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Gas agents

Jianliang Sun, Lianghai Li, Guangying Zhou, Xue Wang, Liang Zhang, Yueping Liu, Jierui Yang, Xianghong Lü, Feng Jiang
The conventional flue gas treatment technologies require high capital investments and chemical costs, which limit their application in industrial sectors. This study developed a sulfur-cycling technology to integrate sulfide production by biological sulfur reduction and simultaneous catalytic desulfurization and denitrification with H2 S (H2 S-SCDD) for flue gas treatment and sulfur recovery. In a packed bed reactor, high-rate sulfide production (1.63 ± 0.16 kg S/m3 -d) from biological sulfur reduction was achieved using organics in wastewater as electron donors at pH around 5...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Satyanarayana Achanta, Narendranath Reddy Chintagari, Marian Brackmann, Shrilatha Balakrishna, Sven-Eric Jordt
The skin is highly sensitive to the chemical warfare agent in mustard gas, sulfur mustard (SM) that initiates a delayed injury response characterized by erythema, inflammation and severe vesication (blistering). Although SM poses a continuing threat, used as recently as in the Syrian conflict, no mechanism-based antidotes against SM are available. Recent studies demonstrated that Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a chemosensory cation channel in sensory nerves innervating the skin, is activated by SM and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), an SM analog, in vitro, suggesting it may promote vesicant injury...
March 10, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Hao Wang, William P Lustig, Jing Li
Toxic and hazardous chemical species are ubiquitous, predominantly emitted by anthropogenic activities, and pose serious risks to human health and the environment. Thus, the sensing and subsequent capture of these chemicals, especially in the gas or vapor phase, are of extreme importance. To this end, metal-organic frameworks have attracted significant interest, as their high porosity and wide tunability make them ideal for both applications. These tailorable framework materials are particularly promising for the specific sensing and capture of targeted chemicals, as they can be designed to fit a diverse range of required conditions...
March 13, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Haiting Chen, Huifang Wang, Jianbin An, Qingli Shang, Jingxue Ma
BACKGROUND This study aimed to explore the effects of plumbagin (PLB) on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) rabbit models. MATERIAL AND METHODS Rabbit RPE cells were exposed to various concentrations (0, 5, 15, and 25 µM) of PLB. Motility, migration, and invasion of PLB-treated cells were determined in vitro using Transwell chamber assays and scratch wound assays. The contractile ability was evaluated by cell contraction assay...
March 13, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Milica Ljaljević Grbić, Nikola Unković, Ivica Dimkić, Peđa Janaćković, Milan Gavrilović, Olja Stanojević, Miloš Stupar, Ljubodrag Vujisić, Aleksa Jelikić, Slaviša Stanković, Jelena Vukojević
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Essential oils obtained from resins of Boswellia carteri Birdw. and Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl., commonly known as frankincense and true myrrh respectively, have been used extensively since 2800 B.C. for the treatment of skin sores, wounds, teeth, inflammation, and urinary tract diseases in traditional medicine; for preparation of mummification balms and unguents; and also as incense and perfumes. Since ancient times, burning of frankincense and myrrh in places of worship for spiritual purposes and contemplation (a ubiquitous practice across various religions) had hygienic functions, to refine the smell and reduce contagion by purifying the indoor air...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
V Lew, E McKay, M Maze
Introduction: For a drug that has been omnipresent for nearly 200 years, nitrous oxide's (N2O) future seems less certain than its illustrious past. Environmental concerns are coming to the fore and may yet outweigh important clinical benefits. Sources of data: After determining the scope of the review, the authors used PubMed with select phrases encompassing the words in the scope. Both preclinical and clinical reports were considered. Areas of agreement: The analgesic and anaesthetic advantages of N2O remain despite a plethora of newer agents...
March 8, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Masanori Ando, Vasudevanpillai Biju, Yasushi Shigeri
Ozone (O3 ) gas is widely used as a strong oxidizing agent for many purposes, such as the decomposition/removal of organic contaminants and photoresist, and the deodorization/disinfection of air and water. However, ozone is highly toxic to the human body when the air concentration exceeds about 1 ppm. Therefore, there is increasing demand for simple, sensitive, reliable, and cost-effective techniques for sensing ozone gas. This article describes the features, advantages, and disadvantages of the available, practical techniques for sensing ozone gas in ambient air...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Shota Hodono, Akihiro Shimokawa, Neil J Stewart, Yukiko Yamauchi, Renya Nishimori, Mami Yamane, Hirohiko Imai, Hideaki Fujiwara, Atsuomi Kimura
PURPOSE: High Mobility Group Box1 (HMGB1), which is one of the damage-associated molecular pattern molecules relating to various inflammatory diseases, has gained interest as a therapeutic target because of its involvement in wound healing processes. In the present study, we investigated HMGB1 as a potential therapeutic target in a model of lung fibrosis using a preclinical hyperpolarized129 Xe (HPXe) MRI system. METHODS: Lung injury was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of bleomycin (BLM) in 19 mice...
