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Biomechanics of hip joint

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784006/secure-corridor-for-infraacetabular-screws-in-acetabular-fracture-fixation-a-3-d-radiomorphometric-analysis-of-124-pelvic-ct-datasets
#1
Stephan Arlt, Hansrudi Noser, Andreas Wienke, Florian Radetzki, Gunther Olaf Hofmann, Thomas Mendel
BACKGROUND: Acetabular fracture surgery is directed toward anatomical reduction and stable fixation to allow for the early functional rehabilitation of an injured hip joint. Recent biomechanical investigations have shown the superiority of using an additional screw in the infraacetabular (IA) region, thereby transfixing the separated columns to strengthen the construct by closing the periacetabular fixation frame. However, the inter-individual existence and variance concerning secure IA screw corridors are poorly understood...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768121/a-biomechanical-comparison-of-initial-sprint-acceleration-performance-and-technique-in-an-elite-athlete-with-cerebral-palsy-and-able-bodied-sprinters
#2
Ian N Bezodis, James Cowburn, Adam Brazil, Rhian Richardson, Cassie Wilson, Timothy A Exell, Gareth Irwin
Cerebral palsy is known to generally limit range of motion and force producing capability during movement. It also limits sprint performance, but the exact mechanisms underpinning this are not well known. One elite male T36 multiple-Paralympic sprint medallist (T36) and 16 well-trained able-bodied (AB) sprinters each performed 5-6 maximal sprints from starting blocks. Whole-body kinematics (250 Hz) in the block phase and first two steps, and synchronised external forces (1,000 Hz) in the first stance phase after block exit were combined to quantify lower limb joint kinetics...
May 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761113/differences-in-hip-joint-biomechanics-and-muscle-activation-in-individuals-with-femoroacetabular-impingement-compared-with-healthy-asymptomatic-individuals-is-level-ground-gait-analysis-enough
#3
Derek J Rutherford, Janice Moreside, Ivan Wong
Background: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a recognized cause of hip and groin pain and a significant factor in hip joint function during sport. Objective tests for understanding hip function are lacking in this population. Purpose: To determine whether biomechanical and electromyographic features of hip function during level-ground walking differ between a group diagnosed with FAI and those with no symptoms of FAI. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study...
May 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739283/isokinetic-dynamometry-and-gait-analysis-reveal-different-hip-joint-status-in-patients-with-hip-dysplasia
#4
Henrik Sørensen, Dennis B Nielsen, Julie S Jacobsen, Kjeld Søballe, Inger Mechlenburg
BACKGROUND: Objective assessment of hip dysplasia patients' functional hip joint status routinely involves gait analysis or isokinetic dynamometry. However, these methods have shown equivocal results and have not been employed in the same groups of patients and controls. PURPOSE: To assess hip flexor and abductor moments by isokinetic dynamometry in the dysplasia patient and controls, for which we previously reported smaller flexor and slightly larger abductor moments during gait in patients compared to controls...
May 1, 2018: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734816/hip-resurfacing-with-a-highly-cross-linked-polyethylene-acetabular-liner-and-a-titanium-nitride-coated-femoral-component
#5
James W Pritchett
AIMS: This study evaluated a specific hip resurfacing system to determine the: (1) function and complications, (2) implant survivorship, (3) acetabular bone conservation and joint biomechanics and (4) osteolysis and polyethylene wear. METHODS: I performed 234 resurfacing procedures (192 patients) using a two-piece titanium acetabular component with a 4 mm highly cross-linked polyethylene liner and a cementless titanium nitride-coated titanium femoral component. Function was assessed with Harris Hip, WOMAC, SF-12, and UCLA scores...
May 1, 2018: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729612/joint-kinematics-and-ground-reaction-forces-in-overground-versus-treadmill-graded-running
#6
Colin R Firminger, Gianluca Vernillo, Aldo Savoldelli, Darren J Stefanyshyn, Guillaume Y Millet, W Brent Edwards
BACKGROUND: Treadmills are often used to assess running biomechanics, however the validity of applying results from treadmill graded running to overground graded running is currently unknown. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether treadmill and overground graded running have comparable kinematics and ground reaction force parameters. METHODS: Eleven healthy male adults ran overground and on an instrumented treadmill as motion capture and force platform data were collected for the following conditions: downhill running at a slope of -8° at 10, 13 and 16 km⋅h-1 ; level running at 10 and 13 km⋅h-1 ; uphill running at a slope of +8° at 8, 10 and 13 km⋅h-1 ...
April 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723652/kinetic-differences-between-level-walking-and-ramp-descent-in-individuals-with-unilateral-transfemoral-amputation-using-a-prosthetic-knee-without-a-stance-control-mechanism
#7
Yusuke Okita, Nobuya Yamasaki, Takashi Nakamura, Tsutomu Kubo, Atsuko Mitsumoto, Toru Akune
BACKGROUND: Individuals with transfemoral amputation (TFA) have difficulty in descending ramps. Although individuals with TFA who descend ramps are speculated to have greater biomechanical demands, this has not been quantified. RESEARCH QUESTION: How do individuals with TFA wearing a prosthetic knee without a stance control mechanism adapt their gait biomechanics to a slightly declined surface? METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of level walking and ramp descent (5° decline) from six subjects with TFA who used a prosthesis without a stance control mechanism...
