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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929212/an-insight-into-phage-diversity-at-environmental-habitats-using-comparative-metagenomics-approach
#1
Krupa Parmar, Nishant Dafale, Rajesh Pal, Hitesh Tikariha, Hemant Purohit
Bacteriophages play significant role in driving microbial diversity; however, little is known about the diversity of phages in different ecosystems. A dynamic predator-prey mechanism called "kill the winner" suggests the elimination of most active bacterial populations through phages. Thus, interaction between phage and host has an effect on the composition of microbial communities in ecosystems. In this study, secondary phage metagenome data from aquatic habitats: wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), fresh, marine, and hot water spring habitat were analyzed using MG-RAST and STAMP tools to explore the diversity of the viruses...
September 19, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917670/morphological-characterization-and-biocontrol-effects-of-vibrio-vulnificus-phages-against-vibriosis-in-the-shrimp-aquaculture-environment
#2
P Srinivasan, P Ramasamy
The re-emerging field of phage therapy is the potential biocontrol agents for the transfer of virulence factor and to kill their bacterial hosts. In this study, the lytic Vibrio vulnificus phages were studied to provide a better understanding of phage-host interactions and development of phage therapy. Four new V. vulnificus phages were detected from shrimp aquaculture system, named VV1, VV2, VV3 and VV4. All lytic V. vulnificus phages are the Tecviruses of the family Tectiviridae with typical double layered elongated icosahedral head and tailless morphology...
September 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917651/bacteriophages-as-an-alternative-to-conventional-antibiotic-use-for-the-prevention-or-treatment-of-paenibacillus-larvae-in-honeybee-hives
#3
T Scott Brady, Bryan D Merrill, Jared A Hilton, Ashley M Payne, Michael B Stephenson, Sandra Hope
American Foulbrood (AFB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria, Paenibacillus larvae. P. larvae phages were isolated and tested to determine each phages' host range amongst 59 field isolate strains of P. larvae. Three phages were selected to create a phage cocktail for the treatment of AFB infections according to the combined phages' ability to lyse all tested strains of bacteria. Studies were performed to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the phage cocktail treatment as a replacement for traditional antibiotics for the prevention of AFB and the treatment of active infections...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915819/bacteriophage-therapy-to-combat-bacterial-infections-in-poultry
#4
REVIEW
Andrzej Wernicki, Anna Nowaczek, Renata Urban-Chmiel
Infections in poultry are an economic and health problem in Europe and worldwide. The most common infections are associated with salmonellosis, colibacillosis, campylobacteriosis, and others. The prevalence of Campylobacter-positive poultry flocks in European countries varies from 18% to 90%. In the United States, the prevalence of infected flocks is nearly 90%. A similar percentage of infection has been noted for salmonellosis (about 75-90%) and E. coli (90-95%). The occurence of Clostridium perfringens is a major problem for the poultry industry, with some estimates suggesting colonization of as many as 95% of chickens, resulting in clinical or subclinical infections...
September 16, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914348/immunogenicity-and-antimicrobial-effectiveness-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-specific-bacteriophage-in-a-human-lung-in-vitro-model
#5
Joseph R Shiley, Kristen K Comfort, Jayne B Robinson
The rise of antibiotic resistant bacteria is posing a serious threat to human health. For example, resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have resulted in untreatable and potentially lethal infections in both cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. Due to the growing need for alternative treatment options, bacteriophage, or phage, therapy is gaining considerable attention. While previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of phage in combating persistent bacterial infections, there is currently a lack of knowledge regarding the host immunological response following phage exposure...
September 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912766/environmental-bacteriophages-of-the-emerging-enterobacterial-phytopathogen-dickeya-solani-show-genomic-conservation-and-capacity-for-horizontal-gene-transfer-between-their-bacterial-hosts
#6
Andrew Day, Jiyoon Ahn, Xinzhe Fang, George P C Salmond
Dickeya solani is an economically important phytopathogen widespread in mainland Europe that can reduce potato crop yields by 25%. There are no effective environmentally-acceptable chemical systems available for diseases caused by Dickeya. Bacteriophages have been suggested for use in biocontrol of this pathogen in the field, and limited field trials have been conducted. To date only a small number of bacteriophages capable of infecting D. solani have been isolated and characterized, and so there is a need to expand the repertoire of phages that may have potential utility in phage therapy strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912765/biology-and-genomics-of-an-historic-therapeutic-escherichia-coli-bacteriophage-collection
#7
Abiyad Baig, Joan Colom, Paul Barrow, Catherine Schouler, Arshnee Moodley, Rob Lavigne, Robert Atterbury
We have performed microbiological and genomic characterization of an historic collection of nine bacteriophages, specifically infecting a K1 E. coli O18:K1:H7 ColV(+) strain. These phages were isolated from sewage and tested for their efficacy in vivo for the treatment of systemic E. coli infection in a mouse infection model by Smith and Huggins (1982). The aim of the study was to identify common microbiological and genomic characteristics, which co-relate to the performance of these phages in in vivo study...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906479/characterization-of-vb_saum-frusau02-a-twort-like-bacteriophage-isolated-from-a-therapeutic-phage-cocktail
#8
Katarzyna Leskinen, Henni Tuomala, Anu Wicklund, Jenni Horsma-Heikkinen, Pentti Kuusela, Mikael Skurnik, Saija Kiljunen
Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal and pathogenic bacterium that causes infections in humans and animals. It is a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. Due to increasing prevalence of multidrug resistance, alternative methods to eradicate the pathogen are necessary. In this respect, polyvalent staphylococcal myoviruses have been demonstrated to be excellent candidates for phage therapy. Here we present the characterization of the bacteriophage vB_SauM-fRuSau02 (fRuSau02) that was isolated from a commercial Staphylococcus bacteriophage cocktail produced by Microgen (Moscow, Russia)...
