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Microvascular disease of the heart

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449364/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-an-update-of-mechanisms-contributing-to-this-clinical-entity
#1
REVIEW
Guanghong Jia, Michael A Hill, James R Sowers
Heart failure and related morbidity and mortality are increasing at an alarming rate, in large part, because of increases in aging, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The clinical outcomes associated with heart failure are considerably worse for patients with diabetes mellitus than for those without diabetes mellitus. In people with diabetes mellitus, the presence of myocardial dysfunction in the absence of overt clinical coronary artery disease, valvular disease, and other conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and dyslipidemia, has led to the descriptive terminology, diabetic cardiomyopathy...
February 16, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432661/is-pulmonary-vascular-disease-reversible-with-ppar-%C3%A9-agonists
#2
Peter Afdal, Antoine F AbdelMassih
Severe angio-obliterative pulmonary vascular disease (PAH) remains a disease characterized by great morbidity and shortened survival. Unfortunately, the only currently available treatments for angio-obliterative changes are palliative in the form of pulmonary vasodilators evolving from the phosphodiesterase inhibitor sildenafil to endothelin receptor antagonist: Bosentan; while the only definitive treatment is lung transplantation which remains dependent on the availability of donors and the transplant policies which vary widely from a country to another...
February 12, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419786/disease-and-economic-burden-of-hospitalizations-attributable-to-diabetes-mellitus-and-its-complications-a-nationwide-study-in-brazil
#3
Michelle Quarti Machado Rosa, Roger Dos Santos Rosa, Marcelo G Correia, Denizar V Araujo, Luciana R Bahia, Cristiana M Toscano
Diabetes is associated with a significant burden globally. The costs of diabetes-related hospitalizations are unknown in most developing countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the total number and economic burden of hospitalizations attributable to diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications in adults from the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System in 2014. Data sources included the National Health Survey (NHS) and National database of Hospitalizations (SIH). We considered diabetes, its microvascular (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial disease), respiratory and urinary tract infections, as well as selected cancers...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407076/the-prognostic-value-of-coronary-endothelial-and-microvascular-dysfunction-in-subjects-with-normal-or-non-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Philip Brainin, Daria Frestad, Eva Prescott
AIMS: Coronary vascular dysfunction is linked with poor cardiovascular prognosis in patients without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) but a critical appraisal of the literature is lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the cardiovascular risk associated with endothelial dependent and non-endothelial dependent coronary vascular dysfunction in patients with normal or non-obstructive CAD (epicardial stenosis <50%)...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402872/exercise-training-restores-the-cardiac-microrna-16-levels-preventing-microvascular-rarefaction-in-obese-zucker-rats
#5
Tiago Fernandes, Lilian Casaes, Úrsula Soci, Andre Silveira, João Gomes, Diego Barretti, Fernanda Roque, Edilamar Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training (AET) on cardiac miRNA-16 levels and its target gene VEGF related to microvascular rarefaction in obese Zucker rats (OZR). METHODS: OZR (n = 11) and lean (L; n = 10) male rats were assigned into 4 groups: OZR, trained OZR (OZRT), L and trained L (LT). Swimming exercise training lasted 60 min, 1×/day/10 weeks, with 4% body weight workload. Cardiac angiogenesis was assessed by histological analysis (periodic acid-Schiff) by calculating the capillary/fiber ratio...
February 7, 2018: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373982/secoisolariciresinol-diglucoside-is-a-blood-brain-barrier-protective-and-anti-inflammatory-agent-implications-for-neuroinflammation
#6
Slava Rom, Viviana Zuluaga-Ramirez, Nancy L Reichenbach, Michelle A Erickson, Malika Winfield, Sachin Gajghate, Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Kelly L Jordan-Sciutto, Yuri Persidsky
BACKGROUND: Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main lignan in flaxseed, is known for its beneficial effects in inflammation, oxidative stress, heart disease, tumor progression, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. SDG might be an attractive natural compound that protects against neuroinflammation. Yet, there are no comprehensive studies to date investigating the effects of SDG on brain endothelium using relevant in vivo and in vitro models. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of orally administered SDG on neuroinflammatory responses using in vivo imaging of the brain microvasculature during systemic inflammation and aseptic encephalitis...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365080/identification-of-cardiac-long-non-coding-rna-profile-in-human-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#7
Huaping Li, Chen Chen, Jiahui Fan, Zhongwei Yin, Li Ni, Katherine Cianflone, Yan Wang, Dao Wen Wang
Aims: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) induced chronic heart failure is a life-threatening disease worldwide. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are potential new therapeutic targets and may provide new pathophysiological mechanisms for development of DCM. Methods and Results: Microarray assays in 14 DCM and 10 control human heart samples identified 313 significantly differentially expressed lncRNAs. SiRNAs were used to explore the potential function of specific lncRNAs (RP11-544D21...