April 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715363/hip-joint-contact-pressure-distribution-during-pavlik-harness-treatment-of-an-infant-hip-a-patient-specific-finite-element-model
#8
Behzad Vafaeian, Samer Adeeb, Marwan El-Rich, Dornoosh Zonoobi, Abhilash R Hareendranathan, Jacob L Jaremko
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in infants under 6 months of age is typically treated by the Pavlik harness (PH). During successful PH treatment, a subluxed/dislocated hip is spontaneously reduced into the acetabulum, and DDH undergoes self-correction. PH treatment may fail due to avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. An improved understanding of mechanical factors accounting for the success/failure of PH treatment may arise from investigating articular cartilage contact pressure (CCP) within a hip during treatment...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698301/is-there-an-association-between-borderline-to-mild-dysplasia-and-hip-osteoarthritis-analysis-of-ct-osteoabsorptiometry
#9
Tohru Irie, Daisuke Takahashi, Tsuyoshi Asano, Ryuta Arai, Muhammad Alaa Terkawi, Yoichi M Ito, Norimasa Iwasaki
BACKGROUND: The definitive treatment of borderline-to-mild dysplasia remains controversial. A more comprehensive understanding of the etiology of osteoarthritis (OA) and clarification of any possible association between borderline-to-mild dysplasia and the pathogenesis of OA are essential. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Does the distribution of acetabular subchondral bone density increase according to dysplasia severity? (2) Is there an association between borderline-to-mild dysplasia and OA pathogenesis? METHODS: We evaluated bilateral hips of patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip who underwent eccentric rotational acetabular osteotomy (ERAO) for inclusion in the dysplasia group and contralateral hips of patients with unilateral idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) who underwent curved intertrochanteric varus osteotomy (CVO) for the control group...
April 23, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680494/femur-loading-in-feet-first-fall-experiments-using-an-anthropomorphic-test-device
#10
Angela Thompson, Gina Bertocci, Craig Smalley
BACKGROUND: Femur fractures are a common orthopedic injury in young children. Falls account for a large portion of accidental femur fractures in young children, but there is also a high prevalence of femur fractures in child abuse, with falls often provided as false histories. Objective information regarding fracture potential in short distance fall scenarios may aid in assessing whether a child's injuries are the result of abuse or an accidental fall. Knowledge of femur loading is the first step towards understanding likelihood of fracture in a fall...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658524/reference-values-of-spatiotemporal-parameters-joint-angles-ground-reaction-forces-and-plantar-pressure-distribution-during-normal-gait-in-young-women
#11
Anna Fryzowicz, Michał Murawa, Jarosław Kabaciński, Agata Rzepnicka, Lechosław B Dworak
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to establish the reference values of spatiotemporal parameters, joint angles, ground reaction forces and plantar pressure distribution collected simultaneously on the same measurement path during normal gait in a homogenous group of young, healthy women. METHODS: The studied group consisted of 28 healthy women aged 21 years on average. The motion capture system BTS Smart-D, 2 AMTI force platforms and Footscan pedobarographic platform were used in this research...
2018: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658520/biomechanical-characterization-of-slope-walking-using-musculoskeletal-model-simulation
#12
Masayuki Kawada, Kazutaka Hata, Ryoji Kiyama, Tetsuo Maeda, Kazunori Yone
PURPOSE: Upslope and downslope walking are basic activities necessary for normal daily living in community, and they impose greater joint load on the lower extremities than during level walking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to quantify the resultant and shear forces in the hip and knee joints during slope walking. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers were evaluated when walking under level and 10° up- and downslope conditions. Three-dimensional gait analysis was conducted using a 7-camera optoelectronic motion analysis system combined with a force plate to measure ground reactive force...
2018: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625413/a-novel-approach-for-the-detection-and-exploration-of-joint-coupling-patterns-in-the-lower-limb-kinetic-chain
#13
Kevin Deschamps, Maarten Eerdekens, Jurre Geentjens, Lieselot Santermans, Lien Steurs, Bart Dingenen, Maarten Thysen, Filip Staes
BACKGROUND: A comprehensive perspective on foot and lower limb joint coupling is lacking since previous studies did not consider the multi-articular nature of the foot and lower limb neither accounted for biomechanical heterogeneity. RESEARCH QUESTION: The current manuscript describes a novel methodological process for detection and exploration of joint coupling patterns in the lower limb kinetic chain. METHODS: The first stage of the methodological process encompasses the measurement of 3D joint kinematics of the foot and lower limb kinetic chain during dynamic activities...