March 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Sepideh Samiee, Samira Taghvaeian
A series of [M(diimine)(dithiolate)] complexes of general formula [M(bpy)(dithiolate)] {bpy=2,2'-bipyridine;dithiolate=1,2-benzenedithiolate (bdt2- ), 3,4-toluenedithiolate (tdt2- ) and 4-cyanobenzene-1,2-dithiolate (cbdt2- ); M=Ni(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II)} have been studied by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. The geometries, stabilities, electronic structures, optical absorption spectra in different phases as well as thermodynamic parameters are explored...
March 6, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Alper Bayrakdar, Recep Önder Sürmeli, Baris Çalli
This study pioneered the use of a single-stage methanogenic leach bed reactor (LBR) for high-solids (total solid content: 14%-16%) anaerobic mono-digestion of chicken manure. Chicken manure was loaded into the LBR in cloth sachets without adding any bulking agents. Ammonia was separated and recovered by placing a hydrophobic gas diffusion membrane in a leachate collection chamber. Methane production in the membrane-integrated LBR was 0.272 m3 /kgVS and 2.3 times higher than that in the control LBR. The results revealed that using membrane-integrated LBR for anaerobic digestion is a simple and cost-efficient technology for the mono-digestion of chicken manure and ammonia removal...
February 27, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Zhenling Cui, Hongyan Zhang, Xinping Chen, Chaochun Zhang, Wenqi Ma, Chengdong Huang, Weifeng Zhang, Guohua Mi, Yuxin Miao, Xiaolin Li, Qiang Gao, Jianchang Yang, Zhaohui Wang, Youliang Ye, Shiwei Guo, Jianwei Lu, Jianliang Huang, Shihua Lv, Yixiang Sun, Yuanying Liu, Xianlong Peng, Jun Ren, Shiqing Li, Xiping Deng, Xiaojun Shi, Qiang Zhang, Zhiping Yang, Li Tang, Changzhou Wei, Liangliang Jia, Jiwang Zhang, Mingrong He, Yanan Tong, Qiyuan Tang, Xuhua Zhong, Zhaohui Liu, Ning Cao, Changlin Kou, Hao Ying, Yulong Yin, Xiaoqiang Jiao, Qingsong Zhang, Mingsheng Fan, Rongfeng Jiang, Fusuo Zhang, Zhengxia Dou
Sustainably feeding a growing population is a grand challenge, and one that is particularly difficult in regions that are dominated by smallholder farming. Despite local successes, mobilizing vast smallholder communities with science- and evidence-based management practices to simultaneously address production and pollution problems has been infeasible. Here we report the outcome of concerted efforts in engaging millions of Chinese smallholder farmers to adopt enhanced management practices for greater yield and environmental performance...
March 7, 2018: Nature
Prithwish K Nandi, Christian J Burnham, Niall J English
Elucidating water-to-ice freezing, especially in "No Man's Land" (150 K < T < 235 K), is fundamentally important (e.g., predicting upper-troposphere cirrus-cloud formation) - and elusive. An oft-neglected aspect of tropospheric ice-crystallite formation lies in inevitably-present electric fields' role. Exploring nucleation in No Man's Land is technically demanding, owing to rapid nucleation rates, to mention nothing of difficulties of applying relevant electric fields thereto. Here, we tackle these intriguing open questions, via non-equilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations of sub-microsecond formation of rhombus-shaped ice Ic nano-crystallites from aggressively-quenched supercooled water nano-droplets in the gas phase, in external static electric fields...