January 22, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348027/implications-of-underlying-mechanisms-for%C3%A2-the-recognition-and-management-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#8
REVIEW
Thomas H Marwick, Rebecca Ritchie, Jonathan E Shaw, David Kaye
Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome, the incidence and prevalence of which is increased in diabetes mellitus, pre-diabetes, and obesity. Although this may arise from underlying coronary artery disease, it often occurs in the absence of significant major epicardial coronary disease, and most commonly manifests as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Despite epidemiological evidence linking diabetes to heart failure incidence and outcome, the presence of a distinct primary "diabetic" cardiomyopathy has been difficult to prove, because the link between diabetes and heart failure is confounded by hypertension, microvascular dysfunction, and autonomic neuropathy...
January 23, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321034/diagnostic-and-prognostic-utility-of-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-implications-for-clinical-trials
#9
Prathap Kanagala, Adrian S H Cheng, Anvesha Singh, John McAdam, Anna-Marie Marsh, Jayanth R Arnold, Iain B Squire, Leong L Ng, Gerry P McCann
BACKGROUND: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a poorly characterized condition. We aimed to phenotype patients with HFpEF using multiparametric stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and to assess the relationship to clinical outcomes. METHODS: One hundred and fifty four patients (51% male, mean age 72 ± 10 years) with a diagnosis of HFpEF underwent transthoracic echocardiography and CMR during a single study visit. The CMR protocol comprised cine, stress/rest perfusion and late gadolinium enhancement imaging on a 3T scanner...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316137/have-we-really-demonstrated-the-cardiovascular-safety-of-antihyperglycemic-drugs-rethinking-the-concepts-of-macrovascular-and-microvascular-disease-in-type-2-diabetes
#10
REVIEW
Milton Packer
A primary goal of the treatment of type 2 mellitus is the prevention of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease. However, antihyperglycemic drugs have the capacity to cause deleterious effects on the circulation, a risk that is not adequately reflected by the endpoints selected for emphasis in large-scale clinical trials that are designed to evaluate cardiovascular safety. The primary endpoint of the large-scale studies mandated by regulatory authorities focuses only on 3-4 events that depict only a limited view of the circulatory system...
January 5, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305560/heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-controversies-challenges-and-future-directions
#11
REVIEW
Rosita Zakeri, Martin R Cowie
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) comprises almost half of the population burden of HF. Because HFpEF likely includes a range of cardiac and non-cardiac abnormalities, typically in elderly patients, obtaining an accurate diagnosis may be challenging, not least due to the existence of multiple HFpEF mimics and a newly identified subset of patients with HFpEF and normal plasma natriuretic peptide concentrations. The lack of effective treatment for these patients represents a major unmet clinical need...
March 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283055/the-role-of-angiogenesis-in-coronary-artery-disease-a-double-edged-sword-intraplaque-angiogenesis-in-physiopathology-and-therapeutic-angiogenesis-for-treatment
#12
Wen Wu, Xiaobo Li, Guangfeng Zuo, Jiangqin Pu, Xinlei Wu, Shaoliang Chen
Angiogenesis is described as a sprouting and growth process of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature. The relationship between angiogenesis and coronary artery disease (CAD) is double-sided. On one hand, angiogenesis within plaques is responsible for facilitating the growth and vulnerability of plaques by causing intraplaque hemorrhage and inflammatory cell influx, and overabundance of erythrocytes and inflammatory cells within a plaque probably causes plaque rupture, further leading to acute coronary syndrome...
December 27, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273331/systemic-biopolymer-delivered-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-promotes-therapeutic-angiogenesis-in-experimental-renovascular-disease
#13
Alejandro R Chade, Maxx L Williams, Erika Guise, Luke J Vincent, Taylor W Harvey, Marija Kuna, Fakhri Mahdi, Gene L Bidwell
We recently developed a therapeutic biopolymer composed of an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) fused to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and showed long-term renoprotective effects in experimental renovascular disease after a single intra-renal administration. Here, we sought to determine the specificity, safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of renoprotection of ELP-VEGF after systemic therapy in renovascular disease. We tested whether kidney selectivity of the ELP carrier would reduce off-target binding of VEGF in other organs...
