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Silicon nanowire

Xiang Gao, Shaolong Wu, Jimu Yan, Xiongfei Zhai, Xiaofeng Li
Semiconductor nanostructure photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells for sunlight conversion have the potential to supply continuous, low-cost, high-efficiency and carbon-free energy; however, in order to provide economically competitive energy, long-time stability and high-efficiency are requisite. In this work, the saturation photocurrent density (Jsat) and stability of the silicon nanowires (SiNWs) in a PEC cell are significantly improved via surface modification with Ag@SiO2 nanoparticles and conformal TiO2 ultrathin film...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
L D'Ortenzi, R Monsù, E Cara, M Fretto, S Kara, S J Rezvani, L Boarino
Silicon nanowires fabricated by metal-assisted chemical etching can present low porosity and a rough surface depending on the doping level of the original silicon wafer. In this case, wiring of silicon nanowires may represent a challenging task. We investigated two different approaches to realize the electrical contacts in order to enable electrical measurement on a rough silicon nanowire device: we compared FIB-assisted platinum deposition for the fabrication of electrical contact with EBL technique.
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Yong Yang, Mei Wang, Peili Zhang, Weihan Wang, Hongxian Han, Licheng Sun
Modification of p-type Si surface by active and stable earth abundant electrocatalysts is an effective strategy to improve the sluggish kinetics for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) at p-Si/electrolyte interface and to develop highly efficient and low-cost photocathodes for hydrogen production from water. To this end, Si nanowire (Si-NW) array has been loaded with highly efficient electrocatalysts, M-B (M = Ni, Co), by facile and quick electroless plating to build M-B catalyst-modified Si nanowire-array-textured photocathodes for water reduction to H2...
October 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Andreas Vetter, Simone Ferrari, Patrik Rath, Rasoul Alaee, Oliver Kahl, Vadim Kovalyuk, Silvia Diewald, Gregory N Goltsman, Alexander Korneev, Carsten Rockstuhl, Wolfram Hp Pernice
Ultrafast single-photon detectors with high efficiency are of utmost importance for many applications in the context of integrated quantum photonic circuits. Detectors based on superconductor nanowires attached to optical waveguides are particularly appealing for this purpose. However, their speed is limited because the required high absorption efficiency necessitates long nanowires deposited on top of the waveguide. This enhances the kinetic inductance and makes the detectors slow. Here, we solve this problem by aligning the nanowire, contrary to usual choice, perpendicular to the waveguide to realize devices with a length below 1 µm...
October 19, 2016: Nano Letters
Bhaskar Dudem, Yeong Hwan Ko, Jung Woo Leem, Joo Ho Lim, Jae Su Yu
We report the hierarchical nano/micro architectured (HNMA)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film-based hybrid energy cells with multi-functionality to simultaneously harvest mechanical, solar, and wind energies. These films consist of nano/micro dual-scale architectures (i.e., nanonipples on inverted micro pyramidal arrays) on the PDMS surface. The HNMA-PDMS is replicable by a facile and cost-effective soft imprint lithography (SIL) using a nanoporous anodic alumina oxide (AAO) film formed on the micro-pyramidal (MP) structured silicon substrate...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Alon Kosloff, Omri Heifler, Eran Granot, Fernando Patolsky
Here, we demonstrate a novel method for the production of single-crystal Si nanowire arrays based on the top-down carving of Si-nanowall structures from a donor substrate, and their subsequent controlled and selective harvesting into a sacrificial solid material block. Nano-sectioning of the nanostructures-embedding block by ultramicrotome leads to the formation of size, shape and orientation-controlled high quality nanowire arrays. Additionally, we introduce a novel approach that enables transferring the nanowire arrays to any acceptor substrate, while preserving their orientation, and placing them on defined locations...
October 18, 2016: Nano Letters
Yuxiang Qin, Yongyao Wang, Yi Liu, Xiaojuan Zhang
The limited surface area and compacted configuration of silicon nanowires (SiNWs), which are made by one-step metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) go against target gas diffusion and adsorbtion for gas sensing application. To harvest suitable gas sensitivity and fast response-recovery characteristics, an aligned, rough SiNW array with loose configuration and high surface area was fabricated by a two-step etching process. The MACE technique was first employed to fabricate a smooth SiNW array, and then a KOH post-etching method was developed to roughen the NW surface further...
