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Microvascular disease of the heart

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652749/sera-from-children-after-cardiopulmonary-bypass-reduces-permeability-of-capillary-endothelial-cell-barriers
#1
Richard W Pierce, Riad Abou Zahr, Sarah Kandil, E Vincent S Faustino, Jordan S Pober
OBJECTIVES: Children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass develop clinically impactful capillary leak of unclear etiology. A widely held hypothesis that exposure of circulating cells to the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit induces the release of inflammatory mediators that act to disrupt intercellular junctions of capillary endothelial cells inducing paracellular capillary leak either directly or through new gene expression. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary pediatric hospital...
April 12, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643251/pharmacological-characterization-of-iw-1973-a-novel-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-stimulator-with-extensive-tissue-distribution-anti-hypertensive-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-fibrotic-effects-in-preclinical-models-of-disease
#2
Jenny V Tobin, Daniel P Zimmer, Courtney Shea, Peter Germano, Sylvie G Bernier, Guang Liu, Kim Long, Joy Miyashiro, Sheila Ranganath, Sarah Jacobson, Kim Tang, G-Yoon Jamie Im, James Sheppeck, Joel D Moore, Kristine Sykes, James Wakefield, Renee Sarno, Ali R Banijamali, Albert T Profy, G Todd Milne, Mark G Currie, Jaime L Masferrer
Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), a key signal-transduction enzyme, increases the conversion of guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) upon binding of nitric oxide (NO). Endothelial dysfunction and/or reduced NO signaling have been implicated in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis and complications of diabetes, and have been associated with other disease states and aging. sGC stimulators are small-molecule drugs that bind sGC and enhance NO-mediated cGMP signaling. The pharmacological characterization of IW-1973, a novel clinical-stage sGC stimulator, is described...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622520/coronary-microcirculation-in-acute-myocardial-ischaemia-from-non-invasive-to-invasive-absolute-flow-assessment
#3
REVIEW
Julien Adjedj, Fabien Picard, Guillaume Durand-Viel, Anne Sigal-Cinqualbre, Doumit Daou, Benoit Diebold, Olivier Varenne
Although substantial progress has been made in recent decades in reducing mortality and performing optimal revascularization in patients with myocardial infarction, ischaemic heart disease, including acute coronary syndrome, remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide. One of the remaining challenges is to better detect, prevent and treat extended myocardial damage despite angiographically optimal revascularization. Several indices are available in clinical practice to evaluate myocardial damage, infarct size and potential myocardial recovery...
April 2, 2018: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598865/pet-assessment-of-epicardial-intimal-disease-and-microvascular-dysfunction-in-cardiac-allograft-vasculopathy
#4
Sharon Chih, Aun Yeong Chong, Fernanda Erthal, Robert A deKemp, Ross A Davies, Ellamae Stadnick, Derek Y So, Christopher Overgaard, George Wells, Lisa M Mielniczuk, Rob S B Beanlands
BACKGROUND: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a leading cause of graft failure and death after heart transplantation. Absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantification using rubidium 82 (Rb-82) positron emission tomography (PET) could enable evaluation of diagnostically challenging diffuse epicardial and microvascular disease in CAV. OBJECTIVES: The authors aimed to evaluate Rb-82 PET detection of CAV. METHODS: Consecutive transplant recipients undergoing coronary angiography were prospectively evaluated with PET, multivessel intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and intracoronary hemodynamics...
April 3, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589674/reperfusion-in-stemi-patients-still-a-role-for-cardioprotection
#5
Filippo Ottani, Ugo Limbruno, Roberto Latini, Leonardo Misuraca, Marcello Galvani
Ischemic heart disease remains a leading cause of death worldwide, responsible for an estimated 17.5 million deaths in 2012. Mortality from St-elevation myocardial infarction STEMI have decreased over the last 3 decades. However, despite the success of reperfusion therapy by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) or thrombolysis, STEMI is still of significant concern. A recent patient-level meta-analysis emphasized the pivotal importance of infarct size within 1 month after PPCI as a determinant of all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure at 1 year...
