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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440832/nanoemitters-and-innate-immunity-the-role-of-surfactants-and-bio-coronas-in-myeloperoxidase-catalyzed-oxidation-of-pristine-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes
#1
Cheuk Fai Chiu, Haider H Dar, Alexandr A Kapralov, Renã A S Robinson, Valerian E Kagan, Alexander Star
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are experimentally utilized in in vivo imaging and photothermal cancer therapy owing to their unique physicochemical and electronic properties. For these applications, pristine carbon nanotubes are often modified by polymer surfactant coatings to improve their biocompatibility, adding more complexity to their recognition and biodegradation by immuno-competent cells. Here, we investigate the oxidative degradation of SWCNTs catalyzed by neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) using bandgap near-infrared (NIR) photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy...
April 25, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440484/expression-of-programmed-cell-death1-in-t-follicular-helper-cells-is-regulated-by-prostaglandin-e2-secreted-by-hbv-infected-hepg2-2-1-5-cells
#2
Zhefeng Sui, Ying Shi, Zhiling Gao, Deguang Yang, Zhihao Wang
The present study aimed to investigate the distribution of T follicular helper (Tfh)-cell subsets in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and determine the underlying mechanism of HBV regulation of Tfh cells. The frequency of peripheral blood Tfh subsets was analyzed using flow cytometry. The expression level of programmed cell death‑1 (PD‑1) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was quantified using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The PGE2 level in culture supernatant was detected using enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438776/the-immunoproteasome-is-induced-by-cytokines-and-regulates-apoptosis-in-human-islets
#3
Morten Lundh, Marco Bugliani, Tina Dahlby, Danny Hung-Chieh Chou, Bridget Wagner, Seyed Mojtaba Ghiasi, Vincenzo De Tata, Zhifei Chen, Marianne Nissen Lund, Michael J Davies, Piero Marchetti, Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen
In addition to degrading misfolded and damaged proteins, the proteasome regulates the fate of cells in response to stress. The role of the proteasome in pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced human beta-cell apoptosis is unknown. INS-1, INS-1E and human islets were exposed to combinations of IFNγ, IL-1β and TNFα with or without addition of small molecules. Gene expression was assessed by microarray or quantitative PCR. Proteasome activities were analyzed using luminescent assays. Protein oxidation, Western blotting and electron microscopy were used to examine mechanisms underlying cytokine-induced apoptosis...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438170/immunolocalization-of-steroidogenic-enzymes-in-the-vaginal-mucous-of-galea-spixii-during-the-estrous-cycle
#4
Amilton Cesar Dos Santos, Alan James Conley, Moacir Franco de Oliveira, Gleidson Benevides Oliveira, Diego Carvalho Viana, Antônio Chaves de Assis Neto
BACKGROUND: The synthesis of sex steroids is controlled by several enzymes such as17α-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (P450c17) catalyzing androgen synthesis and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) catalyzing estrogen synthesis, both of which must complex with the redox partner NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR) for activity. Previous studies have identified expression of steroidogenic enzymes in vaginal tissue, suggesting local sex steroid synthesis. The current studies investigate P450c17, P450aromatase and CPR expression in vaginal mucosa of Galea spixii (Spix cavy) by immuno-histochemical and western immunoblot analyses...
April 24, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438159/prevalence-of-plasmodium-falciparum-and-non-p-falciparum-infections-in-a-highland-district-in-ghana-and-the-influence-of-hiv-and-sickle-cell-disease
#5
Ewurama D A Owusu, Charles A Brown, Martin P Grobusch, Petra Mens
BACKGROUND: In the past two decades, there has been a reported decline in malaria in Ghana and the rest of the world; yet it remains the number one cause of mortality and morbidity. Human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) and sickle cell disease (SCD) share a common geographical space with malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and an interaction between these three conditions has been suggested. This study determined the Plasmodium falciparum and non-P. falciparum status of symptomatic and non-symptomatic residents of Mpraeso in the highlands of Kwahu-South district of Ghana based on evidence of current national decline...
April 24, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438082/radioimmunoconjugates-for-treating-cancer-recent-advances-and-current-opportunities
#6
Mickaël Bourgeois, Clément Bailly, Mathieu Frindel, François Guerard, Michel Chérel, Alain Faivre-Chauvet, Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré, Caroline Bodet-Milin
Radioimmunoconjugates have been used for 30 years to diagnose and treat cancer. For many years, the use of these therapeutic tools has been limited to haematological disorders, such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, given that they have only had a moderate effect on solid tumours. Areas covered: Recently, several strategies have revived the potential therapeutic application for radioimmunoconjugates. In this review, the authors review the advances in immunological engineering to develop new tools like monoclonal antibodies and their derivatives...
