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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065636/neuroprotection-and-neurotoxicity-in-the-developing-brain-an-update-on-the-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-and-xenon
#1
Azeem Alam, Ka Chun Suen, Zac Hana, Robert D Sanders, Mervyn Maze, Daqing Ma
Growing and consistent preclinical evidence, combined with early clinical epidemiological observations, suggest potentially neurotoxic effects of commonly used anesthetic agents in the developing brain. This has prompted the FDA to issue a safety warning for all sedatives and anesthetics approved for use in children under three years of age. Recent studies have identified dexmedetomidine, the potent α2-adrenoceptor agonist, and xenon, the noble gas, as effective anesthetic adjuvants that are both less neurotoxic to the developing brain, and also possess neuroprotective properties in neonatal and other settings of acute ongoing neurologic injury...
January 5, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064506/simultaneous-analysis-of-3-mcpd-and-1-3-dcp-in-asian-style-sauces-using-quechers-extraction-and-gas-chromatography-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry
#2
Susan Genualdi, Patricia Jean Nyman, Lowri S deJager
Acid hydrolyzed vegetable protein (aHVP) is used for flavoring a wide variety of foods and also in the production of non-fermented soy sauce. During the production of aHVP, chloropropanols including 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and 1,3 dichloropropane-2-ol (1,3-DCP) can be formed through the reaction of the hydrochloric acid catalyst and residual fat and the reaction of 3-MCPD with acetic acid, respectively. 3-MCPD is a carcinogen and 1,3-DCP has been classified as a genotoxic carcinogen. The European Union (EU) has set a maximum concentration of 0...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063118/environmental-monitoring-by-surface-sampling-for-cytotoxics-a-review
#3
Petit Marie, Curti Christophe, Roche Manon, Montana Marc, Bornet Charleric, Vanelle Patrice
Environmental monitoring is usually conducted by surface sampling to detect and quantify the presence of cytotoxic drugs after their reconstitution and administration. This technique reveals the origins of residual contamination and is an important component in order to protect healthcare workers from the potential risk of occupational exposure. The aim of this work is to compare various techniques and results of surface sampling for cytotoxics. For each technique, sample processing methods and their analysis were compared from literature data...
January 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052349/chemical-composition-and-antifungal-activity-of-carica-papaya-linn-seeds-essential-oil-against-candida-spp
#4
Xiaowen He, Yinzheng Ma, Guohui Yi, Jinyan Wu, Limin Zhou, Hong Guo
In recent years, the incidence of clinical yeast infections has increased dramatically. Due to the extensive use of broad-spectrum antifungal agents, there has been a notable increase in drug resistance among infections yeast species. As one of the most popular natural antimicrobial agents, essential oils (EOs) have attracted a lot of attention from the scientific community. The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and examine the antifungal activity of the EO extracted from the seeds of Carica papaya Linn...
January 4, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046446/su-c-202-06-design-and-development-of-a-non-rigid-phantom-ventilating-air-quantitatively-evaluating-ct-based-pulmonary-ventilation-imaging
#5
S Miyakawa, H Tachibana, S Moriya, T Kurosawa, M Sato
PURPOSE: A validation study using human or sheep for CT pulmonary ventilation (CT-V) imaging are inefficient and partially unstable. In this study, we designed and developed non-rigid phantom ventilating air to quantitatively evaluate the CT-V image. METHODS: The phantom consisted of an acryl cylinder filled with polyurethane foam designed to pulmonic alveoli and a polyurethane membrane was attached to the inferior end of the phantom to simulate a lung diaphragm...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046370/th-cd-202-09-free-breathing-proton-mri-functional-lung-avoidance-maps-to-guide-radiation-therapy
#6
D Capaldi, K Sheikh, D Hoover, B Yaremko, D Palma, G Parraga
PURPOSE: Pulmonary functional MRI using inhaled gas contrast agents was previously investigated as a way to identify well-functioning lung in patients with NSCLC who are clinical candidates for radiotherapy. Hyperpolarized noble-gas ((3) He and (129) Xe) MRI has also been optimized to measure functional lung information, but for a number of reasons, the clinical translation of this approach to guide radiotherapy planning has been limited. As an alternative, free-breathing pulmonary 1H MRI using clinically available MRI systems and pulse sequences provides a non-contrast-enhanced method to generate both ventilation and perfusion maps...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043127/potential-of-three-ethnomedicinal-plants-as-antisickling-agents
#7
Ismaila O Nurain, Clement O Bewaji, Jarrett S Johnson, Robertson D Davenport, Yang Zhang
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic blood disorder that affects the shape and transportation of red blood cells (RBCs) in blood vessels, leading to various clinical complications. Many drugs that are available for treating the disease are insufficiently effective, toxic, or too expensive. Therefore, there is a pressing need for safe, effective, and inexpensive therapeutic agents from indigenous plants used in ethnomedicines. The potential of aqueous extracts of Cajanus cajan leaf and seed, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides leaf, and Carica papaya leaf in sickle cell disease management was investigated in vitro using freshly prepared 2% sodium metabisulfite for sickling induction...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040920/mid-infrared-gas-absorption-sensor-based-on-a-broadband-external-cavity-quantum-cascade-laser
#8
Juan Sun, Hao Deng, Ningwu Liu, Hongliang Wang, Benli Yu, Jingsong Li
We developed a laser absorption sensor based on a pulsed, broadband tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) centered at 1285 cm(-1). Unlike traditional infrared spectroscopy system, a quartz crystal tuning fork (QCTF) as a light detector was used for laser signal detection. Fast Fourier transform was applied to extract vibration intensity information of QCTF. The sensor system is successfully tested on nitrous oxide (N2O) spectroscopy measurements and compared with a standard infrared detector...