March 28, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571424/optimizing-risk-stratification-and-noninvasive-diagnosis-of-ischemic-heart-disease-in-women
#6
REVIEW
Habibat A Garuba, Fernanda Erthal, Ellamae Stadnick, Atif Alzahrani, Benjamin Chow, Robert deKemp, Rob S Beanlands
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is an important and previously underappreciated cause of significant morbidity and mortality in women. Key differences exist in the pathophysiology, sex-specific risk factors, and clinical presentation in women compared with men, which influence diagnostic accuracy and utility of pretest risk assessments and noninvasive testing. Women are disproportionately affected by ischemia from microvascular dysfunction as evidenced by having less obstructive coronary artery disease on angiography, contributing to the challenge in diagnosis and prognosis of IHD in women via conventional methods, which tend to emphasize detection of epicardial stenoses...
April 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569337/diabetes-cardiovascular-disorders-and-2-3-7-8-tcdd-body-burden-in-czech-patients-50-years-after-the-intoxication
#7
Tomas Pelcl, Jan Skrha, Martin Prazny, Stepanka Vlckova, Zdenka Fenclova, Tomas Navratil, Jan Malik, Pavel Diblik, Vit Zikan, Daniela Pelclova
The correlation between 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) intoxication and the parameters of metabolic impairment were examined in the last 8 male survivors out of 80 workers exposed to TCDD during the production of herbicides in a chemical factory in 1965-1967. Their median TCDD blood level was 112 (46-390) pg/g lipids and the median TCDD body deposit was 3.9 (0.8-11.7) μg. This puts these patients into the most severely intoxicated group of subjects, according to back-calculated levels of TCDD. The median TCDD blood level in 8 controls was 12 pg/g (<0...
March 22, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543037/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-among-chest-pain-patients-in-the-emergency-department
#8
Basmah Safdar, Gail D'Onofrio, James Dziura, Raymond R Russell, Caitlin Johnson, Albert J Sinusas
AIMS: Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is common in patients with non-obstructive coronary arteries but has not been described in low-risk symptomatic patients. We therefore assessed the prevalence and characteristics of CMD in low to moderate risk patients with chest pain in an emergency department. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used three-dimensional Rb82 cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography to diagnose coronary artery disease (known or new regional defect, any coronary calcification) and CMD (low coronary flow reserve without coronary artery disease) in chest pain patients after being ruled out for acute myocardial infarction...
March 1, 2018: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537350/association-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-with-microvascular-endothelial-dysfunction-and-subclinical-coronary-artery-disease-in-a-community-based-population
#9
Daniel Shpilsky, Sebhat Erqou, Sanjay R Patel, Kevin E Kip, Oluremi Ajala, Aryan Aiyer, Patrick J Strollo, Steven E Reis, Oladipupo Olafiranye
Studies have reported an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Proposed mechanisms include endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate the associations of OSA with endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD), and assess the impact of race on these associations. We used data from the Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation (Heart SCORE) study, a community-based prospective cohort with approximately equal representation of black and white participants...
