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Mycobacterium avium intracellulare

Shradha Subedi, Fanrong Kong, Peter Jelfs, Timothy J Gray, Meng Xiao, Vitali Sintchenko, Sharon C-A Chen
Accurate identification of slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (SG-NTM) of clinical significance remains problematic. This study evaluated a novel method of SG-NTM identification by amplification of the mycobacterial 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region followed by resolution of amplified fragments by sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Fourteen American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains and 103 clinical/environmental isolates (total n = 24 species) of SG-NTM were included...
2016: PloS One
Saurabh Garg, Neeraj Shakya, Naveen C Srivastav, Babita Agrawal, Dennis Y Kunimoto, Rakesh Kumar
The resurgence of mycobacterial infections and the emergence of drug-resistant strains urgently require a new class of agents that are distinct than current therapies. A group of 5-ethynyl (6-10), 5-(2-propynyloxy) (16, 18, 20, 22, 24), 5-(2-propynyloxy)-3-N-(2-propynyl) (17, 19, 21, 23, 25) and 5-hydroxymethyl-3-N-(2-propynyl) (30-33) derivatives of pyrimidine nucleosides were synthesized and evaluated against mycobacteria [Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) and Mycobacterium avium], gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) alone and in combination with existing drugs in in vitro assays...
November 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Houriya Ayoubieh, Eyas Alkhalili
A 37-year-old man with AIDS presented with altered mental status four weeks after stopping his medications for Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). He had low CD4 cell count and severe hypercalcemia. Bone marrow biopsy revealed bone marrow infiltration by granulomas positive for acid-fast bacilli and cultures grew MAI. His hypercalcemia continued to worsen with the initiation of MAI therapy but we were able to treat it successfully with pamidronate and calcitonin.
September 9, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
L A Krueger, D C Beitz, S B Humphrey, J R Stabel
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and mesenteric node lymphocytes (MNL) were obtained from 30 calves that were assigned randomly at birth to 1 of 6 treatment groups with 5 calves per treatment in a 14-d study: (1) colostrum-deprived (CD), no vitamins; (2) colostrum-replacer (CR), no vitamins; (3) CR, vitamin A; (4) CR, vitamin D3; (5) CR, vitamin E; (6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E. Calves were injected with appropriate vitamin supplements and fed pasteurized whole milk (CD calves) or fractionated colostrum replacer (CR calves) at birth...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Seong Mi Moon, Hye Yun Park, Su-Young Kim, Byung Woo Jhun, Hyun Lee, Kyeongman Jeon, Dae Hun Kim, Hee Jae Huh, Chang-Seok Ki, Nam Yong Lee, Hong Kwan Kim, Yong Soo Choi, Jhingook Kim, Seung-Heon Lee, Chang Ki Kim, Sung Jae Shin, Charles L Daley, Won-Jung Koh
Macrolide antibiotics are key components of the multidrug treatment regimen for treating lung disease (LD) due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Despite the emergence of macrolide resistance, limited data are available on macrolide-resistant MAC-LD. This study evaluated the clinical features and treatment outcomes of patients with macrolide-resistant MAC-LD and the molecular characteristics of the macrolide-resistant isolates. A retrospective review of the medical records of 34 patients with macrolide-resistant MAC-LD, who were diagnosed between January 2002 and December 2014, was performed along with genetic analysis of 28 clinical isolates...
August 29, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Rychelle Clayde Affonso Medeiros, Karina Girardi do Carmo de Vasconcelos, Fernanda Karlla Luz Cardoso, Bruno de Siqueira Mieto, Thiago Gomes de Toledo Pinto, Lilian Sales Gomez, Luciana Silva Rodrigues, Mariana Gandini, Julio Jablonski Amaral, Sérgio Luiz Gomes Antunes, Suzana Corte-Real, Patricia Sammarco Rosa, Maria Cristina Vidal Pessolani, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Leonardo Ribeiro Batista Silva, Mauro Sola-Penna, Marcus Fernandes de Oliveira, Milton Ozório Moraes, Flavio Alves Lara
Mycobacterium leprae, the intracellular etiological agent of leprosy, infects Schwann promoting irreversible physical disabilities and deformities. These cells are responsible for myelination and maintenance of axonal energy metabolism through export of metabolites, such as lactate and pyruvate. In the present work, we observed that infected Schwann cells increase glucose uptake with a concomitant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity, the key enzyme of the oxidative pentose pathway...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Asuman Şamlı, Arzu İlki
Mycobacteria are an important cause of morbidity in humans. Rapid and accurate mycobacterial identification is important for improving patient outcomes. However, identification of Mycobacterium species is not easy, due to the slow and fastidious growth of mycobacteria. Recently, biochemical, sequencing, and probing methods have come to be used for identification. This study compared the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of M...
