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Carolyn P Neuhaus
New techniques for the genetic modification of organisms are creating new strategies for addressing persistent public health challenges. For example, the company Oxitec has conducted field trials internationally-and has attempted to conduct field trials in the United States-of a genetically modified mosquito that can be used to control dengue, Zika, and some other mosquito-borne diseases. In 2016, a report commissioned by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine discussed the potential benefits and risks of another strategy, using gene drives...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
Prashanth Sunkureddi, Dawn Gibson, Stephen Doogan, John Heid, Samir Benosman, Yujin Park
INTRODUCTION: Online communities contain a wealth of information containing unsolicited patient experiences that may go beyond what is captured by guided surveys or patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments used in clinical settings. This study described patient experiences reported online to better understand the day-to-day disease burden of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHODS: Unguided, English-language patient narratives reported between January 2010 and May 2016 were collected from 52 online sources (e...
February 15, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Prashanth Sunkureddi, Stephen Doogan, John Heid, Samir Benosman, Alexis Ogdie, Layne Martin, Jacqueline B Palmer
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the types of experiences and treatment access challenges of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) using self-reported online narratives. METHODS: English-language patient narratives reported between January 2010 and May 2016 were collected from 31 online sources (general health social networking sites, disease-focused patient forums, treatment reviews, general health forums, mainstream social media sites) for analysis of functional impairment and 40 online sources for assessment of barriers to treatment...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Charles Livingstone
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Gambling research is characterised by widespread gambling industry involvement. It is likely (as with alcohol and tobacco industry influence) that this will delay or divert effective harm prevention or minimisation measures. Gambling harms are known to be significant and widespread. Effective action to reduce these harms requires concomitant efforts to eliminate industry influence. DESIGN AND METHODS: Gambling industry influence and activity in three research forums is described...
February 14, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Bastian Schirmer, Klaudia Giehl, Katharina F Kubatzky
The annual "Joint Meeting Signal Transduction-Receptors, Mediators and Genes" of the Signal Transduction Society (STS) aims to be an interdisciplinary forum for researchers who share a common interest in deciphering signal transduction pathways in normal or transformed cells, in health and disease, in humans and animal models, or in plants or bacteria. The special focus of the 21st annual Joint Meeting, which took place from 8-10 November 2017 in Weimar, was the topic "Metabolism in Health and Disease" and covered multiple aspects of this highly exciting and fast developing research field...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Dedee F Murrell, Sandra Peña, Pascal Joly, Branka Marinovic, Takashi Hashimoto, Luis A Diaz, Animesh A Sinha, Aimee S Payne, Maryam Daneshpazhooh, Rüdiger Eming, Marcel F Jonkman, Daniel Mimouni, Luca Borradori, Soo-Chan Kim, Jun Yamagami, Julia S Lehman, Marwah Adly Saleh, Donna A Culton, Annette Czernik, John J Zone, David Fivenson, Hideyuki Ujiie, Katarzyna Wozniak, Ayşe Akman-Karakaş, Philippe Bernard, Neil J Korman, Frédéric Caux, Kossara Drenovska, Catherine Prost-Squarcioni, Snejina Vassileva, Ron J Feldman, Adela Rambi Cardones, Johann Bauer, Dimitrios Ioannides, Hana Jedlickova, Francis Palisson, Aikaterini Patsatsi, Soner Uzun, Savas Yayli, Detlef Zillikens, Masayuki Amagai, Michael Hertl, Enno Schmidt, Valeria Aoki, Sergei A Grando, Hiroshi Shimizu, Sharon Baum, Guiseppe Cianchini, Claudio Feliciani, Pilar Iranzo, Jose M Mascaró, Cezary Kowalewski, Russell Hall, Richard Groves, Karen E Harman, M Peter Marinkovich, Emanual Maverakis, Victoria P Werth
BACKGROUND: Several European countries recently developed international diagnostic and management guidelines for pemphigus, which have been instrumental in the standardization of pemphigus management, OBJECTIVE: We now present results from a subsequent Delphi consensus to broaden the generalizability of recommendations. METHODS: A preliminary survey, based on the European Dermatology Forum (EDF) and the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EADV) guidelines, was sent to a panel of international experts to determine the level of consensus...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Kenneth R Chapman, Joanna Chorostowska-Wynimko, A Rembert Koczulla, Ilaria Ferrarotti, Noel G McElvaney
Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency is a hereditary condition characterized by low alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor (also known as alpha 1 antitrypsin [AAT]) serum levels. Reduced levels of AAT allow abnormal degradation of lung tissue, which may ultimately lead to the development of early-onset emphysema. Intravenous infusion of AAT is the only therapeutic option that can be used to maintain levels above the protective threshold. Based on its biochemical efficacy, AAT replacement therapy was approved by the US Food and Drug administration in 1987...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Christoph F Dietrich, Michalakis Averkiou, Michael Bachmann Nielsen, Richard G Barr, Peter N Burns, Fabrizio Calliada, Vito Cantisani, Byung Choi, Maria C Chammas, Dirk-André Clevert, Michel Claudon, Jean-Michel Correas, Xin-Wu Cui, David Cosgrove, Mirko D'Onofrio, Yi Dong, JohnR Eisenbrey, Teresa Fontanilla, Odd Helge Gilja, Andre Ignee, Christian Jenssen, Yuko Kono, Masatoshi Kudo, Nathalie Lassau, Andrej Lyshchik, Maria Franca Meloni, Fuminori Moriyasu, Christian Nolsøe, Fabio Piscaglia, Maija Radzina, Adrian Saftoiu, Paul S Sidhu, Ioan Sporea, Dagmar Schreiber-Dietrich, Claude B Sirlin, Maria Stanczak, Hans-Peter Weskott, Stephanie R Wilson, Juergen Karl Willmann, Tae Kyoung Kim, Hyun-Jung Jang, Alexandar Vezeridis, Sue Westerway
"How to perform contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)" provides general advice on the use of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) for clinical decision-making and reviews technical parameters for optimal CEUS performance. CEUS techniques vary between centers, therefore, experts from EFSUMB, WFUMB and from the CEUS LI-RADS working group created a discussion forum to standardize the CEUS examination technique according to published evidence and best personal experience. The goal is to standardise the use and administration of UCAs to facilitate correct diagnoses and ultimately to improve the management and outcomes of patients...
January 2018: Ultrasound International Open
Hui Huang, Yiping Shen, Weihong Gu, Wei Wang, Yiming Wang, Ming Qi, Jun Shen, Zhengqing Qiu, Shihui Yu, Zaiwei Zhou, Baixue Chen, Lei Chen, Yundi Chen, Huanhuan Cui, Juan Du, Yong Gao, Yiran Guo, Chanjuan Hu, Liang Hu, Yi Huang, Peipei Li, Xiaorong Li, Xiurong Li, Yaping Liu, Jie Lu, Duan Ma, Yongyi Ma, Mei Peng, Fang Song, Hongye Sun, Liang Wang, Dawei Wang, Jingmin Wang, Ling Wang, Zhengyuan Wang, Zhinong Wang, Jihong Wu, Jing Wu, Jian Wu, Yimin Xu, Hong Yao, Dongsheng Yang, Xu Yang, Yanling Yang, Ying Zhang, Yulin Zhou, Baosheng Zhu, Sicong Zeng, Zhiyu Peng, Shangzhi Huang
The widespread application of next generation sequencing (NGS) in clinical settings has enabled testing, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of genetic diseases. However, many issues have arisen in the meanwhile. One of the most pressing issues is the lack of standards for reporting genetic test results across different service providers. The First Forum on Standards and Specifications for Clinical Genetic Testing was held to address the issue in Shenzhen, China, on October 28, 2017. Participants, including geneticists, clinicians, and representatives of genetic testing service providers, discussed problems of clinical genetic testing services across in China and shared opinions on principles, challenges, and standards for reporting clinical genetic test results...
February 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
(no author information available yet)
Every veterinary professional dedicates their career to ensuring the health and welfare of animals committed to their care. But what does this mean for the modern vet? This question, explains Erika Singh, Animal Welfare Foundation (AWF) Manager, will be explored at this year's AWF Discussion Forum.
February 3, 2018: Veterinary Record
Shaina J Sowles, Monique McLeary, Allison Optican, Elizabeth Cahn, Melissa J Krauss, Ellen E Fitzsimmons-Craft, Denise E Wilfley, Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg
Pro-eating disorder communities provide a refuge for individuals with eating disorders (EDs) who are ambivalent about seeking treatment. We investigated a pro-ED community on Reddit, an anonymous social networking platform with topical forums, to identify expression of behaviors aligned with ED symptoms and support for these behaviors. A content analysis on four weeks of topic-specific discussion threads (N = 125 comments, 115 replies to comments) was conducted to identify behaviors consistent with ED psychopathology and support for these behaviors (informational, tangible assistance, esteem/emotional support)...
January 27, 2018: Body Image
Mohammed Saqr, Uno Fors, Matti Tedre
BACKGROUND: Collaborative learning facilitates reflection, diversifies understanding and stimulates skills of critical and higher-order thinking. Although the benefits of collaborative learning have long been recognized, it is still rarely studied by social network analysis (SNA) in medical education, and the relationship of parameters that can be obtained via SNA with students' performance remains largely unknown. The aim of this work was to assess the potential of SNA for studying online collaborative clinical case discussions in a medical course and to find out which activities correlate with better performance and help predict final grade or explain variance in performance...