March 31, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625190/sacroiliac-joint-dysfunction-patients-exhibit-altered-movement-strategies-when-performing-a-sit-to-stand-task
#14
Robyn A Capobianco, Daniel F Feeney, Jana R Jeffers, Erika Nelson-Wong, Joseph Morreale, Alena M Grabowski, Roger M Enoka
OF BACKGROUND DATA: The ability to rise from a chair is a basic functional task that is frequently compromised in individuals diagnosed with orthopedic disorders in the low back and hip. There is no published literature that describes how this task is altered by sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SIJD). PURPOSE: To compare lower extremity biomechanics and the onset of muscle activity when rising from a chair in individuals with SIJD and healthy persons. STUDY DESIGN: Six women with unilateral SIJD and six age-matched healthy controls performed a sit-to-stand task while we measured kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity...
April 3, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609158/lower-extremity-power-training-improves-healthy-old-adults-gait-biomechanics
#15
Azusa Uematsu, Tibor Hortobágyi, Kazushi Tsuchiya, Norio Kadono, Hirofumi Kobayashi, Tomoya Ogawa, Shuji Suzuki
PURPOSE: Age-related slowing of gait speed predicts many clinical conditions in later life. We examined the kinematic and kinetic mechanisms of how lower extremity power training increases healthy old adults' gait speed. METHODS: We randomly allocated old adults to a training (age 74.3 y, 9 males, 6 females) and a control group (age 73.6 y, 3 males, 4 females) and compared the biomechanics of habitual and fast gait before and after 16 sessions (8 weeks) of lower extremity power training...
March 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602475/concurrent-validation-of-an-inertial-measurement-system-to-quantify-kicking-biomechanics-in-four-football-codes
#16
Stephanie Blair, Grant Duthie, Sam Robertson, William Hopkins, Kevin Ball
Wearable inertial measurement systems (IMS) allow for three-dimensional analysis of human movements in a sport-specific setting. This study examined the concurrent validity of a IMS (Xsens MVN system) for measuring lower extremity and pelvis kinematics in comparison to a Vicon motion analysis system (MAS) during kicking. Thirty footballers from Australian football (n = 10), soccer (n = 10), rugby league and rugby union (n = 10) clubs completed 20 kicks across four conditions. Concurrent validity was assessed using a linear mixed-modelling approach, which allowed the partition of between and within-subject variance from the device measurement error...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587391/nondestructive-estimation-of-muscle-contributions-to-sts-training-with-different-loadings-based-on-wearable-sensor-system
#17
Kun Liu, Yong Liu, Jianchao Yan, Zhenyuan Sun
Partial body weight support or loading sit-to-stand (STS) rehabilitation can be useful for persons with lower limb dysfunction to achieve movement again based on the internal residual muscle force and external assistance. To explicate how the muscles contribute to the kinetics and kinematics of STS performance by non-invasive in vitro detection and to nondestructively estimate the muscle contributions to STS training with different loadings, a wearable sensor system was developed with ground reaction force (GRF) platforms, motion capture inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) sensors...
March 25, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550694/new-lower-limb-gait-biomechanical-characteristics-in-individuals-with-achilles-tendinopathy-a-systematic-review-update
#18
REVIEW
Ikponmwonsa Ogbonmwan, Bhavesh D Kumar, Bruce Paton
BACKGROUND: Variations in lower-limb biomechanics have recurrently been associated as aetiological factors for Achilles tendinopathy. OBJECTIVE: To update a previous systematic review examining lower-limb gait biomechanics in Achilles tendinopathy. DESIGN: Systematic Review. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL PLUS, SPORTDiscus and PUBMED databases searched from inception to May 2016. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Studies investigating adults with Achilles tendinopathy and lower-limb gait biomechanics including kinematics, kinetics, dynamic plantar-pressures, temporospatial parameters and muscle activity...
May 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529625/femoral-component-external-rotation-affects-knee-biomechanics-a-computational-model-of-posterior-stabilized-tka
#19
Mohammad Kia, Timothy M Wright, Michael B Cross, David J Mayman, Andrew D Pearle, Peter K Sculco, Geoffrey H Westrich, Carl W Imhauser
BACKGROUND: The correct amount of external rotation of the femoral component during TKA is controversial because the resulting changes in biomechanical knee function associated with varying degrees of femoral component rotation are not well understood. We addressed this question using a computational model, which allowed us to isolate the biomechanical impact of geometric factors including bony shapes, location of ligament insertions, and implant size across three different knees after posterior-stabilized (PS) TKA...
January 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528687/peak-lower-extremity-landing-kinematics-in-dancers-and-nondancers
#20
Bethany L Hansberger, Shellie Acocello, Lindsay V Slater, Joseph M Hart, Jatin P Ambegaonkar
CONTEXT:   Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries often occur during jump landings and can have detrimental short-term and long-term functional effects on quality of life. Despite frequently performing jump landings, dancers have lower incidence rates of ACL injury than other jump-landing athletes. Planned versus unplanned activities and footwear may explain differing ACL-injury rates among dancers and nondancers. Still, few researchers have compared landing biomechanics between dancers and nondancers...
April 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
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