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Administration in Emergency Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741518/companion-and-complementary-diagnostics-clinical-and-regulatory-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Jan Trøst Jørgensen
Nearly 20 years ago, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first companion diagnostic assay and, today, this type of test governs the use of 18 different drugs. With the appearance of PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays linked to the use of different PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors, a new class of predictive biomarker assays has emerged; the complementary diagnostics. These are predictive biomarker assays that aid the therapeutic decision process but are not a prerequisite for receiving a specific drug, as is the case with companion diagnostics...
December 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730958/engineering-synergistically-active-and-bioavailable-cost-effective-medicines-for-neglected-tropical-diseases-the-role-of-excipients
#2
Dolores R Serrano, Aikaterini Lalatsa, M Auxiliadora Dea-Ayuela
Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease responsible for the ninth largest disease burden in the world threatening 350 million people mostly in developing countries. The lack of efficacy, severe adverse effects, long duration, high cost and parenteral administration of the current therapies result in poor patient compliance and emergence of resistance. Leishmaniasis' unmet need for safer, affordable and more effective treatments is only partly addressed by today's global health product pipeline that focuses on products amenable to rapid clinical development, mainly by reformulating or repurposing existing drugs for new uses...
July 19, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725421/antimicrobial-use-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-escherichia-coli-on-small-and-medium-scale-pig-farms-in-north-eastern-thailand
#3
G Ström, M Halje, D Karlsson, J Jiwakanon, M Pringle, L-L Fernström, U Magnusson
BACKGROUND: Intensification of livestock production seen in many low- and middle-income countries is often believed to be associated with increased use of antimicrobials, and may hence contribute to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to map antimicrobial use on small- (n = 25) and medium-scale (n = 27) pig farms in north-eastern Thailand, and to compare antimicrobial susceptibility of commensal Escherichia coli isolated from sows on these farms. METHODS: Information regarding pig husbandry and antimicrobial treatment regimens was obtained by the use of semi-structured questionnaires...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721159/pcsk9-inhibitors-from-discovery-of-a-single-mutation-to-a-groundbreaking-therapy-of-lipid-disorders-in-one-decade
#4
Krzysztof Jaworski, Piotr Jankowski, Dariusz A Kosior
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the main risk factors for coronary heart disease and significantly contributes to the high mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases. Statin therapy represents the gold standard in the reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration. Nevertheless, many patients still cannot achieve the recommended target levels, due to either inadequate effectiveness or intolerance of these drugs. Monoclonal antibodies that inhibit proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) have emerged as a promising option in lipid-lowering treatment...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714419/design-of-multi-target-agents-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-based-on-tacrine
#5
Hongzhi Lin, Qi Li, Kai Gu, Jie Zhu, Xueyang Jiang, Yao Chen, Haopeng Sun
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of dementia in elderly people. To date, efficacious therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD is still very limited, so it has long been a challenging and attractive task to discover new anti-AD drugs. Considering the multifactorial nature of AD, recently, the concept of multi-target-directed ligands (MTDLs) has emerged as a new strategy for designing therapeutic agents on AD. MTDLs are believed to exert their effects through simultaneously affecting multiple targets which contribute to etiology of AD...
July 17, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713660/a-cross-sectional-pharmacoepidemiological-study-of-the-utilization-pattern-of-pre-anesthetic-medications-in-major-surgical-procedures-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#6
Madhuri Kulkarni, Anant Patil
OBJECTIVE : A study of the utilization pattern of pre-anesthetic medications in major surgical procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS : A cross-sectional, pharmacoepidemiological study was conducted among patients undergoing surgical procedures in routine or emergency conditions under general anesthesia. The utilization of pre-anesthetic medicines in all patients was reported. RESULTS: A total of 110 patients (mean age - 42.36 years; 57.27% males) were enrolled...
June 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697164/the-use-safety-and-efficacy-of-olanzapine-in-a-level-i-pediatric-trauma-center-emergency-department-over-a-10-year-period
#7
Jon B Cole, Lauren R Klein, Ashley M Strobel, Stephane R Blanchard, Rebecca Nahum, Marc L Martel
OBJECTIVES: Olanzapine is a second-generation antipsychotic increasingly used in emergency medicine for many indications. Literature on its use in children is sparse. Our objectives were to describe the use, safety, and efficacy of olanzapine in pediatric emergency patients. METHODS: A structured chart review was performed of patients 18 years old or younger receiving olanzapine from 2007 to 2016 in the emergency department of a pediatric level I trauma center. RESULTS: A total of 285 children received olanzapine...
