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Biomechanics of hip joint

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154692/landing-kinematics-and-kinetics-at-the-knee-during-different-landing-tasks
#1
Nicholas R Heebner, Deirdre M Rafferty, Meleesa F Wohleber, Andrew J Simonson, Mita Lovalekar, Andrew Reinert, Timothy C Sell
CONTEXT:   Several tasks have been used to examine landing biomechanics for evaluation and rehabilitation, especially as related to anterior cruciate ligament injuries. However, comparing results among studies in which different tasks were used can be difficult, and it is unclear which task may be most appropriate. OBJECTIVE:   To compare lower extremity biomechanics across 5 commonly used landing tasks. DESIGN:   Descriptive laboratory study...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143300/effect-of-restraining-the-base-of-support-on-the-other-biomechanical-features-in-patients-with-cerebellar-ataxia
#2
C Conte, Mariano Serrao, L Cuius, A Ranavolo, S Conforto, F Pierelli, L Padua
This study aimed to analyze the biomechanical consequences of reducing the base of support in patients with ataxia. Specifically, we evaluated the spatio-temporal parameters, upper- and lower-body kinematics, muscle co-activation, and energy recovery and expenditure. The gaits of 13 patients were recorded using a motion analysis system in unperturbed and perturbed walking conditions. In the latter condition, patients had to walk using the same step width and speed of healthy controls. The perturbed walking condition featured reduced gait speed, step length, hip and knee range of motion, and energy recovery and increased double support duration, gait variability, trunk oscillation, and ankle joint muscle co-activation...
November 15, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141879/lower-limb-biomechanical-analysis-during-an-unanticipated-step-on-a-bump-reveals-specific-adaptations-of-walking-on-uneven-terrains
#3
Fausto A Panizzolo, Sangjun Lee, Taira Miyatake, Denise Martineli Rossi, Christopher Siviy, Jozefien Speeckaert, Ignacio Galiana, Conor J Walsh
Although it is clear that walking over different irregular terrain is associated with altered biomechanics, there is little understanding of how we quickly adapt to unexpected variations in terrain. This study aims to investigate which adaptive strategies humans adopt when performing an unanticipated step on an irregular surface, specifically a small bump. Nine healthy male participants walked at their preferred walking speed along a straight walkway during five conditions: four involving unanticipated bumps of two different heights, and one level walking condition...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135048/the-biomechanical-construction-of-the-horse-s-body-and-activity-patterns-of-three-important-muscles-of-the-trunk-in-the-walk-trot-and-canter
#4
K Kienapfel, H Preuschoft, A Wulf, H Wagner
The activity patterns of trunk muscles are commonly neglected, in spite of their importance for maintaining body shape. Analysis of the biomechanics of the trunk under static conditions has led to predictions of the activity patterns. These hypotheses are tested experimentally by surface electromyography (EMG). Five horses, with and without a rider, were examined in the walk, trot and canter. Footfall was synchronised with EMG by an accelerometer. Averages of ten consecutive cycles were calculated and compared by statistical methods...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124832/how-should-new-orthopaedic-implants-be-introduced-an-example-and-recommendations-for-best-practice
#5
REVIEW
Richard Hannan, Varun Arora, Richard Beaver, Paul Harvie
Continued advancements in orthopaedics have led to the development of many new implants; many of these are being utilized in clinical practice with little or no evidence base for their safety or effectiveness. Highly publicized failures in orthopaedic technology have led to an increased awareness of this issue in both medical and non-medical circles. In most cases, the significant harm caused to the public could have been avoided by the appropriately staged implementation of new implants. This review comments on the current literature regarding the optimal practice for the introduction of new orthopaedic technology...
November 9, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114563/risk-factors-for-lower-extremity-overuse-injuries-in-female-youth-soccer-players
#6
John W O'Kane, Moni Neradilek, Nayak Polissar, Lori Sabado, Allan Tencer, Melissa A Schiff
Background: Youth soccer injuries are common and of increasing concern, with sport specialization occurring at younger ages. Limited research is available regarding overuse injuries and risk factors in young female athletes. Purpose: To identify the number and rate of overuse injuries in female soccer players (ages 12-15 years), describe the anatomic location and type of injury, and evaluate contributing risk factors. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3...
