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Biomechanics of hip joint

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419029/females-with-unexplained-joint-pain-following-total-joint-arthroplasty-exhibit-a-higher-rate-and-severity-of-hypersensitivity-to-implant-metals-compared-with-males-implications-of-sex-based-bioreactivity-differences
#1
Marco S Caicedo, Edward Solver, Latasha Coleman, Joshua J Jacobs, Nadim J Hallab
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that females demonstrate an increased risk of experiencing adverse local tissue reactions, aseptic loosening, and revision after primary metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty compared with males; the underlying biological mechanisms responsible for sex discrepancies in implant failure remain unclear. In addition to anatomical and biomechanical sex differences, there may be inherent immunological disparities that predispose females to more aggressive adaptive immune reactivity to implant debris, i...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411958/effects-of-step-length-and-step-frequency-on-lower-limb-muscle-function-in-human-gait
#2
Yoong Ping Lim, Yi-Chung Lin, Marcus G Pandy
The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of step length and step frequency on lower-limb muscle function in walking. Three-dimensional gait data were used in conjunction with musculoskeletal modeling techniques to evaluate muscle function over a range of walking speeds using prescribed combinations of step length and step frequency. The body was modeled as a 10-segment, 21-degree-of-freedom skeleton actuated by 54 muscle-tendon units. Lower-limb muscle forces were calculated using inverse dynamics and static optimization...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403977/new-approaches-for-assessing-childbirth-positions
#3
D Desseauve, F Pierre, B Gachon, A Decatoire, P Lacouture, L Fradet
BACKGROUND: An overview of labor based only on epidemiological data cannot identify or explain the mechanisms involved in childbirth. Data about the position that women should take in giving birth are discordant. None of the studies of birth positions adequately define or describe them or their biomechanical impact (pelvic orientation, position of the back). The measurement of the effect of one position relative to that of another requires precise definitions of each position and of their maternal biomechanical consequences, as well as safe measurement methods...
February 2017: J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394742/side-to-side-differences-in-lower-extremity-biomechanics-during-multi-directional-jump-landing-in-volleyball-athletes
#4
Komsak Sinsurin, Sarun Srisangboriboon, Roongtiwa Vachalathiti
Side-to-side differences of lower extremities may influence the likelihood of injury. Moreover, adding the complexity of jump-landing direction would help to explain lower extremity control during sport activities. The aim was to determine the effects of limb dominance and jump-landing direction on lower extremity biomechanics. Nineteen female volleyball athletes participated. Both dominant limbs (DLs) and non-dominant limbs (NLs) were examined in single-leg jump-landing tests in four directions, including forward (0°), diagonal (30° and 60°), and lateral (90°) directions...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388232/increasing-and-decreasing-pain-causes-acute-responses-of-strength-and-running-mechanics-in-patellofemoral-pain
#5
David M Bazett-Jones, Wendy Huddleston, Stephen Cobb, Kristian O'Connor, Jennifer E Earl-Boehm
CONTEXT:   Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is typically exacerbated by repetitive activities that load the patellofemoral joint, such as running. Understanding the mediating effects of changes in pain in individuals with PFP might inform injury progression, rehabilitation, or both. OBJECTIVE:   To investigate the effects of changing pain on muscular strength and running biomechanics in those with PFP. DESIGN:   Crossover study. SETTING:   University research laboratory...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371596/biomechanical-assessment-of-hip-capsular-repair-and-reconstruction-procedures-using-a-6-degrees-of-freedom-robotic-system
#6
Marc J Philippon, Christiano A C Trindade, Mary T Goldsmith, Matthew T Rasmussen, Adriana J Saroki, Sverre Løken, Robert F LaPrade
BACKGROUND: Although acetabular labral repair has been biomechanically validated to improve stability, capsular management of the hip remains a topic of growing interest and controversy. PURPOSE: To biomechanically evaluate the effects of several arthroscopically relevant conditions of the capsule through a robotic, sequential sectioning study. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Ten human cadaveric unilateral hip specimens (mean age, 51...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367686/biomechanical-metabolic-and-cardiopulmonary-responses-of-masters-recreational-runners-during-running-at-different-speeds
#7
Hallie Hahn, Kevin R Vincent, Daniel C Herman, Cong Chen, Laura Ann Zdziarski, Christine Morgan, Heather K Vincent
This study tested interactions between age and running speed on biomechanics, metabolic responses and cardiopulmonary responses. Three-hundred participants ran at preferred and standardized speeds. Age group (younger, masters [≥40 years]) by speed (self-selected 8.8 km/h, 11.2 km/h and 13.6 km/h) interactions were tested on main outcomes of sagittal kinematic, temporal spatial, metabolic and cardiopulmonary parameters. At all speeds, angular displacements of the ankle, pelvis and knee were less in masters than younger runners (Hedges g effect size range = 0...