October 17, 2016: Nanotechnology
Shuang Pi, Peng Lin, Qiangfei Xia
Sub-10 nm metal nanowire arrays are important electrodes for building high density emerging 'beyond CMOS' devices. We made Pt nanowire arrays with sub-10 nm feature size using nanoimprint lithography on silicon substrates with 100 nm thick thermal oxide. We further studied the critical dimension (CD) evolution in the fabrication procedure and achieved 0.4 nm CD control, providing a viable solution to the imprint lithography CD challenge as specified by the international technology roadmap for semiconductors...
October 17, 2016: Nanotechnology
Xuezhi Ma, Yangzhi Zhu, Sanggon Kim, Qiushi Liu, Peter Byrley, Yang Wei, Jin Zhang, Kaili Jiang, Shoushan Fan, Ruoxue Yan, Ming Liu
Despite many efforts to fabricate high-aspect-ratio atomic force microscopy (HAR-AFM) probes for high-fidelity, high-resolution topographical imaging of three-dimensional (3D) nano-structured surfaces, current HAR probes still suffer from unsatisfactory performance, low wear-resistivity, and extravagant prices. The primary objective of this work is to demonstrate a novel design of a high-resolution (HR) HAR AFM probe, which is fabricated through a reliable, cost-efficient bench-top process to precisely implant a single ultra-sharp metallic nanowire on a standard AFM cantilever probe...
October 14, 2016: Nano Letters
Jian Tang, Jean-Luc Maurice, Wanghua Chen, Soumyadeep Misra, Martin Foldyna, Erik V Johnson, Pere Roca I Cabarrocas
A comprehensive study of the silicon nanowire growth process has been carried out. Silicon nanowires were grown by plasma-assisted-vapor-solid method using tin as a catalyst. We have focused on the evolution of the silicon nanowire density, morphology, and crystallinity. For the first time, the initial growth stage, which determines the nanowire (NW) density and growth direction, has been observed step by step. We provide direct evidence of the merging of Sn catalyst droplets and the formation of Si nanowires during the first 10 s of growth...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Leimiao Lin, Dong Liu, Qiaofen Chen, Hongzhi Zhou, Jianmin Wu
Novel chemiresistive gas sensors based on a vertical tip-tip contact silicon nanowire (TTC-SiNW) array were constructed. The welding of TTC-SiNWs after joule heating treatment was confirmed by a current-voltage curve (I-V curve). The TTC-SiNW structure not only resolved the problem of electrode contact encountered in conventional nanowire sensors, but also elongated the nanowire length to increase the void space for fast gas diffusion. The TTC-SiNW sensor comprising the same two types of SiNW arrays responded to NO2 very sensitively...
October 7, 2016: Nanoscale
S F A Rahman, N A Yusof, U Hashim, R Hushiarian, M Nuzaihan M N, M N Hamidon, R M Zawawi, M F M Fathil
Dengue Virus (DENV) has become one of the most serious arthropod-borne viral diseases, causing death globally. The existing methods for DENV detection suffer from the late stage treatment due to antibodies-based detection which is feasible only after five days following the onset of the illness. Here, we demonstrated the highly effective molecular electronic based detection utilizing silicon nanowire (SiNW) integrated with standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process as a sensing device for detecting deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) related to DENV in an early stage diagnosis...
October 26, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Jie Li, Gen He, Hiroshi Ueno, Chuancheng Jia, Hiroyuki Noji, Chuanmin Qi, Xuefeng Guo
We present an efficient strategy through surface functionalization to build a single silicon nanowire field-effect transistor-based biosensor that is capable of directly detecting protein adsorption/desorption at the single-event level. The step-wise signals in real-time detection of His-tag F1-ATPases demonstrate a promising electrical biosensing approach with single-molecule sensitivity, thus opening up new opportunities for studying single-molecule biophysics in broad biological systems.
