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entomology insect vector diseases

Yannara Barbosa Nogueira Freitas, Celeste da Silva Freitas de Souza, Jamille Maia E Magalhães, Maressa Laíse Reginaldo de Sousa, Luiz Ney d'Escoffier, Tânia Zaverucha do Valle, Teresa Cristina Monte Gonçalves, Hélcio Reinaldo Gil-Santana, Thais Aaparecida Kazimoto, Sthenia Santos Albano Amora
INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi. Its main reservoir is the domestic dog, especially in rural areas with favorable characteristics for vector establishment and proliferation. The aims of this study were to collect data, survey and map the fauna, and identify T. cruzi infection in triatomines, as well as to assess the presence of anti-T. cruzi antibodies in dogs in rural areas of the municipality of Mossoró, Brazil. METHODS: An active entomologic research was conducted to identify adult specimens through an external morphology dichotomous key...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Cheng Hu, Shaoyang Kong, Rui Wang, Teng Long, Xiaowei Fu
Migration is a key process in the population dynamics of numerous insect species, including many that are pests or vectors of disease. Identification of insect migrants is critically important to studies of insect migration. Radar is an effective means of monitoring nocturnal insect migrants. However, species identification of migrating insects is often unachievable with current radar technology. Special-purpose entomological radar can measure radar cross-sections (RCSs) from which the insect mass, wingbeat frequency and body length-to-width ratio (a measure of morphological form) can be estimated...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alem Gebru, Samuel Jansson, Rickard Ignell, Carsten Kirkeby, Jord C Prangsma, Mikkel Brydegaard
We present a dual-wavelength polarimetric measurement method to distinguish species and sexes of disease transmitting mosquitoes in flight. By measuring co- and de-polarized backscattered light at 808 and 1550 nm, the degree of linear polarization, wingbeat frequency, reflectance, spectral ratio and glossiness of mosquitoes can be retrieved. Body and wing contributions to these signals can be separated. Whereas the optical cross section is sensitive to the aspect of observation, thus the heading direction of the insect in flight, we demonstrate that polarimetric- and spectral-band ratios are largely invariant to the aspect of observation...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Telsa Willsey, Syama Chatterton, Héctor Cárcamo
Soilborne fungal and oomycete pathogens are the causal agents of several important plant diseases. Infection frequently co-occurs with herbivory by root-feeding insects, facilitating tripartite interactions that modify plant performance and mortality. In an agricultural context, interactions between pathogens, herbivores, and plants can have important consequences for yield protection. However, belowground interactions are inherently difficult to observe and are often overlooked. Here, we review the impact of direct and indirect interactions between root-associated insects, fungi, and oomycetes on the development of plant disease...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sanford D Eigenbrode, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez, Thomas S Davis
The transmission of insect-borne plant pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, phytoplasmas, and fungi depends upon the abundance and behavior of their vectors. These pathogens should therefore be selected to influence their vectors to enhance their transmission, either indirectly, through the infected host plant, or directly, after acquisition of the pathogen by the vector. Accumulating evidence provides partial support for the occurrence of vector manipulation by plant pathogens, especially for plant viruses, for which a theoretical framework can explain patterns in the specific effects on vector behavior and performance depending on their modes of transmission...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
Silvia Menezes Dos Santos, Danielle Misael de Sousa, Jessica Pereira Dos Santos, José Felipe Pinheiro do Nascimento Vieira, Teresa Cristina Monte Gonçalves, Jacenir Reis Dos Santos-Mallet, Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa
This survey aimed to assess the presence of triatomine vectors of Chagas disease within the rural communities of São João do Piauí, Northeast Brazil. Intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary collection strategies were implemented wherein 279 specimens of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma, both nymph and adult were found in 15 (50%) of the studied homes. Of the intradomiciliary insects, 73 (67.6%) were identified as nymph instars (1st instar [N1]= 6, N2= 14, N3= 28, N4= 7 and N5= 18). In the studied communities, a continuous interaction between triatomine bugs and humans could be shown...