September 14, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902178/tumor-inhibitory-effect-of-ircr201-a-novel-cross-reactive-c-met-antibody-targeting-the-psi-domain
#9
Hyunkyu Park, Donggeon Kim, Eunmi Kim, Jason K Sa, Hee Won Lee, Suji Yu, Jiwon Oh, Seok-Hyung Kim, Yeup Yoon, Do-Hyun Nam
Hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR, c-Met) is an essential member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family that is often dysregulated during tumor progression, driving a malignant phenotypic state and modulating important cellular functions including tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis, providing a strong rationale for targeting HGF/c-Met signaling axis in cancer therapy. Based on its protumorigenic potentials, we developed IRCR201, a potent antagonistic antibody targeting the plexin-semaphorin-integrin (PSI) domain of c-Met, using synthetic human antibody phage libraries...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890220/production-of-highly-stable-spray-dried-phage-formulations-for-treatment-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-lung-infection
#10
Rachel Y Chang, Jennifer Wong, Ash Mathai, Sandra Morales, Elizabeth Kutter, Warwick Britton, Jian Li, Hak-Kim Chan
The potential of bacteriophage therapy for the treatment of pulmonary infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria has been well recognised. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of excipients on stabilisation and aerosolisation of spray dried powders of morphologically different phages - PEV podovirus and PEV myovirus. Seven anti-pseudomonal phages were screened against 90 clinical strains of bacterial hosts and three of the phages were selected for formulation study based on the host range...
September 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888997/discovery-of-peptide-drug-carrier-candidates-for-targeted-multi-drug-delivery-into-prostate-cancer-cells
#11
O Bashari, B Redko, A Cohen, G Luboshits, G Gellerman, M A Firer
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) remains essentially incurable. Targeted Drug Delivery (TDD) systems may overcome the limitations of current mCRPC therapies. We describe the use of strict criteria to isolate novel prostate cancer cell targeting peptides that specifically deliver drugs into target cells. Phage from a libraries displaying 7mer peptides were exposed to PC-3 cells and only internalized phage were recovered. The ability of these phage to internalize into other prostate cancer cells (LNCaP, DU-145) was validated...
September 6, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866120/identification-of-a-novel-single-chain-fragment-variable-antibody-targeting-cd24-expressing-cancer-cells
#12
Shirin Eyvazi, Bahram Kazemi, Mojgan Bandehpour, Siavoush Dastmalchi
CD24 is a heavy glycosylated protein that is overexpressed in numerous cancer and cancer stem cells. It is involved in the development, invasion, and metastasis of the cancer cells. CD24 can be considered in targeted cancer therapy as a new target. Here, phage display technology was used for the identification of novel scFv antibodies against CD24. To do so, the CD24 protein was expressed and purified from a stable transgenic CHO cell line. The cells were developed by using a CD24 encoding construct, which targets the 18S rRNA gene...
September 1, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863269/bacteriophages-the-possible-solution-to-treat-pathogenic-bacteria
#13
Ayman El-Shibiny, Salma El-Sahhar
Bacteriophages have been used to treat bacterial infections in animals and humans since their discovery in 1915, due to their unique ability to infect their specific bacterial hosts, without affecting other bacterial populations. The research carried out in this field throughout the twentieth century, largely in Georgia, part of USSR and Poland, led to the establishment of phage therapy protocols. However, the discovery of penicillin and sulphonamide antibiotics in the Western World during the 1930's was a setback in the advancement of phage therapy...
September 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860066/novel-peptide-mt23-for-potent-penetrating-and-selective-targeting-in-mouse-melanoma-cancer-cells
#14
Nan Zhou, Jiao Wu, Yan-Yan Qin, Xue-Li Zhao, Yi Ding, Li-Sha Sun, Tong He, Xiao-Wen Huang, Chang-Bai Liu, Hu Wang
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have a great potential for intracellular delivery of cell-impermeable biological macromolecules in clinical therapy. However, their lack of cell and tissue specificity remains the primary limitation for their clinical development as drug delivery vehicles. In this study, based on phage display and an in silico approach, we found a novel CPP-MT23 with mouse melanoma cell specificity, it can only enter B16 melanoma cancer cells and without any cytotoxicity, Moreover, MT23 showed higher penetration efficiency based on fluorescence microcopy and quantitative assay, and it has capability for mediating functional Apoptin into cells in vitro or in vivo...