August 23, 2016: New Microbiologica
Naoya Ichimura, Megumi Sato, Akira Yoshimoto, Kouji Yano, Ryunosuke Ohkawa, Takeshi Kasama, Minoru Tozuka
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is involved in innate immunity toward various infectious diseases. Concerning bacteria, HDL is known to bind to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to neutralize its physiological activity. On the other hand, cholesterol is known to play an important role in mycobacterial entry into host cells and in survival in the intracellular environment. However, the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) infection, which tends to increase worldwide, remains poorly studied. Here we report that HDL indicated a stronger interaction with M...
2016: Journal of Lipids
Jung-Yien Chien, Chong-Jen Yu, Po-Ren Hsueh
AIM: The performance of Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in identifying species of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in flagged Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tubes (MGIT)s is unclear. MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 92 sequential MGIT-positive nontuberculous mycobacteria isolates, including Mycobacterium intracellulare, M. abscessus complex, M. avium complex and M. avium, were used to compare the performance of the MALDI-TOF MS for species-level identification with that of the BluePoint MycoID plus kit and final identification...
August 2016: Future Microbiology
Sang Hoon Yoo, Seo Ree Kim, Joon Young Choi, Jae Woo Choi, Yu Mi Ko, Sun Hee Jang, Jun Kyu Park, Ye Gyu Sung, Yun Jung Park, Su Yun Oh, Se Young Bahk, Ju Hyun Lee, Myung Sook Kim
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been increasingly recognized as an important cause of chronic pulmonary infections. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which is composed of two species, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracelluare, is the most commonly encountered pathogen associated with NTM lung disease. MAC pulmonary infection typically presents in a fibrocavitary form or a nodular bronchiectatic form. However, there have been atypical presentations of MAC pulmonary infections, including solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN)...
July 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
Andreas Kyvernitakis, Jacques Azzi, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) causes pulmonary infection in patients with chronic lung diseases or severe T-cell deficiency. Cutaneous manifestations caused by MAI are rare and the few cases reported describe mostly patients with hematologic malignancies who were treated with highly immunosuppressive agents. Herein, we report a case of a breast cancer survivor who developed chronic breast cellulitis due to MAI, following localized breast cancer treatment.
2016: Curēus
B J Bain
Patients with AIDS often have haematological abnormalities consequent on opportunistic infections, superimposed on abnormalities caused by HIV itself. It is important for the haematologist to recognize characteristic features such as a marked increase in plasma cells and the presence of pleomorphic lymphoid aggregates in order to avoid misdiagnosis of a plasma cell dyscrasia or a lymphoma. Examination of the peripheral blood and bone marrow can also be useful in permitting the diagnosis of specific infections in patients with AIDS...
1998: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Yasuyuki Tamai, Hideaki Tanaka, Kyoko Yoshikawa, Ryosuke Sugimoto, Koyo Higashitani, Rumi Morooka, Norihiko Yamamoto, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Motoh Iwasa, Yoshiyuki Takei
A 70-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital on suspicion of liver tumor on regular abdominal ultrasonography. The abdominal ultrasonography identified a solitary, low-echoic lesion measuring 17mm in diameter in S7. This lesion was not enhanced in any phase of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), and thus we performed a liver biopsy. Histopathological examination revealed a caseating granuloma. The chest CT showed pulmonary nodules, and Mycobacterium intracellulare was cultured from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid...