June 1, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Cynara Carvalho Parente, Fernando S M Bezerra, Plutarco I Parente, Raimundo V Dias-Neto, Samanta C C Xavier, Alberto N Ramos, Filipe A Carvalho-Costa, Marli M Lima
BACKGROUND: The aim of this work was to explore the potential risk of vector-borne Chagas disease in urban districts in northeastern Brazil, by analyzing the spatiotemporal distributions and natural infection rates with Trypanosoma cruzi of triatomine species captured in recent years. The main motivation of this work was an acute human case of Chagas disease reported in 2008 in the municipality of Sobral. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed data from community-based entomological surveillance carried out from 2010 to 2014...
2017: PloS One
Paul M Airs, Lyric C Bartholomay
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to silence endogenous mosquito and mosquito-borne pathogen genes in vivo. As the number of studies utilizing RNAi in basic research grows, so too does the arsenal of physiological targets that can be developed into products that interrupt mosquito life cycles and behaviors and, thereby, relieve the burden of mosquitoes on human health and well-being. As this technology becomes more viable for use in beneficial and pest insect management in agricultural settings, it is exciting to consider its role in public health entomology...
January 5, 2017: Insects
B M Carvalho, E F Rangel, M M Vale
Vector-borne diseases are exceptionally sensitive to climate change. Predicting vector occurrence in specific regions is a challenge that disease control programs must meet in order to plan and execute control interventions and climate change adaptation measures. Recently, an increasing number of scientific articles have applied ecological niche modelling (ENM) to study medically important insects and ticks. With a myriad of available methods, it is challenging to interpret their results. Here we review the future projections of disease vectors produced by ENM, and assess their trends and limitations...
August 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Viviane Coutinho Meneguzzi, Claudiney Biral Dos Santos, Gustavo Rocha Leite, Blima Fux, Aloísio Falqueto
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by sand flies. The state of Espírito Santo (ES), an endemic area in southeast Brazil, has shown a considerably high prevalence in recent decades. Environmental niche modelling (ENM) is a useful tool for predicting potential disease risk. In this study, ENM was applied to sand fly species and CL cases in ES to identify the principal vector and risk areas of the disease. Sand flies were collected in 466 rural localities between 1997 and 2013 using active and passive capture...
2016: PloS One
João Victor Leite Dias, Dimas Ramon Mota Queiroz, Liléia Diotaiuti, Herton Helder Rocha Pires
Community participation is the main strategy to sustainability of Chagas disease entomological surveillance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge on triatomine insects and Chagas disease among the residents from eight localities of Diamantina, in Minas Gerais, with a view to observing any associations between their knowledge and infestations by triatomines. In order to evaluate this knowledge, questionnaires were used containing both closed and open questions. They were applied to 583 residents who were ten years old or over...
June 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Stéphanie Jacquet, Karine Huber, Hélène Guis, Marie-Laure Setier-Rio, Maria Goffredo, Xavier Allène, Ignace Rakotoarivony, Christine Chevillon, Jérémy Bouyer, Thierry Baldet, Thomas Balenghien, Claire Garros
BACKGROUND: Introduction of vector species into new areas represents a main driver for the emergence and worldwide spread of vector-borne diseases. This poses a substantial threat to livestock economies and public health. Culicoides imicola Kieffer, a major vector species of economically important animal viruses, is described with an apparent range expansion in Europe where it has been recorded in south-eastern continental France, its known northern distribution edge. This questioned on further C...
March 11, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Kelly Louise Bennett, Yvonne-Marie Linton, Fortunate Shija, Martha Kaddumukasa, Rousseau Djouaka, Gerald Misinzo, Julius Lutwama, Yiau-Min Huang, Luke B Mitchell, Miriam Richards, Eric Tossou, Catherine Walton
INTRODUCTION: Yellow fever continues to be a problem in sub-Saharan Africa with repeated epidemics occurring. The mosquito Aedes bromeliae is a major vector of yellow fever, but it cannot be readily differentiated from its non-vector zoophilic sister species Ae. lilii using morphological characters. Genetic differences have been reported between anthropophilic Ae. bromeliae and zoophilic Ae. lilii and between forest and domestic populations. However, due to the application of different molecular markers and non-overlapping populations employed in previous studies, interpretation of species delimitation is unclear...