March 1, 2018: Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534462/diabetes-mellitus-and-ischemic-heart-disease-the-role-of-ion-channels
#10
REVIEW
Paolo Severino, Andrea D'Amato, Lucrezia Netti, Mariateresa Pucci, Marialaura De Marchis, Raffaele Palmirotta, Maurizio Volterrani, Massimo Mancone, Francesco Fedele
Diabetes mellitus is one the strongest risk factors for cardiovascular disease and, in particular, for ischemic heart disease (IHD). The pathophysiology of myocardial ischemia in diabetic patients is complex and not fully understood: some diabetic patients have mainly coronary stenosis obstructing blood flow to the myocardium; others present with coronary microvascular disease with an absence of plaques in the epicardial vessels. Ion channels acting in the cross-talk between the myocardial energy state and coronary blood flow may play a role in the pathophysiology of IHD in diabetic patients...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523638/complement-c3-and-risk-of-diabetic-microvascular-disease-a-cohort-study-of-95202-individuals-from-the-general-population
#11
Katrine Laura Rasmussen, Børge Grønne Nordestgaard, Sune Fallgaard Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Whether the complement system is involved in the development of diabetic microvascular disease is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high concentrations of complement C3 are associated with increased risk of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy in individuals from the general population. METHODS: We studied 95202 individuals from the general population with baseline measurements of complement C3, genotyped for rs1065489, rs429608, and rs448260 determining concentrations of complement C3, and enrolled in the Copenhagen General Population Study from 2003 through 2013, following them until April 10, 2013...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523490/thrombotic-microangiopathy-in-a-very-young-infant-with-mitral-valvuloplasty
#12
Yuka Matsunaga, Masataka Ishimura, Hazumu Nagata, Kiyoshi Uike, Tadamune Kinjo, Masayuki Ochiai, Kenichiro Yamamura, Hidetoshi Takada, Yoshihisa Tanoue, Masaki Hayakawa, Masanori Matsumoto, Toshiro Hara, Shouichi Ohga
BACKGROUND: Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) are microvascular occlusive disorders characterized by systemic or intrarenal platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and red cell fragmentation. Post-operative TMA mostly occurs in adult patients with cardiovascular surgery, with the distinct pathophysiology from classical thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) although the exact pathophysiology remains unclear. CASE PRESENTATION: A one-month-old infant developed TMA after the initial surgery of double outlet right ventricle...
February 7, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505091/the-role-of-imaging-in-women-with-ischemic-heart-disease
#13
REVIEW
Niti R Aggarwal, Rachel M Bond, Jennifer H Mieres
Substantial advances and insights in medical technology and treatment strategies, and the focus on sex-specific research have contributed to a reduction in cardiovascular mortality in women. Despite these advances, ischemic heart disease (IHD) remains the leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of women in the Western world. Advances in cardiovascular imaging, over the past 4 decades, have significantly improved the evaluation and management of the full spectrum of coronary atherosclerosis, which contributes to ischemic heart disease...
March 5, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498752/why-names-matter-for-women-minoca-inoca-myocardial-infarction-ischemia-and-no-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease
#14
REVIEW
Christine Pacheco Claudio, Odayme Quesada, Carl J Pepine, C Noel Bairey Merz
The syndromes of myocardial infarction/myocardial ischemia with No Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease (MINOCA/INOCA) are increasingly evident. A majority of these patients have coronary microvascular dysfunction. These patients have elevated risk for a cardiovascular event (including acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, stroke, and repeated cardiovascular procedures) and appear to be at higher risk for development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Terminology such as coronary artery disease or coronary heart disease is often synonymous with obstructive atherosclerosis in the clinician's mind, leaving one at a loss to recognize or explain the phenomenon of MINOCA and INOCA with elevated risk...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490477/hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-a-vicious-cycle-triggered-by-sarcomere-mutations-and-secondary-disease-hits
#15
Paul Wijnker, Vasco Sequeira, Diederik Kuster, Jolanda van der Velden
SIGNIFICANCE: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cardiac genetic disease characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction and myocardial disarray. Disease onset occurs between 20 and 50 years of age, thus affecting patients in the prime of their life. HCM is caused by mutations in sarcomere proteins, the contractile building blocks of the heart. Despite increased knowledge of causal mutations, the exact path from genetic defect leading to cardiomyopathy is complex and involves additional disease hits...