October 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075175/three-dimensional-trunk-and-lower-limbs-characteristics-during-gait-in-patients-with-huntington-s-disease
#7
Elzbieta Mirek, Magdalena Filip, Wiesław Chwała, Krzysztof Banaszkiewicz, Monika Rudzinska-Bar, Jadwiga Szymura, Szymon Pasiut, Andrzej Szczudlik
Objective: A number of studies on gait disturbances have been conducted, however, no clear pattern of gait disorders was described. The aim of the study was to characterize the gait pattern in HD patients by conducting analysis of mean angular movement changes the lower limb joints and trunk (kinematics parameters). Methods: The study group consisted of 30 patients with HD (17 women and 13 men). The reference data include the results of 30 healthy subjects (17 women and 13 men). Registration of gait with the Vicon 250 system was performed using passive markers attached to specific anthropometric points directly on the skin, based on the Golem biomechanical model (Oxford Metrics Ltd...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074289/gait-biomechanics-of-skipping-are-substantially-different-than-those-of-running
#8
Jessica McDonnell, John D Willson, Kevin A Zwetsloot, Joseph Houmard, Paul DeVita
The inherit injury risk associated with high-impact exercises calls for alternative ways to achieve the benefits of aerobic exercise while minimizing excessive stresses to body tissues. Skipping presents such an alternative, incorporating double support, flight, and single support phases. We used ground reaction forces (GRFs), lower extremity joint torques and powers to compare skipping and running in 20 healthy adults. The two consecutive skipping steps on each limb differed significantly from each other, and from running...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067956/significance-of-lateral-pillar-in-osteonecrosis-of-femoral-head-a-finite-element-analysis
#9
Peng-Fei Wen, Wan-Shou Guo, Qi-Dong Zhang, Fu-Qiang Gao, Ju-An Yue, Zhao-Hui Liu, Li-Ming Cheng, Zi-Rong Li
BACKGROUND: The lateral pillar of the femoral head is an important site for disease development such as osteonecrosis of the femoral head. The femoral head consists of medial, central, and lateral pillars. This study aimed to determine the biomechanical effects of early osteonecrosis in pillars of the femoral head via a finite element (FE) analysis. METHODS: A three-dimensional FE model of the intact hip joint was constructed from the image data of a healthy control...
November 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065078/biomechanical-differences-of-multidirectional-jump-landings-among-female-basketball-and-soccer-players
#10
Jeffrey B Taylor, Kevin R Ford, Randy J Schmitz, Scott E Ross, Terry A Ackerman, Sandra J Shultz
Taylor, JB, Ford, KR, Schmitz, RJ, Ross, SE, Ackerman, TA, and Shultz, SJ. Biomechanical differences of multidirectional jump landings among female basketball and soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3034-3045, 2017-Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs are less successful in basketball than soccer and may be due to distinct movement strategies that these athletes develop from sport-specific training. The purpose of this study was to identify biomechanical differences between female basketball and soccer players during multidirectional jump landings...
November 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059109/metabolic-bone-diseases-and-total-hip-arthroplasty-preventing-complications
#11
Joaquin Moya-Angeler, Joseph M Lane, Jose A Rodriguez
Metabolic bone diseases are a diverse group of conditions characterized by abnormalities in calcium metabolism and/or bone cell physiology. These unbalanced processes can eventually lead to bony deformities and altered joint biomechanics, resulting in degenerative joint disease. Not infrequently, patients with metabolic bone diseases have restricting hip joint pain that ultimately necessitates hip arthroplasty. To minimize complications, the surgeon must consider the particular characteristics of these patients...
November 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049224/primary-stability-in-total-hip-replacement-a-biomechanical-investigation
#12
Paul Schmitz, Boyko Gueorguiev, Ivan Zderic, Christian Pfeifer, Michael Nerlich, Stephan Grechenig
BACKGROUND: In total hip replacement (THR), it is essential to achieve a primary stability to guarantee good long-term results. A novel locking screw hip (LSH)-stem, anchored to the medial cortex of the proximal femur by 5 monocortical locking screws, was developed to overcome the shortcomings of uncemented press-fit and cemented straight stems while simultaneously achieving primary stability. The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanical competence of the LSH-stem in comparison to an uncemented press-fit stem...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033502/biomechanical-model-based-evaluation-of-total-hip-arthroplasty-therapy-outcome
#13
Jörg Eschweiler, Julia Hawlitzky, Valentin Quack, Markus Tingart, Björn Rath
OBJECTIVE: Total-hip-arthroplasties are performed to treat patients with osteoarthritis. Surgical planning is usually based on specific radiographs. These information could also be used as data for biomechanical modelling. METHODS: Models are rarely used during clinical practice. Our aim was to analyze model-based the pre- and postoperatively hip-biomechanic. Pre- and postoperative X-rays of 30 patients were examined by using 4 biomechanical-models. RESULTS: The received results showed variations e...