December 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040468/characterizations-of-purple-non-sulfur-bacteria-isolated-from-paddy-fields-and-identification-of-strains-with-potential-for-plant-growth-promotion-greenhouse-gas-mitigation-and-heavy-metal-bioremediation
#9
Jakkapan Sakpirom, Duangporn Kantachote, Tomorn Nunkaew, Eakalak Khan
This study was aimed at selecting purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) isolated from various paddy fields, including Cd- and Zn-contaminated paddy fields, based on their biofertilizer properties. Among 235 PNSB isolates, strain TN110 was most effective in plant growth-promoting substance (PGPS) production, releasing 3.2 mg/L of [Formula: see text] , 4.11 mg/L of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and 3.62 mg/L of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and reducing methane emission up to 80%. This strain had nifH, vnfG and anfG, which are the Mo, V and Fe nitrogenase genes encoded for key enzymes in nitrogen fixation under different conditions...
December 28, 2016: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035726/speciation-of-uranium-mandelic-acid-complexes-using-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-and-density-functional-theory
#10
Pranaw Kumar, P G Jaison, V M Telmore, Biswajit Sadhu, Mahesh Sundararajan
RATIONALE: Mandelic acid is a complexing agent employed for the liquid chromatographic separation of actinides. However, the types of species and the structural details of the uranyl-mandelate complexes are still unknown. Understanding the nature of these complex species would provide better insight into the mechanism of their separation in liquid chromatography. METHOD: Formation of different species of the uranyl ion (UO2 ) with mandelic acid was studied using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with a quadrupole-time of flight analyzer...
December 30, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035033/cross-validation-of-hs-gc-ms-to-quantify-total-carbon-dioxide-in-horse-plasma
#11
Brendan Heffron, Jennifer Bash, A Karl Larsen
The use of alkinizing agents by trainers to counteract the accumulation of lactic acid in racehorses has been well documented. A by-product of this administration is elevated total carbon dioxide (tCO2) concentrations. Most regulatory authorities have set the threshold for tCO2 in plasma at 37 mM. The quantification of tCO2 often presents a challenge to laboratories due to the instrumentation required, which can be expensive to use and maintain. The Beckman DxC 600 (Brea, CA) is currently used in our laboratory for tCO2 quantification...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032110/chemical-compositions-of-the-peel-essential-oil-of-citrus-aurantium-and-its-natural-larvicidal-activity-against-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-stephensi-diptera-culicidae-in-comparison-with-citrus-paradisi
#12
Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi, Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat, Hassan Vatandoost, Mohammad Reza Abai
BACKGROUND: Recently, essential oils and extracts derived from plants have received much interest as potential bio-active agents against mosquito vectors. METHODS: The essential oils extract from fresh peel of ripe fruit of Citrus aurantium and Citrus paradisi were tested against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory condition. Then chemical composition of the essential oil of C. aurantium was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
December 2016: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027944/antibiofilm-efficacy-of-green-synthesized-graphene-oxide-silver-nanocomposite-using-lagerstroemia-speciosa-floral-extract-a-comparative-study-on-inhibition-of-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-biofilms
#13
Shatavari Kulshrestha, Shariq Qayyum, Asad U Khan
Biofilm architecture provides bacteria with enhanced antibiotic resistance, thus raising the need to search for alternative therapies that can inhibit the bacterial colonization. In the present study, we synthesized graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite (GO-Ag) by non-toxic and eco-friendly route using a floral extract of Legistromia speciosa (L.) Pers. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of plant extract revealed the presence of compounds which can simultaneously act as reducing and capping agents...
December 24, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027457/emergency-department-management-of-priapism
#14
Gregory S Podolej, Christine Babcock
Priapism is a genitourinary emergency that demands a thorough, time-sensitive evaluation. There are 3 types of priapism: ischemic, nonischemic, and recurrent ischemic priapism; ischemic priapism accounts for 95% of cases. Ischemic priapism must be treated within 4 to 6 hours to minimize morbidity, including impotence. The diagnosis of ischemic priapism relies heavily on the history and physical examination and may be facilitated by penile blood gas analysis and penile ultrasound. This issue reviews current evidence regarding emergency department treatment of ischemic priapism using a stepwise approach that begins with aspiration of cavernosal blood, cold saline irrigation, and penile injection with sympathomimetic agents...