July 11, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676021/medical-management-and-risk-reduction-of-the-cardiovascular-effects-of-underwater-diving
#8
Thomas F Whayne
Undersea diving is a sport and commercial industry. Knowledge of potential problems began with Caisson disease or "the bends", first identified with compressed air in the construction of tunnels under rivers in the 19th century. Subsequently, there was the commercially used old-fashioned diving helmet attached to a suit, with compressed air pumped down from the surface. Breathhold diving, with no supplementary source of air or other breathing mixture, is also a sport as well as a commercial fishing tool in some parts of the world...
June 20, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671767/emergence-of-gold-mesoporous-silica-hybrid-nanotheranostics-dox-encoded-folate-targeted-chemotherapy-with-modulation-of-sers-fingerprinting-for-apoptosis-toward-tumor-eradication
#9
Adukkadan N Ramya, Manu M Joseph, Santhi Maniganda, Varsha Karunakaran, Sreelekha T T, Kaustabh Kumar Maiti
Strategically fabricated theranostic nanocarrier delivery system is an unmet need in personalized medicine. Herein, this study reports a versatile folate receptor (FR) targeted nanoenvelop delivery system (TNEDS) fabricated with gold core silica shell followed by chitosan-folic acid conjugate surface functionalization by for precise loading of doxorubicin (Dox), resembled as Au@SiO2 -Dox-CS-FA. TNEDS possesses up to 90% Dox loading efficiency and internalized through endocytosis pathway leading to pH and redox-sensitive release kinetics...
July 3, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669553/expert-consensus-guidelines-for-stocking-of-antidotes-in-hospitals-that-provide-emergency-care
#10
Richard C Dart, Lewis R Goldfrank, Brian L Erstad, David T Huang, Knox H Todd, Jeffrey Weitz, Vikhyat S Bebarta, E Martin Caravati, Fred M Henretig, Theodore R Delbridge, William Banner, Sandra M Schneider, Victoria E Anderson
We provide recommendations for stocking of antidotes used in emergency departments (EDs). An expert panel representing diverse perspectives (clinical pharmacology, medical toxicology, critical care medicine, hematology/oncology, hospital pharmacy, emergency medicine, emergency medical services, pediatric emergency medicine, pediatric critical care medicine, poison centers, hospital administration, and public health) was formed to create recommendations for antidote stocking. Using a standardized summary of the medical literature, the primary reviewer for each antidote proposed guidelines for antidote stocking to the full panel...
June 29, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668685/effect-of-administration-route-and-dose-alteration-on-sulfadiazine-trimethoprim-plasma-and-intestinal-concentrations-in-pigs
#11
Joren De Smet, Siska Croubels, Patrick De Backer, Mathias Devreese
Potentiated sulfonamides such as sulfadiazine-trimethoprim (SDZ-TRIM) are frequently used antimicrobials in both human and veterinary medicine. To optimize their use in relation to the emerging problem of resistance selection, this paper studied the impact of dose and administration route of SDZ-TRIM on the exposure of the gut microbiota to these antimicrobials. An animal experiment was conducted with 36 pigs, divided into six different treatment groups (n=6). Three different administration routes were outlined: oral (PO) gavage, intramuscular (IM) injection and medicated feed, with 5-day therapy duration...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653648/gadolinium-deposition-in-the-brain-summary-of-evidence-and-recommendations
#12
REVIEW
Vikas Gulani, Fernando Calamante, Frank G Shellock, Emanuel Kanal, Scott B Reeder
Emerging evidence has linked MRI signal changes in deep nuclei of the brain with repeated administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents. Gadolinium deposits have been confirmed in brain tissue, most notably in the dentate nuclei and globus pallidus. Although some linear contrast agents appear to cause greater MRI signal changes than some macrocyclic agents, deposition of gadolinium has also been observed with macrocyclic agents. However, the extent of gadolinium deposition varies between agents. Furthermore, the clinical significance of the retained gadolinium in the brain, if any, remains unknown...
July 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652703/ct-p13-design-development-and-place-in-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Tommaso Gabbani, Simona Deiana, Vito Annese
The introduction of biological agents has revolutionized the management of many life-threatening and debilitating immune-mediated diseases. Because of the high cost of biological drugs and their patent expiration, the market has opened to biosimilar agents, copy versions of the originators, which can lead to reduced health care expenditure and increase treatment access worldwide. CT-P13 is the first biosimilar of infliximab (IFX) and has been approved for the same indications as its originator drug. It obtained regulatory approval by the European Medicines Agency in September 2013 and by the US Food and Drug Administration in April 2016...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646519/the-association-of-health-literacy-with-preventable-ed-visits-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Meenakshi P Balakrishnan, Jill Boylston Herndon, Jingnan Zhang, Thomas Payton, Jonathan Shuster, Donna L Carden
BACKGROUND: Policy-makers argue that emergency department (ED) visits for conditions preventable with high-quality outpatient care contribute to waste in the healthcare system. However, access to ambulatory care is uneven, especially for vulnerable populations like minorities, the poor and those with limited health literacy. The impact of limited health literacy on ED visits that are preventable with timely, high-quality ambulatory care is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of health literacy and preventable ED visits...