September 15, 2016: Nanoscale
Ting-Yu Ko, Muthaiah Shellaiah, Kien Wen Sun
In this study, we measured the thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of single Sb2Se3 nanowires and nanowire bundles with a high resistivity (σ ~ 4.37 × 10(-4) S/m). Microdevices consisting of two adjacent suspended silicon nitride membranes were fabricated to measure the thermal transport properties of the nanowires in vacuum. Single Sb2Se3 nanowires with different diameters and nanowire bundles were carefully placed on the device to bridge the two membranes. The relationship of temperature difference on each heating/sensing suspension membranes with joule heating was accurately determined...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jelena Vukajlovic-Plestina, Vladimir G Dubrovskii, Gözde Tütüncuoǧlu, Heidi Potts, Ruben Ricca, Frank Meyer, Federico Matteini, Jean-Baptiste Leran, Anna Fontcuberta I Morral
Guided growth of semiconductor nanowires in nanotube templates has been considered as a potential platform for reproducible integration of III-Vs on silicon or other mismatched substrates. Herein, we report on the challenges and prospects of molecular beam epitaxy of InAs nanowires in SiO2/Si nanotube templates. We show how and under which conditions the nanowire growth is initiated by In-assisted vapor-liquid-solid growth enabled by the local conditions inside the nanotube template. The conditions for high yield of vertical nanowires are investigated in terms of the nanotube depth, diameter and V/III flux ratios...
November 11, 2016: Nanotechnology
Zhaoguo Xue, Mingkun Xu, Yaolong Zhao, Jimmy Wang, Xiaofan Jiang, Linwei Yu, Junzhuan Wang, Jun Xu, Yi Shi, Kunji Chen, Pere Roca I Cabarrocas
The ability to program highly modulated morphology upon silicon nanowires (SiNWs) has been fundamental to explore new phononic and electronic functionalities. We here exploit a nanoscale locomotion of metal droplets to demonstrate a large and readily controllable morphology engineering of crystalline SiNWs, from straight ones into continuous or discrete island-chains, at temperature <350 °C. This has been accomplished via a tin (Sn) droplet mediated in-plane growth where amorphous Si thin film is consumed as precursor to produce crystalline SiNWs...
2016: Nature Communications
Pooria Namdari, Hadis Daraee, Ali Eatemadi
The application of silicon nanowire (SiNW) biosensor as a subtle, label-free, and electrical tool has been extensively demonstrated by several researchers over the past few decades. Human ability to delicately fabricate and control its chemical configuration, morphology, and arrangement either separately or in combination with other materials as lead to the development of a nanomaterial with specific and efficient electronic and catalytic properties useful in the fields of biological sciences and renewable energy...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Jinbo Chen, Meriem Akin, Lei Yang, Li Jiao, Fan Cheng, Pengbo Lu, Liao Chen, Detao Liu, Hongli Zhu
We report a novel partial dissolution strategy to liberate uniform cellulose nanofibers with diameter of 5-10 nm from macroscopic cellulose fibers and promote separation of nanofibers in an aqueous environment by forming water-soluble sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) through heterogeneous sodium acetoxylation of cellulose. With the obtained cellulose nanofibers, we fabricated nanopapers which exhibit high optical transparency of 90.5% (@550 nm) with promising mechanical properties and high thermal stability...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Elen Tolstik, Liubov A Osminkina, Denis Akimov, Maksim B Gongalsky, Andrew A Kudryavtsev, Victor Yu Timoshenko, Rainer Heintzmann, Vladimir Sivakov, Jürgen Popp
New approaches for visualisation of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) in cancer cells are realised by means of the linear and nonlinear optics in vitro. Aqueous colloidal solutions of SiNPs with sizes of about 10-40 nm obtained by ultrasound grinding of silicon nanowires were introduced into breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cell line). Further, the time-varying nanoparticles enclosed in cell structures were visualised by high-resolution structured illumination microscopy (HR-SIM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the nonlinear optical methods of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) with infrared laser excitation were applied to study the localisation of SiNPs in cells...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Fatima Toor, Jeffrey B Miller, Lauren M Davidson, Logan Nichols, Wenqi Duan, Michael P Jura, Joanne Yim, Joanne Forziati, Marcie R Black
There are a range of different methods to generate a nanostructured surface on silicon (Si) but the most cost effective and optically interesting is the metal assisted wet chemical etching (MACE) (Koynov et al 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 203107). MACE of Si is a controllable, room-temperature wet-chemical technique that uses a thin layer of metal to etch the surface of Si, leaving behind various nano- and micro-scale surface features or 'black silicon'. MACE-fabricated nanowires (NWs) provide improved antireflection and light trapping functionality (Toor et al 2016 Nanoscale 8 15448-66) compared with the traditional 'iso-texturing' (Campbell and Green 1987 J...
October 14, 2016: Nanotechnology
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