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Biomechanics of hip joint

Daniel J Southwell, Shane A Petersen, Tyson A C Beach, Ryan B Graham
Altering footwear worn during performance of the barbell back squat has been shown to change motion patterns, but it is not completely understood how this affects biomechanical loading demands. The primary objective was to compare lower back and extremity net joint moments in 24 experienced weightlifters (12M, 12F) who performed 80% one-repetition maximum back squats under three different footwear conditions (barefoot, running shoes, weightlifting shoes). Results showed that there was a significant main effect of footwear condition on the knee extension moment (p=0...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Mark W Creaby, Conor Honeywill, Melinda M Franettovich Smith, Anthony G Schache, Kay M Crossley
PURPOSE: Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a prevalent injury in running sports. Understanding the biomechanical factors associated with AT will assist in its management and prevention. The purpose of this study was to compare hip and ankle kinematics and kinetics in runners with and without AT. METHODS: Fourteen male runners with AT and eleven healthy male runners (CTRL) ran over-ground whilst lower-limb joint motion and ground reaction force data were synchronously captured...
October 17, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Bhupinder Singh, Huy Vo, Shelby L Francis, Kathleen F Janz, John H Yack
PURPOSE: This study assessed the biomechanical gait changes in obese and normal weight female adult subjects following a commonly recommended 30-minute walking session. Hip and knee adduction and extensor moments, which are the primary modulators of frontal and sagittal plane load distribution were hypothesized to increase in obese females following a 30-minute walking period, resulting in more stress across the hip and knee joint. METHODS: Ten obese (37.7 ± 4...
October 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
E K Greska, N Cortes, S I Ringleb, J A Onate, B L Van Lunen
Previous studies have shown conflicting information regarding leg dominance as an etiological factor for the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. It remains unclear if lower extremity neuromechanical limb asymmetries exist in experienced athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate lower extremity neuromechanical effects of leg dominance in female collegiate soccer athletes during an unanticipated side-step cutting task. Twenty female collegiate soccer players completed an unanticipated side-step cutting task, using their dominant and non-dominant legs...
October 17, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Michael A Samaan, Benedikt J Schwaiger, Matthew C Gallo, Thomas M Link, Alan L Zhang, Sharmila Majumdar, Richard B Souza
BACKGROUND: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a morphological abnormality of the hip joint that causes pain when performing a mechanically demanding activity of daily living such as the sit-to-stand (STS) task. Previous studies have assessed lower extremity joint mechanics during a STS task in various pathologies yet the STS task has not been studied in FAI patients. OBJECTIVE: To identify differences in joint kinetics and performance between FAI patients and healthy controls during a STS task...
October 8, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Ssu-Yu Chang, Yi-Jia Lin, Wei-Chun Hsu, Lin-Fen Hsieh, Yuan-Hsiang Lin, Chao-Chin Chang, You-Cai Chou, Li-Fei Chen
Six female patients with bilateral medial knee OA and 6 healthy controls were recruited. Patients with knee OA received a 6-week physiotherapist-supervised and home-based exercise program. Outcome measures, including the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and Short Form-36 Health Survey as well as objective biomechanical indices were obtained at baseline and follow-up. After treatment, no significant difference was observed in the knee abductor moment (KAM), lever arm, and ground reaction force...
2016: BioMed Research International
R Grunert, S Schleifenbaum, R Möbius, G Sommer, D Zajonz, N Hammer, T Prietzel
Background: In total hip arthroplasty (THA), femoral head diameter has not been regarded as a key parameter which should be restored when reconstructing joint biomechanics and geometry. Apart from the controversial discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of using larger diameter heads, their higher cost is another important reason that they have only been used to a limited extent. The goal of this study was to analyse the price structure of prosthetic heads in comparison to other components used in THA...
October 7, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Arielle G Fischer, Alon Wolf
BACKGROUND: Body weight unloading is a common method of gait rehabilitation. However, little is known about its effects on the overground gait biomechanical parameters which were often confounded by the walking modality (treadmill) or the speed variability when subjects walked overground while having to pull the body weight unloading system to which they were attached. By designing a mechanical device that pulled the system at a constant speed, we were able to assess the unique effects of body weight unloading on healthy subjects' kinetics during overground gait...
September 13, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Monan Wang, Lei Wang, Pengcheng Li, Yili Fu
Understanding the hip joint surface contact stress distribution characteristics is helpful to determine hip joint biomechanical features and abnormal pathological behavior. Firstly, a 3-dimensional static hip joint biomechanical model is built using analytical method of model in order to study biomechanical properties including bearing area, stress distribution and the peak value of the contact stress of the femoral head, which reveals the relationship between the biomechanical properties and its geometric parameters...
October 3, 2016: Bioengineered
Mehmet E Tezcan, Berna Goker, Roy Lidtke, Joel A Block
BACKGROUND: Lateral wedge insoles have been used for the treatment of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) and have been shown to reduce loading of the medial compartment of the knee. However, as the entire lower extremity acts as a single kinetic chain, altering the biomechanics of the knee may also have significant effects at the ankles or hips. We aimed to evaluate the effects of lateral wedge orthotics on ankle and hip joints, compared to neutral orthotics, by assessing the changes in joint space width (JSW) during 36 months of continuous use...
September 21, 2016: Gait & Posture
Niccolo M Fiorentino, Penny R Atkins, Michael J Kutschke, K Bo Foreman, Andrew E Anderson
Hip joint center (HJC) measurement error can adversely affect predictions from biomechanical models. Soft tissue artifact (STA) may exacerbate HJC errors during dynamic motions. We quantified HJC error and the effect of STA in 11 young, asymptomatic adults during six activities. Subjects were imaged simultaneously with reflective skin markers (SM) and dual fluoroscopy (DF), an x-ray based technique with submillimeter accuracy that does not suffer from STA. Five HJCs were defined from locations of SM using three predictive (i...