August 28, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852930/role-of-sh3b-binding-domain-in-a-natural-deletion-mutant-of-kayvirus-endolysin-lysf1-with-a-broad-range-of-lytic-activity
#15
Martin Benešík, Jiří Nováček, Lubomír Janda, Radka Dopitová, Markéta Pernisová, Kateřina Melková, Lenka Tišáková, Jiří Doškař, Lukáš Žídek, Jan Hejátko, Roman Pantůček
The spontaneous host-range mutants 812F1 and K1/420 are derived from polyvalent phage 812 that is almost identical to phage K, belonging to family Myoviridae and genus Kayvirus. Phage K1/420 is used for the phage therapy of staphylococcal infections. Endolysin of these mutants designated LysF1, consisting of an N-terminal cysteine-histidine-dependent aminohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) domain and C-terminal SH3b cell wall-binding domain, has deleted middle amidase domain compared to wild-type endolysin. In this work, LysF1 and both its domains were prepared as recombinant proteins and their function was analyzed...
August 29, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842495/chimeric-rabbit-human-fab-antibodies-against-the-hepatitis-b-e-antigen-and-their-potential-applications-in-assay-characterization-and-therapy
#16
Xiaolei Zhuang, Norman R Watts, Ira W Palmer, Joshua D Kaufman, Altaira D Dearborn, Joni L Trenbeath, Elif Eren, Alasdair C Steven, Christoph Rader, Paul T Wingfield
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection afflicts millions worldwide, causing cirrhosis and liver cancer. HBV e-antigen (HBeAg), a clinical marker for disease severity, is a soluble variant of the viral capsid protein (HBcAg). HBeAg is not required for viral replication, but is implicated in establishing immune tolerance and chronic infection. The structure of recombinant e-antigen (rHBeAg) was recently determined, yet, to date the exact nature and quantitation of HBeAg still remain uncertain. Here, to further characterize HBeAg, we used phage display to produce a panel of chimeric rabbit/human monoclonal antibody fragments (both Fab and scFv) against rHBeAg...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840811/bacteriophage-clinical-use-as-antibacterial-drugs-utility-and-precedent
#17
Stephen T Abedon
For phage therapy-the treatment of bacterial infections using bacterial viruses-a key issue is the conflict between apparent ease of clinical application, on the one hand, and on the other hand, numerous difficulties that can be associated with undertaking preclinical development. These conflicts between achieving efficacy in the real world versus rigorously understanding that efficacy should not be surprising because equivalent conflicts have been observed in applied biology for millennia: exploiting the inherent, holistic tendencies of useful systems, e...
August 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828194/phage-therapy-an-alternative-to-antibiotics-in-the-age-of-multi-drug-resistance
#18
REVIEW
Derek M Lin, Britt Koskella, Henry C Lin
The practice of phage therapy, which uses bacterial viruses (phages) to treat bacterial infections, has been around for almost a century. The universal decline in the effectiveness of antibiotics has generated renewed interest in revisiting this practice. Conventionally, phage therapy relies on the use of naturally-occurring phages to infect and lyse bacteria at the site of infection. Biotechnological advances have further expanded the repertoire of potential phage therapeutics to include novel strategies using bioengineered phages and purified phage lytic proteins...
August 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823053/identification-of-a-ron-tyrosine-kinase-receptor-binding-peptide-using-phage-display-technique-and-computational-modeling-of-its-binding-mode
#19
Omid Zarei, Silvia Benvenuti, Fulya Ustun-Alkan, Maryam Hamzeh-Mivehroud, Siavoush Dastmalchi
RON (Recepteur d'Origine Nantais) tyrosine kinase receptor is a promising target for therapeutic intervention in cancer therapy. The aim of this work was identification of RON-binding peptides using phage display and computational modeling their mode of binding. A 12-mer peptide phage library was utilized to perform biopanning against RON. The RON-binding ability of the selected peptide-displaying phage and their possible binding sites were examined by ELISA. Binding modes and affinities were also predicted by docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802409/exploring-the-potential-of-t7-bacteriophage-protein-gp2-as-a-novel-inhibitor-of-mycobacterial-rna-polymerase
#20
J du Plessis, R Cloete, L Burchell, P Sarkar, R M Warren, A Christoffels, S Wigneshweraraj, S L Sampson
Over the past six decades, there has been a decline in novel therapies to treat tuberculosis, while the causative agent of this disease has become increasingly resistant to current treatment regimens. Bacteriophages (phages) are able to kill bacterial cells and understanding this process could lead to novel insights for the treatment of mycobacterial infections. Phages inhibit bacterial gene transcription through phage-encoded proteins which bind to RNA polymerase (RNAP), thereby preventing bacterial transcription...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
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