March 7, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Takeshi Yamamoto
High-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life-threatening disorder associated with high mortality and morbidity. Most deaths in patients with shock occur within the first few hours after presentation, and rapid diagnosis and treatment is therefore essential to save patients' lives. The main manifestations of major PE are acute right ventricular (RV) failure and hypoxia. RV pressure overload is predominantly related to the interaction between the mechanical pulmonary vascular obstruction and the underlying cardiopulmonary status...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
C A González-Bermúdez, R López-Nicolás, P Peso-Echarri, C Frontela-Saseta, C Martínez-Graciá
Infant microbiota has to progress from an almost sterile to a complex and varied community, so the main objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three thickening ingredients on infant microbiota, as well as their in vitro gut fermentability. Experiments were performed using fresh faecal samples from healthy donors of 2-3 months of age. Stabilised stool samples were injected into Wheaton serum bottles containing pre-reduced MBM and 1% (w/v) fermentation substrates (locust bean gum, LBG; maize hydroxypropylated distarch phosphate, Mhdp; and pre-gelatinized rice starch, gRS)...
March 6, 2018: Food & Function
Mehdi Dehghani Firoozabadi, Mohammad Ali Sheikhi, Hossein Rahmani, Ahmad Ebadi, Amanollah Heidari, Behnam Gholizadeh, Khosrow Sharifi
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a toxic chemical agent that belongs to a class of vesicant compounds. In the 1980s it was used by the Iraqi army against Iranian forces. Sulfur mustard severely irritates the skin, eyes and lungs. The highest side effects seen in patients affected by this gas are pulmonary complications including different types of lung diseases such as bronchiolitis. It has also led to a certain type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease called mustard lung. Similar extra-pulmonary, molecular and hormonal effects can be observed in these patients and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
October 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
John P Buchweitz, Keri Carson, Sarah Rebolloso, Andreas Lehner
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is an insecticidal organochlorine pesticide with; known potential for neurotoxic effects in wildlife. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) registration for this pesticide has been cancelled and there are currently no federally active products that contain this ingredient in the U.S. We present a case of a colony of big brown bats (E. Fuscus) found dead in the attic roost of an administrative building; in the city of Hamilton, Montana from unknown cause...
February 26, 2018: Chemosphere
Joseph A Singh, Nick F W Thissen, Woo-Hee Kim, Hannah Johnson, Wilhelmus M M Kessels, Ageeth A Bol, Stacey F Bent, Adriaan J M Mackus
Area-selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) is envisioned to play a key role in next-generation semiconductor processing and can also provide new opportunities in the field of catalysis. In this work, we developed an approach for the area-selective deposition of metal oxides on noble metals. Using O2 gas as co-reactant, area-selective ALD has been achieved by relying on the catalytic dissociation of the oxygen molecules on the noble metal surface, while no deposition takes place on inert surfaces that do not dissociate oxygen (i...
February 13, 2018: Chemistry of Materials: a Publication of the American Chemical Society
Zhu-Wei Zhang, Dong-Ping Zhang, Hai-Ying Li, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
Stroke that is caused by poor blood flow into the brain results in cell death, including ischemia stroke due to lack of blood into brain tissue, and hemorrhage due to bleeding. Both of them will give rise to the dysfunction of brain. In general, the signs and symptoms of stroke are the inability of feeling or moving on one side of body, sometimes loss of vision to one side. Above symptoms will appear soon after the stroke has happened. If the symptoms and signs happen in 1 or 2 hours, we often call them as transient ischemic attack...
October 2017: Medical Gas Research
Christopher Hernandez, Lenitza Nieves, Al C de Leon, Rigoberto Advincula, Agata A Exner
Shell-stabilized gas nanobubbles have recently captured the interest of the research community for their potential application as ultrasound contrast agents for molecular imaging and therapy of cancer. However, the very existence of sub-micron gas bubbles (especially uncoated bubbles) has been a subject of controversy in part due to their predicted Laplace overpressure reaching several atmospheres, making them supposedly thermodynamically unstable. In addition, the backscatter resulting from ultrasound interaction with nanoparticles should not be readily detectable at clinically-relevant frequencies...
March 1, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jing Jin, Xiang Zhao, Pingyun Feng, Xianhui Bu
A new strategy for creating homochiral metal-organic frameworks through a fusion of pillaring and templating concepts is demonstrated. This strategy makes use of the synergy among various chemical interactions during self-assembly processes, and leads to the synthesis of a series of homochiral frameworks. In the presence of only pillar-to-pillar π-π interactions, inter-pillar forces compete against metal-pillar interactions, resulting in mismatch between pillar-to-pillar and metal-to-metal separations and consequently 2D materials without pillaring...
March 1, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
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