September 11, 2016: Gait & Posture
Suzi Edwards, Hiram C Brooke, Jill L Cook
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the differences in the magnitude of movement variability and strategies utilized during an unanticipated cut task between players with and without a history of groin pain. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. SETTING: Biomechanics laboratory. PARTICIANTS: Male Australian football players with (HISTORY; n = 7) or without (CONTROL; n = 10) a history of groin pain. OUTCOME MEASURES: Three-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRF) and kinematics were recorded during 10 successful trials of an unanticipated cut task, and isokinetic hip adduction and abduction strength...
July 22, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
Dia Eldean Giebaly, Haider Twaij, Mazin Ibrahim, Fares S Haddad
INTRODUCTION: Total hip replacement is a successful procedure with long survival records compared to other joint arthroplasties. Cemented implants have been available for many years, however the complications associated with loosening and, ultimately, failure over time has led to the development of cementless stems and implants.The ideal prosthesis should recreate a biomechanically normal hip joint, allow pain-free function and last the patient's life span without requiring revision. Optimal results with uncemented femoral stems rely on obtaining initial stability, osseointegration, biological fixation, and uniform stress transfer to the proximal bone...
September 29, 2016: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
Jesse M Charlton Bpec Cscs, Connor A Hammond, Christopher K Cochrane, Gillian L Hatfield, Michael A Hunt
Barbell back squats are a popular exercise for developing lower extremity strength and power. However, this exercise has potential injury risks, particularly to the lumbar spine, pelvis and hip joint. Previous literature suggests heel wedges as a means of favourably adjusting trunk and pelvis kinematics with the intention of reducing such injury risks. Yet no direct biomechanical research exists to support these recommendations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of heel wedges compared to barefoot on minimally loaded barbell back squats...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
A Hammer
It was 140 years ago that George von Meyer presented his anatomical diagrams of human bones to a meeting in Zurich. There he was told by Prof. Karl Culmann that the trabecular lines shown within the diagram of the upper femur closely resembled those lines of force which Culmann had determined with Graphic Statics to be passing through a curved, loaded Fairbairn crane. This drew the attention of Julius Wolff, who used this as the basis for his 'Trajectorial theory' which was widely accepted and, to date, has been the underlying basis for all biomechanical investigations of this region...
September 24, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Jorge Chahla, Jacob D Mikula, Jason M Schon, Chase S Dean, Kimi D Dahl, Travis J Menge, Eduardo Soares, Travis Lee Turnbull, Robert F LaPrade, Marc J Philippon
BACKGROUND: Hip capsulotomy is routinely performed during arthroscopic surgery to achieve adequate exposure of the joint. Iatrogenic instability can result after hip arthroscopic surgery because of capsular insufficiency, which can be avoided with effective closure of the hip capsule. There is currently no consensus in the literature regarding the optimal quantity of sutures upon capsular closure to achieve maximal stability postoperatively. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to determine the failure torques of 1-, 2-, and 3-suture constructs for hip capsular closure to resist external rotation and extension after standard anterosuperior interportal capsulotomy (12 to 3 o'clock)...
September 22, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Bhupinder Singh, Megan G Negatu, Shelby L Francis, Kathleen F Janz, H John Yack
: The purpose of this study was to determine how an overweight or obese child's cardiorespiratory fitness level and a state of fatigue affect gait biomechanics. METHODS: Using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, twenty-nine (female and male) overweight and obese children aged 8-11 years walked on force plates before and after being fatigued from the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) protocol. Joint moments were calculated for the knee and hip in the frontal and sagittal planes...
September 8, 2016: Gait & Posture
Juan Gómez-Hoyos, Anthony Khoury, Ricardo Schröder, Eric Johnson, Ian J Palmer, Hal D Martin
PURPOSE: To assess the relation between ischiofemoral impingement (IFI) and lumbar facet joint load during hip extension in cadavers. METHODS: Twelve hips in 6 fresh T1-to-toes cadaveric specimens were tested. A complete pretesting imaging evaluation was performed using computed tomography scan. Cadavers were positioned in lateral decubitus and fixed to a dissection table. Both legs were placed on a frame in a simulated walking position. Through a posterior lumbar spine approach L3-4 and L4-5 facet joints were dissected bilaterally...
September 3, 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Adam Brazil, Timothy Exell, Cassie Wilson, Steffen Willwacher, Ian Bezodis, Gareth Irwin
The aim of this study was to examine lower limb joint kinetics during the block and first stance phases in athletic sprinting. Ten male sprinters (100 m PB, 10.50 ± 0.27 s) performed maximal sprint starts from blocks. External force (1000 Hz) and three-dimensional kinematics (250 Hz) were recorded in both the block (utilising instrumented starting blocks) and subsequent first stance phases. Ankle, knee and hip resultant joint moment, power and work were calculated at the rear and front leg during the block phase and during first stance using inverse dynamics...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Emily Miller, Kenton Kaufman, Trevor Kingsbury, Erik Wolf, Jason Wilken, Marilynn Wyatt
The purpose of this study was to use simple mechanical tests to evaluate the reliability of three-dimensional motion analysis systems and biomechanical models. Three different tests were conducted at four motion analysis laboratories where clinical care and research studies are routinely performed. The laboratories had different motion capture systems, different types and number of cameras, different types and numbers of force plates and different biomechanical models. These mechanical tests evaluated the accuracy of the motion capture system, the integration of the force plate and the motion capture system, and the strength of the biomechanical model used to calculate rotational kinematics...
August 30, 2016: Gait & Posture
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