February 28, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483841/prevalence-and-determinants-of-peripheral-microvascular-endothelial-dysfunction-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-a-multicenter-cross-sectional-study
#16
Gian Luca Erre, Matteo Piga, Anna Laura Fedele, Silvia Mura, Alessandra Piras, Maria Luisa Cadoni, Ignazio Cangemi, Martina Dessi, Gabriele Di Sante, Barbara Tolusso, Elisa Gremese, Alberto Cauli, Arduino Aleksander Mangoni, Pier Sergio Saba, Ciriaco Carru, Gianfranco Ferraccioli, Alessandro Mathieu, Giuseppe Passiu
Objectives: To define the prevalence and determinants of peripheral microvascular endothelial dysfunction (ED) in a large series of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients free of previous cardiovascular events. Materials and Methods: Data from 874 RA patients enrolled in the EDRA study (Endothelial Dysfunction Evaluation for Coronary Heart Disease Risk Estimation in Rheumatoid Arthritis-ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02341066) were analyzed. Log-transformed reactive hyperemia index (Ln-RHI) was evaluated by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) using the EndoPAT2000 device: values of Ln-RHI < 0...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479977/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-and-microvascular-complications-in-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-pakistan%C3%A2-s-perspective
#17
Asher Fawwad, Anum Mehmood Butt, Iftikhar Ahmed Siddiqui, Maria Khalid, Rubina Sabir, Abdul Basit
Background/aim: The aim of this study is to find the association between diabetic microvascular complications and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study based on hospital data records from January 2005 to May 2016 at the Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology. The eligibility criteria included subjects with type 2 diabetes with their latest complete blood count while subjects with conditions such as chronic inflammation, cancer, heart failure, and end-stage renal disease were not eligible for inclusion...
February 23, 2018: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460410/lessons-learned-from-the-1-hour-post-load-glucose-level-during-the-ogtt-current-screening-recommendations-for-dysglycemia-should-be-revised
#18
Michael Bergman, Ram Jagannathan, Martin Buysschaert, Manan Pareek, Michael H Olsen, Peter M Nilsson, José Luis Medina, Jesse Roth, Angela Chetrit, Leif Groop, Rachel Dankner
This perspective covers a novel area of research describing the inadequacies of current approaches for diagnosing dysglycemia and proposes that the 1-hour post-load glucose level during the 75 gram OGTT may serve as a novel biomarker to detect dysglycemia earlier than currently recommended screening criteria for glucose disorders. Considerable evidence suggests that a 1-hour post-load plasma glucose value >155 mg/dl (8.6 mmol/l) may identify individuals with reduced β-cell function prior to progressing to prediabetes and diabetes and is highly predictive of those likely to progress to diabetes more than the HbA1c or 2-hour post-load glucose values...
February 19, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457790/cd163-macrophages-promote-angiogenesis-and-vascular-permeability-accompanied-by-inflammation-in-atherosclerosis
#19
Liang Guo, Hirokuni Akahori, Emanuel Harari, Samantha L Smith, Rohini Polavarapu, Vinit Karmali, Fumiyuki Otsuka, Rachel L Gannon, Ryan E Braumann, Megan H Dickinson, Anuj Gupta, Audrey L Jenkins, Michael J Lipinski, Johoon Kim, Peter Chhour, Paul S de Vries, Hiroyuki Jinnouchi, Robert Kutys, Hiroyoshi Mori, Matthew D Kutyna, Sho Torii, Atsushi Sakamoto, Cheol Ung Choi, Qi Cheng, Megan L Grove, Mariem A Sawan, Yin Zhang, Yihai Cao, Frank D Kolodgie, David P Cormode, Dan E Arking, Eric Boerwinkle, Alanna C Morrison, Jeanette Erdmann, Nona Sotoodehnia, Renu Virmani, Aloke V Finn
Intake of hemoglobin by the hemoglobin-haptoglobin receptor CD163 leads to a distinct alternative non-foam cell antiinflammatory macrophage phenotype that was previously considered atheroprotective. Here, we reveal an unexpected but important pathogenic role for these macrophages in atherosclerosis. Using human atherosclerotic samples, cultured cells, and a mouse model of advanced atherosclerosis, we investigated the role of intraplaque hemorrhage on macrophage function with respect to angiogenesis, vascular permeability, inflammation, and plaque progression...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449364/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-an-update-of-mechanisms-contributing-to-this-clinical-entity
#20
REVIEW
Guanghong Jia, Michael A Hill, James R Sowers
Heart failure and related morbidity and mortality are increasing at an alarming rate, in large part, because of increases in aging, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The clinical outcomes associated with heart failure are considerably worse for patients with diabetes mellitus than for those without diabetes mellitus. In people with diabetes mellitus, the presence of myocardial dysfunction in the absence of overt clinical coronary artery disease, valvular disease, and other conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and dyslipidemia, has led to the descriptive terminology, diabetic cardiomyopathy...
February 16, 2018: Circulation Research
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