December 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sandra Talavera, Francesc Muñoz-Muñoz, Mauricio Durán, Marta Verdún, Anna Soler-Membrives, Álvaro Oleaga, Antonio Arenas, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Rosa Estrada, Nitu Pagès
The genus Culicoides Latreille 1809 is a well-known vector for protozoa, filarial worms and, above all, numerous viruses. The Bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are responsible for important infectious, non-contagious, insect-borne viral diseases found in domestic ruminants and transmitted by Culicoides spp. Both of these diseases have been detected in wild ruminants, but their role as reservoirs during the vector-free season still remains relatively unknown. In fact, we tend to ignore the possibility of wild ruminants acting as a source of disease (BTV, SBV) and permitting its reintroduction to domestic ruminants during the following vector season...
2015: PloS One
Olaf Horstick, Silvia Runge Ranzinger
This interim analysis reviews the available systematic literature for dengue vector control on three levels: 1) single and combined vector control methods, with existing work on peridomestic space spraying and on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis; further work is available soon on the use of Temephos, Copepods and larvivorous fish; 2) or for a specific purpose, like outbreak control, and 3) on a strategic level, as for example decentralization vs centralization, with a systematic review on vector control organization...
2015: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
Glyn A Vale, John W Hargrove, N Alan Cullis, Andrew Chamisa, Stephen J Torr
BACKGROUND: The behaviour of insect vectors has an important bearing on the epidemiology of the diseases they transmit, and on the opportunities for vector control. Two sorts of electrocuting device have been particularly useful for studying the behaviour of tsetse flies (Glossina spp), the vectors of the trypanosomes that cause sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock. Such devices consist of grids on netting (E-net) to catch tsetse in flight, or on cloth (E-cloth) to catch alighting flies...
October 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Frank Richards, Nidia Rizzo, Carlos Enrique Diaz Espinoza, Zoraida Morales Monroy, Carol Guillermina Crovella Valdez, Renata Mendizabal de Cabrera, Oscar de Leon, Guillermo Zea-Flores, Mauricio Sauerbrey, Alba Lucia Morales, Dalila Rios, Thomas R Unnasch, Hassan K Hassan, Robert Klein, Mark Eberhard, Ed Cupp, Alfredo Domínguez
We report the elimination of Onchocerca volvulus transmission from the Central Endemic Zone (CEZ) of onchocerciasis in Guatemala, the largest focus of this disease in the Americas and the first to be discovered in this hemisphere by Rodolfo Robles Valverde in 1915. Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin was launched in 1988, with semiannual MDA coverage reaching at least 85% of the eligible population in > 95% of treatment rounds during the 12-year period, 2000-2011. Serial parasitological testing to monitor MDA impact in sentinel villages showed a decrease in microfilaria skin prevalence from 70% to 0%, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based entomological assessments of the principal vector Simulium ochraceum s...
December 2015: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Mario J Grijalva, Anita G Villacis, Sofia Ocaña-Mayorga, Cesar A Yumiseva, Ana L Moncayo, Esteban G Baus
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is endemic to the southern Andean region of Ecuador, an area with one of the highest poverty rates in the country. However, few studies have looked into the epidemiology, vectors and transmission risks in this region. In this study we describe the triatomine household infestation in Loja province, determine the rate of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in triatomines and study the risk factors associated with infestation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An entomological survey found four triatomine species (Rhodnius ecuadoriensis, Triatoma carrioni, Panstrongylus chinai, and P...
2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kota Yoshioka, Jiro Nakamura, Byron Pérez, Doribel Tercero, Lenin Pérez, Yuichiro Tabaru
Chagas disease is one of the most serious health problems in Latin America. Because the disease is transmitted mainly by triatomine vectors, a three-phase vector control strategy was used to reduce its vector-borne transmission. In Nicaragua, we implemented an indoor insecticide spraying program in five northern departments to reduce house infestation by Triatoma dimidiata. The spraying program was performed in two rounds. After each round, we conducted entomological evaluation to compare the vector infestation level before and after spraying...
December 2015: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Dziedzom K de Souza, Rashid Ansumana, Santigie Sessay, Abu Conteh, Benjamin Koudou, Maria P Rebollo, Joseph Koroma, Daniel A Boakye, Moses J Bockarie
BACKGROUND: Many countries have made significant progress in the implementation of World Health Organization recommended preventive chemotherapy strategy, to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF). However, pertinent challenges such as the existence of areas of residual infections in disease endemic districts pose potential threats to the achievements made. Thus, this study was undertaken to assess the importance of these areas in implementation units (districts) where microfilaria (MF) positive individuals could not be found during the mid-term assessment after three rounds of mass drug administration...
September 24, 2015: Parasites & Vectors
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