January 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026954/kinetics-and-mechanistic-investigations-of-atmospheric-oxidation-of-hfo-1345fz-by-oh-radical-insights-from-theory
#15
Pradeep Kumar Rao, Shridhar P Gejji
HFO-1345fz (CF3CF2CH═CH2 or 3,3,4,4,4-pentafluoro-1-butene) belongs to a class of hydrofluoro-olefins and represents a new generation of potential foam expansion agents. Its atmospheric impact and environmental acceptability can be estimated from the studies of kinetics and mechanism of its oxidative degradation. The molecular insights accompanying the reaction pathways in terms of the characterization of intermediates or products and radiative properties should prove useful for large-scale industrial applications...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017987/antifungal-efficacy-of-plant-essential-oils-against-stored-grain-fungi-of-fusarium-spp
#16
Peeyush Kumar, Sapna Mishra, Atul Kumar, Amit Kumar Sharma
The control potential of seven plant essential oils was evaluated against Fusarium proliferatum (Matsushima) Nirenberg and Fusarium verticillioides Sheldon. The fungicidal activity was assessed through microtiter plate assay to determine the minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentration of essential oils. The essential oil of Mentha arvensis was adjudged as best for inhibiting the fungal growth, while oil of Thymus vulgaris and Anethum graveolens showed high efficacy in terms of fungicidal activity. The oil of M...
October 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008987/a-bio-enabled-maximally-mild-layer-by-layer-kapton-surface-modification-approach-for-the-fabrication-of-all-inkjet-printed-flexible-electronic-devices
#17
Yunnan Fang, Jimmy G D Hester, Wenjing Su, Justin H Chow, Suresh K Sitaraman, Manos M Tentzeris
A bio-enabled, environmentally-friendly, and maximally mild layer-by-layer approach has been developed to surface modify inherently hydrophobic Kapton HN substrates to allow for great printability of both water- and organic solvent-based inks thus facilitating the full-inkjet-printing of flexible electronic devices. Different from the traditional Kapton surface modification approaches which are structure-compromising and use harsh conditions to target, and oxidize and/or remove part of, the surface polyimide of Kapton, the present Kapton surface modification approach targeted the surface electric charges borne by its additive particles, and was not only the first to utilize environmentally-friendly clinical biomolecules to build up a thin film of protamine-heparin complex on Kapton, but also the first to be conducted under minimally destructive and maximally mild conditions...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008188/alma-high-spatial-resolution-observations-of-the-dense-molecular-region-of-ngc-6302
#18
M Santander-García, V Bujarrabal, J Alcolea, A Castro-Carrizo, C Sánchez Contreras, G Quintana-Lacaci, R L M Corradi, R Neri
CONTEXT: The mechanism behind the shaping of bipolar planetary nebulae is still poorly understood. It is becoming increasingly clear that the main agents must operate at their innermost regions, where a significant equatorial density enhancement should be present and related to the collimation of light and jet launching from the central star preferentially towards the polar directions. Most of the material in this equatorial condensation must be lost during the asymptotic giant branch as stellar wind and later released from the surface of dust grains to the gas phase in molecular form...
January 2017: Astronomy and Astrophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007472/chemical-associations-and-mobilization-of-heavy-metals-in-fly-ash-from-municipal-solid-waste-incineration
#19
Gisela Weibel, Urs Eggenberger, Stefan Schlumberger, Urs K Mäder
This study focusses on chemical and mineralogical characterization of fly ash and leached filter cake and on the determination of parameters influencing metal mobilization by leaching. Three different leaching processes of fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants in Switzerland comprise neutral, acidic and optimized acidic (+ oxidizing agent) fly ash leaching have been investigated. Fly ash is characterized by refractory particles (Al-foil, unburnt carbon, quartz, feldspar) and newly formed high-temperature phases (glass, gehlenite, wollastonite) surrounded by characteristic dust rims...
December 19, 2016: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003841/cytotoxic-effects-of-pinus-eldarica-essential-oil-and-extracts-on-hela-and-mcf-7-cell-lines
#20
Najmeh Sarvmeili, Abbas Jafarian-Dehkordi, Behzad Zolfaghari
Several attempts have so far been made in the search of new anticancer agents of plant origin. Some studies have reported that different species of Pine genus possess cytotoxic activities against various cancer cell lines. In the present study, we evaluated the cytotoxic effects of Pinus eldarica bark and leaf extracts or leaf essential oil on HeLa and MCF-7 tumor cell lines. Hydroalcoholic and phenolic extracts and the essential oil of plant were prepared. Total phenolic contents of the extracts were measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent...
December 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
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