April 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437435/infective-respiratory-syncytial-virus-is-present-in-human-cord-blood-samples-and-most-prevalent-during-winter-months
#7
Angela Mary Fonceca, Abha Chopra, Avram Levy, Paul Stanton Noakes, Matthew Wee-Peng Poh, Natasha Leanne Bear, Susan Prescott, Mark Lloyd Everard
BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract disease amongst infants, and continues to cause annual epidemics of respiratory disease every winter worldwide. Demonstrating placental transmission of viable RSV in human samples is a major paradigm shift in respiratory routes considered likely for RSV transmission. METHODS: Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was used to identify RSV present in cord blood mononucleocytes (CBM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437396/immunology-mind-the-immuno-connection-gap
#8
Wolfgang Link
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437285/monitoring-protein-unbound-valproic-acid-serum-concentrations-in-clinical-practice
#9
Eveline Wallenburg, Bas Klok, Karin de Jong, Monique de Maat, Nielka van Erp, Sonja Stalpers-Konijnenburg, Guus Essink, Matthijs van Luin
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is an effective anti-epileptic drug and mood stabilizer. A key characteristic of VPA is its high and saturable protein binding at higher concentrations. While the unbound concentration of VPA is responsible for its pharmacological activity, total drug concentrations are monitored in routine clinical practice. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of unbound VPA is recommended for specific clinical situations. The goal of this study was to evaluate TDM requests for unbound VPA in clinical practice...
April 6, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437187/synergy-between-choroid-plexus-epithelial-cells-conditioned-medium-and-knockout-serum-replacement-converts-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-to-dopamine-secreting-neurons
#10
Mahdi Eskandarian Boroujeni, Mossa Gardaneh, Mehrnoosh Hasan Shahriari, Abbas Aliaghaei, Sanaz Hasani
Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) have great capacity to differentiate into mesodermal origins as well as non-mesodermal lineages including neural cells. This valuable feature paves the way for the therapeutic application of hADSCs for neurodegenerative maladies such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We tested the capacity of Choroid Plexus epithelial cells-conditioned medium (CPEC-CM) alone or cocktailed with knock-out serum (KS) to induce dopaminergic differentiation of hADSCs. To this end, hADSCs from lipoaspirate were phenotypically characterized and shown to maintain mesodermal multipotency so selected media easily differentiated them into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes...
March 2, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435443/occurrence-of-plastidial-triacylglycerol-synthesis-and-the-potential-regulatory-role-of-agpat-in-the-model-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#11
Srinivasan Balamurugan, Xiang Wang, Hong-Lei Wang, Chun-Jing An, Hui Li, Da-Wei Li, Wei-Dong Yang, Jie-Sheng Liu, Hong-Ye Li
BACKGROUND: Microalgae have emerged as a potential feedstock for biofuels and bioactive components. However, lack of microalgal strains with promising triacylglycerol (TAG) content and desirable fatty acid composition have hindered its commercial feasibility. Attempts on lipid overproduction by metabolic engineering remain largely challenging in microalgae. RESULTS: In this study, a microalgal 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase designated AGPAT1 was identified in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435428/in-silico-cd4-cd8-t-cell-and-b-cell-immunity-associated-immunogenic-epitope-prediction-and-hla-distribution-analysis-of-zika-virus
#12
Essam Mohammed Janahi, Anupam Dhasmana, Vandana Srivastava, Aditya Narayan Sarangi, Sana Raza, Jamal M Arif, Madan Lal Bramha Bhatt, Mohtashim Lohani, Mohammed Yahya Areeshi, Anand Murari Saxena, Shafiul Haque
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus distributed all over Africa, South America and Asia. The infection with the virus may cause acute febrile sickness that clinically resembles dengue fever, yet there is no vaccine, no satisfactory treatment, and no means of evaluating the risk of the disease or prognosis in the infected people. In the present study, the efficacy of the host's immune response in reducing the risk of infectious diseases was taken into account to carry out immuno-informatics driven epitope screening strategy of vaccine candidates against ZIKV...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434937/defining-a-research-agenda-to-address-the-converging-epidemics-of-tuberculosis-and-diabetes-part-2-underlying-biological-mechanisms
#13
REVIEW
Katharina Ronacher, Reinout van Crevel, Julia Critchley, Andrew A Bremer, Larry S Schlesinger, Anil Kapur, Randall Basaraba, Hardy Kornfeld, Blanca I Restrepo
There is growing interest in the re-emerging interaction between type 2 diabetes (DM) and tuberculosis (TB), but the underlying biological mechanisms are poorly understood despite their possible implications in clinical management. Experts in epidemiological, public health, basic science and clinical studies recently convened and identified research priorities for elucidating the underlying mechanisms for the co-ocurrence of TB and DM. We identified gaps in current knowlege of altered immunity in DM patients during TB, where most studies suggest an under-performing innate immunity, but exaggerated adaptive immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
April 19, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433170/structural-characterization-and-immuno-enhancing-activity-of-a-highly-branched-water-soluble-%C3%AE-glucan-from-the-spores-of-ganoderma-lucidum
#14
Yatao Wang, Yanfang Liu, Huazheng Yu, Shuai Zhou, Zhong Zhang, Di Wu, Mengqiu Yan, Qingjiu Tang, Jingsong Zhang