February 6, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Ralf Forsbach, Hans-Georg Hofer
Although times were difficult in 1947/48 - with war damage, travel restrictions and the East-West conflict - the German Society for Internal Medicine not only managed to re-organise itself but also hosted its first scientific congress in that year. The DGIM members Franz Volhard and Paul Martini, who rather disapproved of the Nazi regime, played a decisive role in this process. However, a critical discussion of the NS medical crimes, which occurred just a few years ago, remained the exception. It is interesting to note that members who were persecuted by the NS regime were nevertheless willing to attend a congress that obviously provided a forum for the protagonists of the Nazi era...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Nicolas Vodovar, Alexandre Mebazaa, James L Januzzi, Gillian Murtagh, Wendy Gattis Stough, Kirkwood F Adams, Faiez Zannad
Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are recommended by international guidelines to exclude non-heart failure causes of acute dyspnea and to assess prognosis. NPs are commonly used as an entry criterion for clinical trials, to minimize enrollment of misdiagnosed patients, or to ensure enrollment of a sufficiently at-risk population. NP values used to select trial populations to date have been inconsistent across studies. Future trials should consider using standardized thresholds for NP levels, with protocol-specified adaptations appropriate for the specific study and patient population to account for factors that can influence the NP level...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Yining Z Malloch, Laramie D Taylor
The present study investigated emotional self-disclosure (ESD) patterns and their effects in online support groups specific to different stages of breast cancer. Linguistic features of messages posted to an online breast cancer support group were analyzed. ESD was common, and was consistent across four stage forums. Emotional talk was linked to a variety of themes, but most prominently in the context of discussions about social connections rather than health or death. Linguistic style matching mediated the relationship between ESD in posts and reciprocal ESD in comments, suggesting a key role for mutual understanding and engagement between posters and commenters...
February 5, 2018: Health Communication
Malcolm K Smith, Michelle Taylor-Sands
The national ethical guidelines relevant to assisted reproductive technology (ART) have recently been reviewed by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). The review process paid particular attention to the issue of non-medical sex selection, although ultimately, the updated ethical guidelines maintain the pre-consultation position of a prohibition on non-medical sex selection. Whilst this recent review process provided a public forum for debate and discussion of this ethically contentious issue, the Victorian case of JS and LS v Patient Review Panel (Health and Privacy) [2011] VCAT 856 provides a rare instance where the prohibition on non-medical sex selection has been explored by a court or tribunal in Australia...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Katie E Nelson, Rebecca Wright, Martha Abshire, Patricia M Davidson
Death and dying remains a taboo topic in many social settings, and is underrepresented in health profession training. This report describes the use of the Death Café model as a forum for engaging students in discussion of death and dying with their peers and other health professionals. A Death Café is an opportunity for individuals to gather in an informal environment to exchange thoughts about issues associated with death, dying, loss, and illness. This report outlines the preparation, implementation, and evaluation of a Death Café event hosted at a nursing school as part of an academic health center...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Piero Olliaro, Florence Fouque, Axel Kroeger, Leigh Bowman, Raman Velayudhan, Ana Carolina Santelli, Diego Garcia, Ronald Skewes Ramm, Lokman H Sulaiman, Gustavo Sanchez Tejeda, Fabiàn Correa Morales, Ernesto Gozzer, César Basso Garrido, Luong Chan Quang, Gamaliel Gutierrez, Zaida E Yadon, Silvia Runge-Ranzinger
BACKGROUND: Research has been conducted on interventions to control dengue transmission and respond to outbreaks. A summary of the available evidence will help inform disease control policy decisions and research directions, both for dengue and, more broadly, for all Aedes-borne arboviral diseases. METHOD: A research-to-policy forum was convened by TDR, the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, with researchers and representatives from ministries of health, in order to review research findings and discuss their implications for policy and research...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Carole L White, Kristen J Overbaugh, Carolyn E Z Pickering, Bridgett Piernik-Yoder, Debbie James, Darpan I Patel, Frank Puga, Lark Ford, James Cleveland
Background: There are currently 15 million Americans who provide over 80% of the care required by their family members with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Yet care for caregivers continues to be fragmented and few evidence-based interventions have been translated into routine clinical care and therefore remain inaccessible to most family caregivers. To address this gap, the Caring for the Caregiver program is being developed at UT Health San Antonio, School of Nursing to improve support services and health outcomes for family caregivers...
2018: Research Involvement and Engagement
John E Coia, Ed J Kuijper
C. difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen, but is also increasingly recognised as an important diarrhoeal pathogen in the community, not always associated with antibiotics. The European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) Study Group for Clostridium difficile (ESGCD) is a group of clinicians and scientists from many European countries and further afield, who share a common interest in C. difficile. The aims of the Study Group are centred around raising the profile of CDI in humans and animals, fostering collaboration amongst centres in different European countries and providing a forum for discussing and disseminating information...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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