June 24, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641522/advances-on-ppar%C3%AE-research-in-the-emerging-era-of-precision-medicine
#15
Pinyi Lu, Zhongming Zhao
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that functions as a ligand-inducible transcription factor. It regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, immunity, and cellular growth and differentiation. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are potent insulin sensitizers that function by activating PPARs, with a high specificity for PPARγ. Due to their ability to preserve pancreatic beta cell function and reduce insulin resistance, TZDs have become one of the most prescribed classes of medications for type 2 diabetes (T2D) since their approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and initial use in 1997...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638433/shenqiwan-ameliorates-renal-fibrosis-in-rats-by-inhibiting-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smads-signaling-pathway
#16
Hongshu Chen, Yiqing Xu, Yuanxiao Yang, Xiaojie Zhou, Shijie Dai, Changyu Li
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) refers to the transition of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells. Emerging evidence suggests that EMT is a key point in renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF). Traditional Chinese Medicine Shenqiwan (SQW) is widely used in clinical treatment of chronic kidney disease, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of SQW on renal fibrosis and its association with TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway. A rat model of adenine (150 mg/kg) was established and intragastrically treated with various concentrations of SQW at dose of 1...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617013/the-role-of-policy-in-supporting-clinician-led-research-on-behavioral-health-integration
#17
Nathaniel Z Counts
In Best Care at Lower Cost, the Institute of Medicine laid out a vision for continuously learning health systems (Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, 2016). This issue of Families, Systems, & Health represents a substantial step toward this vision, with on-the-ground clinicians and administrators testing empirically informed hypotheses about practice transformation and population health management, and using those results to produce shared learning within and across systems. While the studies in this issue demonstrate that producing generalizable knowledge from clinician-led initiatives is feasible, they also demonstrate that the current system does not adequately support clinicians in doing so...
June 2017: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611888/efficacy-and-safety-of-tranexamic-acid-in-prehospital-traumatic-hemorrhagic-shock-outcomes-of-the-cal-pat-study
#18
Michael M Neeki, Fanglong Dong, Jake Toy, Reza Vaezazizi, Joe Powell, Nina Jabourian, Alex Jabourian, David Wong, Richard Vara, Kathryn Seiler, Troy W Pennington, Joe Powell, Chris Yoshida-McMath, Shanna Kissel, Katharine Schulz-Costello, Jamish Mistry, Matthew S Surrusco, Karen R O'Bosky, Daved Van Stralen, Daniel Ludi, Karl Sporer, Peter Benson, Eugene Kwong, Richard Pitts, John T Culhane, Rodney Borger
INTRODUCTION: The California Prehospital Antifibrinolytic Therapy (Cal-PAT) study seeks to assess the safety and impact on patient mortality of tranexamic acid (TXA) administration in cases of trauma-induced hemorrhagic shock. The current study further aimed to assess the feasibility of prehospital TXA administration by paramedics within the framework of North American emergency medicine standards and protocols. METHODS: This is an ongoing multi-centered, prospective, observational cohort study with a retrospective chart-review comparison...
June 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592330/state-of-play-and-clinical-prospects-of-antibody-gene-transfer
#19
REVIEW
Kevin Hollevoet, Paul J Declerck
Recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are one of today's most successful therapeutic classes in inflammatory diseases and oncology. A wider accessibility and implementation, however, is hampered by the high product cost and prolonged need for frequent administration. The surge in more effective mAb combination therapies further adds to the costs and risk of toxicity. To address these issues, antibody gene transfer seeks to administer to patients the mAb-encoding nucleotide sequence, rather than the mAb protein...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566124/melatonin-for-prevention-of-erythema-and-oxidative-stress-in-response-to-ultraviolet-radiation
#20
Cecilie Scheuer
Skin damage induced by UVR is an escalating problem in dermatology, and increasing incidence of skin cancer, especially for non-melanoma skin cancer, has been reported worldwide. UVR from sun exposure and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to be a pivotal factor in the aetiology of skin cancer. The pineal hormone melatonin is recognized as the most potent endogenous antioxidant. Melatonin conducts its antioxidant effects acting directly as a radical scavenger and indirectly by up regulation of antioxidant enzymes...
June 2017: Danish Medical Journal
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