was co-organized for the second time with the LabEx Immuno-Graft Oncology network. This international meeting was held on 1 and 2 June 2017 in Nantes (western France). The topic of this 2-day meeting was 'Immunotherapies in transplantation and cancer'. This meeting brought together 17 international invited speakers, young researchers and 220 attendees mainly from Europe and North America. It was a unique opportunity to bring together the pioneers and leading immunologists in the fields of transplantation and cancer, focusing on shared mechanisms that control immune responses in organ or bone marrow transplantation and in cancer...
September 2017: Immunotherapy
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