December 2017: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016393/biomechanical-implications-of-training-volume-and-intensity-in-aging-runners
#14
Max R Paquette, Paul DeVita, D S Blaise Williams
Running speed is slower in middle-aged compared to younger runners due to reduced ankle but not hip and knee kinetic output. Running-specific training helps attenuate age-related declines in measures of endurance, muscle strength and gait speed. Considering the adaptability of the human body in response to imposed stresses, maintaining training volume and intensity may play a role in modifying running biomechanics in middle-aged runners. PURPOSE: To compare running biomechanics between young and middle-aged runners when controlling for the confounding effects of training volume and intensity...
October 9, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987873/hip-joint-biomechanics-in-those-with-and-without-post-traumatic-knee-osteoarthritis-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-injury
#15
E Wellsandt, J A Zeni, M J Axe, L Snyder-Mackler
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament injury results in altered kinematics and kinetics in the knee and hip joints that persist despite surgical reconstruction and rehabilitation. Abnormal movement patterns and a history of osteoarthritis are risk factors for articular cartilage degeneration in additional joints. The purpose of this study was to determine if hip joint biomechanics early after anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction differ between patients with and without post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis 5years after reconstruction...
October 2, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970988/arthroscopic-focal-subspinal-decompression-and-management-of-pincer-type-femoroacetabular-impingement
#16
Renato Locks, Hajime Utsunomiya, Ioanna Bolia, Sandeep Mannava, Jorge Chahla, Marc J Philippon
Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome is a common hip pathology significantly affecting not only the intra- and extra-articular structures but also the biomechanical function of the joint. Cam and pincer bony lesions have been extensively studied. However, during recent years, other types of extra-articular impingement between the pelvic and femoral bone have been investigated. When a prominent or morphologically abnormal anterior-inferior iliac spine (AIIS) impinges repetitively on the femoral side during motion, the subspinal acetabular region becomes prominent and extends toward the intra-articular part of the joint...
August 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955682/acetabular-defect-reconstruction-with-trabecular-metal-augments-study-with-minimum-one-year-follow-up
#17
Chirayu Dwivedi, Sandeep Gokhale, Hyun Gon Khim, Jeon Keon Oh, Won Yong Shon
PURPOSE: High rates of mechanical failure have been reported in type III acetabular defects. Recently porous trabecular metal augments have been introduced with, excellent biomechanical characteristics and biocompatibility, allowing early stability and greater bone ingrowth. The aim of the study was to assess the short term clinical and radiological outcome of the trabecular metal augments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed, 22 revision total hip arthroplasties (THA) and 6 primary THA (total 28) using trabecular metal augments to reconstruct acetabular defect between 2011 to 2015...
September 2017: Hip & Pelvis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932503/effect-of-high-tibial-osteotomy-on-hip-biomechanics-in-patients-with-genu-varum-a%C3%A2-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Mehdi Moghtadaei, Ali Yeganeh, Bahram Boddouhi, Atefe Alaee, Hossein Farahini, Babak Otoukesh
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of proximal tibia osteotomy on hip biomechanics. METHODS: This cohort study was conducted on 50 knees of 37 patients divided into two groups of unilateral and bilateral surgeries during 2015-2016. Patients underwent medial open-wedge osteotomy of proximal tibia. Axial alignment of lower limb radiography was carried out for the patients before and after the osteotomy. RESULTS: Findings from unilateral and bilateral high tibial osteotomies demonstrated that the average of greater trochanter (GT) angle from femoral head center and also the average angle of knee varus were significantly decreased (P = 0...
June 2017: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924748/a-multi-joint-model-of-quiet-upright-stance-accounts-for-the-uncontrolled-manifold-structure-of-joint-variance
#19
Hendrik Reimann, Gregor Schöner
The upright body in quiet stance is usually modeled as a single-link inverted pendulum. This agrees with most of the relevant sensory organs being at the far end of the pendulum, i.e., the eyes and the vestibular system in the head. Movement of the body in quiet stance has often been explained in terms of the "ankle strategy," where most movement is generated by the ankle musculature, while more proximal muscle groups are only rarely activated for faster movements or in response to perturbations, for instance, by flexing at the hips in what has been called the "hip strategy...
September 18, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915961/short-stem-total-hip-arthroplasty-potential-explanations-for-persistent-post-surgical-thigh-pain
#20
Isabel A C Baert, Enrique Lluch, Francis Van Glabbeek, Rudy Nuyts, Salim Rufai, Joanna Tuynman, Filip Struyf, Mira Meeus
Short stem uncemented femoral implants were developed with the aim of preserving proximal bone stock for future revisions, improving biomechanical reconstruction, aiding insertion through smaller incisions and potentially decreasing or limiting the incidence of thigh pain. Despite all the advantages of short stem designs, it remains unclear whether they are able to limit post-surgical thigh pain. In patients with short stem hip arthroplasty and persistent thigh pain, it is of the utmost importance to understand the potential etiologies of this chronic pain for selecting the appropriate treatment strategy...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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