July 2016: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
K A Hamilton, W Ahmed, A Palmer, J P S Sidhu, L Hodgers, S Toze, C N Haas
A study of six potential opportunistic pathogens (Acanthamoeba spp., Legionella spp., Legionella longbeachae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare) and an accidental human pathogen (Legionella pneumophila) in 134 roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) tank samples was conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR). All five opportunistic pathogens and accidental pathogen L. pneumophila were detected in rainwater tanks except Legionella longbeachae. Concentrations ranged up to 3.1×10(6) gene copies per L rainwater for Legionella spp...
October 2016: Environmental Research
Nyasha Chin'ombe, Boniface Muzividzi, Ellen Munemo, Pasipanodya Nziramasanga
BACKGROUND: Several nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were previously isolated from diverse environments such as water, soil, sewage, food and animals. Some of these NTM are now known to be opportunistic pathogens of humans. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of the study was to identify NTM isolates stored at the National Microbiology Reference Laboratory (NMRL) and were previously isolated from humans during a national tuberculosis (TB) survey. METHODS: Pure NTM cultures already isolated from human sputum samples during the national TB survey were retrieved from the NMRL and used for this study...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
Haruaki Tomioka, Yutaka Tatano, Chiaki Sano, Toshiaki Shimizu
In the advanced stages of mycobacterial infections, host immune systems tend to change from a Th1-type to Th2-type immune response, resulting in the abrogation of Th1 cell- and macrophage-mediated antimicrobial host protective immunity. Notably, this type of immune conversion is occasionally associated with the generation of. certain types of suppressor macrophage populations. During the course of infections due to pathogenic mycobacteria, the generation of macrophages which possess strong suppressor activity against host T- and B-cell functions is frequently encountered...
February 2016: Kekkaku: [Tuberculosis]
Katsuo Yamada, Yuuta Kawasumi, Ayuko Yasuda, Yukio Seki, Takashi Adachi, Osamu Tarumi, Yuuta Hayashi, Taku Nakagawa, Noritaka Yamada, Kenji Ogawa
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving surgical treatment for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), lung disease should be followed up with careful attention paid to relapse/recurrence, but there is some debate regarding the findings based on which relapse/recurrence should be diagnosed. PURPOSE AND METHODS: We hypothesized that we might be able to use anti-GPL core IgA antibodies (MAC antibodies), which have been attracting attention as a factor that may support diagnosis of MAC lung disease, to diagnose postoperative relapse/recurrence...
February 2016: Kekkaku: [Tuberculosis]
Yoshitsugu Higashi, Shigeki Nakamura, Hiromi Tomono, Shotaro Ide, Takahiro Takazono, Taiga Miyazaki, Koichi Izumikawa, Katsunori Yanagihara, Yoshihiro Yamamoto, Shigeru Kohno
PURPOSE: The diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) can be challenging. A serodiagnosis enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit, which detects the serum anti-glycopeptidolipid (GPL) core IgA antibody, has been commercialized recently; however, its clinical usefulness in the diagnosis of MAC-PD is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the availability of this kit and identify factors affecting testing accuracy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 195 patients who were evaluated with an EIA kit at Nagasaki University Hospital between November 2012 and March 2014...
February 2016: Kekkaku: [Tuberculosis]
Dawn N King, Maura J Donohue, Stephen J Vesper, Eric N Villegas, Michael W Ware, Megan E Vogel, Edward F Furlong, Dana W Kolpin, Susan T Glassmeyer, Stacy Pfaller
An occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the United States. Water samples were analyzed for the protozoa Giardia and Cryptosporidium (EPA Method 1623); the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus (quantitative PCR [qPCR]); and the bacteria Legionella pneumophila (qPCR), Mycobacterium avium, M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Mycobacterium intracellulare (qPCR and culture)...
August 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Sandirai Musuka, Tawanda Gumbo
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) causes an intractable intracellular infection that presents as chronic pulmonary disease. Currently, therapy consists of ethambutol and macrolides and takes several years to complete. The neuroleptic phenothiazine thioridazine kills mycobacteria by inhibiting the electron transport chain. In several experiments with bacterial populations of up to 10(12) CFU/ml, we failed to isolate any bacteria resistant to 3 times the MIC of thioridazine, suggesting the absence of resistant mutants at bacterial burdens severalfold higher than those encountered in patients...
August 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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