April 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332445/dynamic-virtual-simulation-of-the-occurrence-and-severity-of-edge-loading-in-hip-replacements-associated-with-variation-in-the-rotational-and-translational-surgical-position
#8
Joanna Leng, Mazen Al-Hajjar, Ruth Wilcox, Alison Jones, David Barton, John Fisher
Variation in the surgical positioning of total hip replacement can result in edge loading of the femoral head on the rim of the acetabular cup. Previous work has reported the effect of edge loading on the wear of hip replacement bearings with a fixed level of dynamic biomechanical hip separation. Variations in both rotational and translational surgical positioning of the hip joint replacement combine to influence both the biomechanics and the tribology including the severity of edge loading, the amount of dynamic separation, the force acting on the rim of the cup and the resultant wear and torque acting on the cup...
April 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330449/a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-effects-of-load-carriage-on-running-characteristics-and-tibial-mechanical-stress-implications-for-stress-fracture-injuries-in-women
#9
Chun Xu, Amy Silder, Ju Zhang, Jaques Reifman, Ginu Unnikrishnan
BACKGROUND: Load carriage is associated with musculoskeletal injuries, such as stress fractures, during military basic combat training. By investigating the influence of load carriage during exercises on the kinematics and kinetics of the body and on the biomechanical responses of bones, such as the tibia, we can quantify the role of load carriage on bone health. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using an integrated musculoskeletal-finite-element model to analyze how the amount of load carriage in women affected the kinematics and kinetics of the body, as well as the tibial mechanical stress during running...
March 23, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314887/mechanical-strains-passing-through-the-acetabular-labrum-modify-its-shape-during-hip-motion-an-anatomical-study
#10
Matthieu Ollivier, Thomas Le Corroller, Sebastien Parratte, Patrick Chabrand, Jean-Noël Argenson, Olivier Gagey
PURPOSE: The function of the hip labrum during hip motion remains poorly known. Our hypothesis was that acetabular labrum will deform and change its shape during adduction to abduction movement consecutively to variation of strains passing from the acetabulum to the femoral head. An ex vivo anatomical study was conducted to analyse the morphological parameters variation of the mid-portion of the labrum (length, thickness, shape, deformation) as well as femoro-labral strains during hip adduction to abduction movement...
March 17, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314214/gait-biomechanics-following-lower-extremity-trauma-amputation-vs-reconstruction
#11
Elizabeth Russell Esposito, Daniel J Stinner, John R Fergason, Jason M Wilken
BACKGROUND: Surgical advances have substantially improved outcomes for individuals sustaining traumatic lower extremity injury. Injuries once requiring lower limb amputation are now routinely managed with limb reconstruction surgery. However, comparisons of functional outcomes between the procedures are inconclusive. PURPOSE: To compare gait biomechanics after lower limb reconstruction and transtibial amputation. METHODS: Twenty-four individuals with unilateral lower limb reconstruction wearing a custom ankle-foot orthosis (Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis), 24 with unilateral, transtibial amputation, and 24 able-bodied control subjects underwent gait analysis at a standardized Froude speed based on leg length...
February 21, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300359/influence-of-different-boundary-conditions-in-finite-element-analysis-on-pelvic-biomechanical-load-transmission
#12
Pan Hu, Tao Wu, Hui-Zhi Wang, Xin-Zheng Qi, Jie Yao, Xiao-Dong Cheng, Wei Chen, Ying-Ze Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of boundary conditions and connect conditions on biomechanics predictions in finite element (FE) pelvic models. METHODS: Three FE pelvic models were constructed to analyze the effect of boundary conditions and connect conditions in the hip joint: an intact pelvic model assumed contact of the hip joint on both sides (Model I); and a pelvic model assumed the hip joint connecting surfaces fused together with (Model II) or without proximal femurs (Model III)...