December 19, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249430/prevalence-of-takayasu-arteritis-in-young-women-with-acute-ischemic-heart-disease
#14
Giulio Cavalli, Alessandro Tomelleri, Davide Di Napoli, Elena Baldissera, Lorenzo Dagna
OBJECTIVES: Takayasu arteritis (TA), a systemic vasculitis typically occurring in female patients aged ≤40, can affect coronary arteries and cause ischemic heart disease (IHD). In this study, we investigated the prevalence of TA in young women presenting with IHD in the Emergency Department. METHODS: We evaluated hospital records of 158,860 consecutive female patients aged <40, who accessed the Emergency Department of our institution over 8 consecutive years (2007-2015)...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244159/pre-clinical-model-of-severe-glutathione-peroxidase-3-deficiency-and-chronic-kidney-disease-results-in-coronary-artery-thrombosis-and-depressed-left-ventricular-function
#15
Paul Pang, Molly Abbott, Malyun Abdi, Quynh-Anh Fucci, Nikita Chauhan, Murti Mistri, Brandon Proctor, Matthew Chin, Bin Wang, Wenqing Yin, Tzong-Shi Lu, Arvin Halim, Kenneth Lim, Diane E Handy, Joseph Loscalzo, Andrew M Siedlecki
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have deficient levels of glutathione peroxidase-3 (GPx3). We hypothesized that GPx3 deficiency may lead to cardiovascular disease in the presence of chronic kidney disease due to an accumulation of reactive oxygen species and decreased microvascular perfusion of the myocardium. Methods: To isolate the exclusive effect of GPx3 deficiency in kidney disease-induced cardiac disease, we studied the GPx3 knockout mouse strain (GPx3-/-) in the setting of surgery-induced CKD...
December 13, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241208/exosomes-from-mir-126-overexpressing-adscs-are-therapeutic-in-relieving-acute-myocardial-ischaemic-injury
#16
Qiancheng Luo, Dongfeng Guo, Guorong Liu, Guo Chen, Min Hang, Mingming Jin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent studies have indicated that exosomes play an important role in adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) transplant-mediated ischaemic heart disease therapy. However, the treatment effect is not obvious. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ADSC-derived exosomes enriched with microRNA (miR)-126 have a more protective effect on acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Exosomes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, and the exosome particles were further examined using nanoparticle tracking analyses...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222822/coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-and-myocardial-contractile-reserve-in-women-with-angina-and-no-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease
#17
Marie M Michelsen, Adam Pena, Naja D Mygind, Jan Bech, Ida Gustafsson, Jens Kastrup, Henrik S Hansen, Nis Høst, Peter R Hansen, Eva Prescott
BACKGROUND: Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is a potential cause of myocardial ischemia and may affect myocardial function at rest and during stress. We investigated whether CMD was associated with left ventricular diastolic and systolic function at rest and during pharmacologically induced hyperemic stress. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, we included 963 women with angina, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >45%, and an invasive coronary angiogram without significant stenosis (<50%)...
December 8, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222132/invasive-assessment-of-the-coronary-microvasculature-the-index-of-microcirculatory-resistance
#18
REVIEW
William F Fearon, Yuhei Kobayashi
Traditionally, invasive coronary physiological assessment has focused on the epicardial coronary artery. More recently, appreciation of the importance of the coronary microvasculature in determining patient outcomes has grown. Several invasive modalities for interrogating microvascular function have been proposed. Angiographic techniques have been limited by their qualitative and subjective nature. Doppler wire-derived coronary flow reserve has been applied in research studies, but its clinical role has been limited by its lack of reproducibility, its lack of a clear normal value, and the fact that it is not specific for the microvasculature but interrogates the entire coronary circulation...
December 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215470/invasive-assessment-of-microvascular-function-in-patients-with-valvular-heart-disease
#19
Takeshi Nishi, Hideki Kitahara, Saito Yuichi, Tomoko Nishi, Takashi Nakayama, Yoshihide Fujimoto, Goro Matsumiya, Yoshio Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate microvascular function in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD), which causes chronic left ventricular volume and/or pressure overload, therefore change in coronary microvascular hemodynamics. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 30 patients with VHD considered for surgery (10 aortic stenosis, 12 aortic regurgitation, and eight mitral regurgitation) and 30 controls. Intracoronary physiological assessments were performed in the unobstructed left anterior descending artery using a pressure-temperature sensor guidewire at rest and hyperemia...
December 5, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186452/gender-and-cardiovascular-disease-are-sex-biased-mirna-networks-a-driving-force-behind-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-in-women
#20
Barend W Florijn, Roel Bijkerk, Eric van der Veer, Anton Jan van Zonneveld
CVD is the primary cause of death among men and women worldwide. Nevertheless, our comprehension of how CVD progresses in women and elicits clinical outcomes is lacking, leading CVD to be under-diagnosed and under-treated in women. A clear example of this differential presentation of CVD pathophysiologies in females is the strikingly higher prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Women with a history of preeclampsia, or those that present co-morbidities such as obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus are at increased risk to develop HFpEF...
November 24, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
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