A water soluble β-glucan (GLSWA-I) with a weight average molecular weight ∼1.57×10(5)g/mol, isolated from the aqueous extract of the broken cellular wall Ganoderma lucidum spores, was purified by anion-exchange and gel-permeation chromatography. The immunological activity test in vivo showed that GLSWA-I could significantly promote dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) induced delayed-type ear swelling in mice. Based on the monosaccharides composition analysis, methylation analysis, IR, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, the repeating unit of polysaccharide GLSWA-I was elucidated as follows...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432037/investigating-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-6-integrin-receptor-targeting-liposomal-alendronate-for-combinatory-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-immunotherapy
#15
Naomi O Hodgins, Wafa' T Al-Jamal, Julie T-W Wang, Rebecca Klippstein, Jane K Sosabowski, John F Marshall, John Maher, Khuloud T Al-Jamal
The αvβ6 integrin receptor has been shown to be overexpressed on many types of cancer cells, resulting in a more pro-invasive and aggressive phenotype, this makes it an attractive target for selective drug delivery. In tumours that over-express the αvβ6 receptor, cellular uptake of liposomes can be enhanced using ligand-targeted liposomes. It has previously been shown in both in vitro and in vivo studies that liposomal alendronate (L-ALD) can sensitise cancer cells to destruction by Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. It is hypothesised that by using the αvβ6-specific peptide A20FMDV2 as a targeting moiety for L-ALD, the therapeutic efficacy of this therapy can be increased in αvβ6 positive tumours...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431763/immune-response-of-the-short-neck-clam-paphia-malabarica-to-salinity-stress-using-flow-cytometry
#16
Deodatta S Gajbhiye, Lidita Khandeparker
Paphia malabarica is a predominant and commercially important bivalve in India, persistently challenged by wavering salinity in a monsoon-influenced estuary. To examine the organism's immunological response under such a condition we challenged P. malabarica with different salinities (0, 5, 15, 25 and 35) for varied periods using a two-way experimental approach (in vitro and in vivo). This is the first study to report the response of P. malabarica hemocytes to salinity stress from a monsoon-influenced estuary on the southwest coast of India...
April 11, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429246/comparison-of-efficacy-and-safety-of-caspofungin-versus-micafungin-in-pediatric-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-a-retrospective-analysis
#17
Natalia Maximova, Giulia Schillani, Roberto Simeone, Alessandra Maestro, Davide Zanon
INTRODUCTION: The high morbidity and mortality associated with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) provide the rationale for antifungal prophylaxis in immuno-compromised pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Caspofungin and micafungin are antifungal agents of interest for prophylaxis of IFIs because of their potency against Candida and minimal toxicity or interactions with other drugs. Few studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of such echinocandins as prophylaxis for IFIs in patients undergoing HSCT...
April 20, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428947/update-on-programmed-death-1-and-programmed-death-ligand-1-inhibition-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-or-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Marco A J Iafolla, Rosalyn A Juergens
PURPOSE: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has a large worldwide prevalence with a high mortality rate. Chemotherapy has offered modest improvements in survival over the past two decades. Immune checkpoint modulation with programmed death-1 (PD-1) or programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibition has shown the promise of changing the future landscape of cancer therapy. This update reviews recent advances in the treatment of NSCLC with immune checkpoint modulation. METHODS: Publications and proceedings were identified from searching PubMed and proceedings from the annual meetings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, European Society for Medical Oncology, and European Lung Cancer Conference...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428694/a-microarray-immunoassay-for-serum-thyrotropin-and-thyroglobulin-using-antibodies-immobilized-on-track-etched-membranes
#19
Bharti Jain, J Kumarasamy, Chandrakala Gholve, Savita Kulkarni, M G R Rajan
Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) measurements have evolved as important analytes for monitoring the prognosis of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, post-thyroidectomy. Individual analyte immunoassay is the current practice in clinical pathology, but the simultaneous assay for all relevant analytes for a given disease, can reduce assay costs, improve patient compliance and give the clinician more information for an unequivocal diagnosis. Microarray immunoassay (MI) can achieve this goal and, hence, we have developed and validated a immuno-radiometric MI for quantitation of serum TSH and Tg by using highly micro-porous polycarbonate (PC) track-etched membranes (TEM) to immobilize the monoclonal anti-TSH and polyclonal anti-Tg antibodies in ~1 mm diameter spots...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428678/productive-cough-in-children-and-adolescents-view-from-primary-health-care-system
#20
REVIEW
Edin Begic, Zijo Begic, Amra Dobraca, Edo Hasanbegovic
Cough is one of the most common symptoms that doctor faces in working with pediatric population, and according to some characteristics of cough, doctors can often conclude localization, and sometimes even the nature of the disease that causes it. Cough is not only the physiological defense reaction, but a symptom of a disease. According to duration it can be acute, chronic and recidivist, recurrent and persistent, strong or discreet, caused by changes in body position and changes in outside temperature. Pathoanatomically it is divided into lobar, lobular, alveolar and interstitial, pathogenetically to bronchogenic and hematogenous, as well as in immuno competent and immunocompromised, and clinically on the local and inpatient (72 hours after hospital admission)...
February 2017: Medical Archives
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