February 2017: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298066/effect-of-fatigue-protocols-on-lower-limb-neuromuscular-function-and-implications-for-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury-prevention-training
#13
Sue D Barber-Westin, Frank R Noyes
BACKGROUND: Approximately two-thirds of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are sustained during noncontact situations when an athlete is cutting, pivoting, decelerating, or landing from a jump. Some investigators have postulated that fatigue may result in deleterious alterations in lower limb biomechanics during these activities that could increase the risk of noncontact ACL injuries. However, prior studies have noted a wide variation in fatigue protocols, athletic tasks studied, and effects of fatigue on lower limb kinetics and kinematics...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297177/kinematics-of-the-pelvis-torso-and-lower-limb-during-obstacle-negotiation-while-under-temporal-constraints
#14
Jesse C Christensen, Christopher R Wilson, Andrew S Merryweather, K Bo Foreman
Biomechanics of unobstructed locomotion consists of synchronized complex movements of the pelvis, torso, and lower limbs. These movement patterns become more complex as individuals encounter obstacles or negotiate uneven terrain. To date, limited research has explored how specifically the pelvis, torso, and lower limb segments relate to obstacle negotiation of varying sized objects combined with temporal constraints to perform the task. Understanding pelvis and adjoining segment movements during object negotiation will provide necessary information in identifying abnormal mechanics and potential fall risk characteristics in balance compromised patient populations...
April 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262285/the-independent-effects-of-speed-and-propulsive-force-on-joint-power-generation-in-walking
#15
Michael G Browne, Jason R Franz
Walking speed is modulated using propulsive forces (FP) during push-off and both preferred speed and FP decrease with aging. However, even prior to walking slower, reduced FP may be accompanied by potentially unfavorable changes in joint power generation. For example, compared to young adults, older adults exhibit a redistribution of mechanical power generation from the propulsive plantarflexor muscles to more proximal muscles acting across the knee and hip. Here, we used visual biofeedback based on real-time FP measurements to decouple and investigate the interaction between joint-level coordination, whole-body FP, and walking speed...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259612/the-effect-of-boundary-constraints-on-finite-element-modelling-of-the-human-pelvis
#16
Peter J Watson, Ali Dostanpor, Michael J Fagan, Catherine A Dobson
The use of finite element analysis (FEA) to investigate the biomechanics of anatomical systems critically relies on the specification of physiologically representative boundary conditions. The biomechanics of the pelvis has been the specific focus of a number of FEA studies previously, but it is also a key aspect in other investigations of, for example, the hip joint or new design of hip prostheses. In those studies, the pelvis has been modelled in a number of ways with a variety of boundary conditions, ranging from a model of the whole pelvic girdle including soft tissue attachments to a model of an isolated hemi-pelvis...
March 1, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259465/contribution-of-muscle-short-range-stiffness-to-initial-changes-in-joint-kinetics-and-kinematics-during-perturbations-to-standing-balance-a-simulation-study
#17
Friedl De Groote, Jessica L Allen, Lena H Ting
Simulating realistic musculoskeletal dynamics is critical to understanding neural control of muscle activity evoked in sensorimotor feedback responses that have inherent neural transmission delays. Thus, the initial mechanical response of muscles to perturbations in the absence of any change in muscle activity determines which corrective neural responses are required to stabilize body posture. Muscle short-range stiffness, a history-dependent property of muscle that causes a rapid and transient rise in muscle force upon stretch, likely affects musculoskeletal dynamics in the initial mechanical response to perturbations...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252475/management-of-interprosthetic-femur-fractures
#18
John A Scolaro, Ran Schwarzkopf
Femoral fractures between a total hip arthroplasty prosthesis and total knee arthroplasty prosthesis, also called interprosthetic fractures, are challenging clinical problems. The number of patients who have undergone ipsilateral primary or revision joint arthroplasty procedures in both the hip and the knee continues to rise, and the number of interprosthetic fractures is increasing, as well. The growing body of biomechanical and clinical literature on interprosthetic fractures reflects the increased frequency of and interest in these injuries...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242569/uphill-walking-biomechanical-demand-on-the-lower-extremities-of-obese-adolescents
#19
Gerda Strutzenberger, Nathalie Alexander, Dominik Bamboschek, Elisabeth Claas, Helmut Langhof, Hermann Schwameder
The number of obesity prevalence in adolescents is still increasing. Obesity treatment programs typically include physical activity with walking being recommended as appropriate activity, but limited information exists on the demand uphill walking places on the joint loading and power of obese adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different inclinations on step characteristics, sagittal and frontal joint angles, joint moments and joint power of obese adolescents in comparison to their normal-weight peers...
February 20, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236094/-diseases-and-overuse-injuries-of-the-lower-extremities-in-long-distance-runners
#20
REVIEW
M Tschopp, F Brunner
Running is one of the most popular sports worldwide, with running events attracting hundreds of thousands of runners of all age groups. Running is an effective way to improve health but is also associated with a high risk of injuries. Up to 50% of regular runners report having more than one injury each year. Some injuries are caused by an accident but most are caused by overuse. The most frequent diagnoses are patellofemoral pain syndrome, tibial stress syndrome (shin splint), Achilles tendinopathy, iliotibial band friction syndrome (runner's knee), plantar fasciitis and stress fractures of the metatarsals and tibia...
February 24, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
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