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Silicon nanowire

Dirk König, Daniel Hiller, Sebastian Gutsch, Margit Zacharias, Sean Smith
All electronic, optoelectronic or photovoltaic applications of silicon depend on controlling majority charge carriers via doping with impurity atoms. Nanoscale silicon is omnipresent in fundamental research (quantum dots, nanowires) but also approached in future technology nodes of the microelectronics industry. In general, silicon nanovolumes, irrespective of their intended purpose, suffer from effects that impede conventional doping due to fundamental physical principles such as out-diffusion, statistics of small numbers, quantum- or dielectric confinement...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yan Jin, Yingling Tan, Xiaozhen Hu, Bin Zhu, Qinghui Zheng, Zijiao Zhang, Guoyin Zhu, Qian Yu, Zhong Jin, Jia Zhu
Alloy anodes possessed of high theoretical capacity show great potential for next generation advanced lithium ion battery. Even though huge volume change during lithium insertion and extraction leads to severe problems, such as pulverization and unstable Solid-Electrolyte Interphase (SEI), various nanostructures including nanoparticles, nanowires and porous networks can address related challenges to improve electrochemical performance. However, the complex and expensive fabrication process hinders the widespread application of nanostructured alloy anodes, which generate urgent demand of low cost and scalable processes to fabricate building blocks with fine controls of size, morphology and porosity...
April 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yuan Li, John Dykes, Todd Gilliam, Nitin Chopra
Heterostructures of one-dimensional nanowire supported graphene/plasmonic nanoparticles are promising for future SERS-based chemical sensors. In this paper, we report a novel heterostructured SERS substrate composed of free-standing Si nanowires and surface-decorating Au/graphene nanoparticles. We successfully developed a unique CVD approach for the cost-effective and large-scale growth of free-standing Si nanowires. Au nanoparticles were decorated on the Si nanowires using a galvanic deposition - an annealing approach...
April 20, 2017: Nanoscale
A S Trifonov, D E Presnov, I V Bozhev, D A Evplov, V Desmaris, V A Krupenin
We report on the new active tip for scanning probe microscopy allowing the simultaneous measurements of surface topography and its potential profile. We designed and fabricated a field-effect transistor with nanowire channel located on the apex of silicon-on-insulator small chip. The field-effect transistor with nanowire channel was selected due to its extremely high electric field sensitivity even at room temperature. We developed the scanning probe operated in the tuning fork regime and demonstrated its reasonable spatial and field resolution...
March 28, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
Peter Knittel, Nicolas Hibst, Boris Mizaikoff, Steffen Strehle, Christine Kranz
In this study, high-aspect ratio silicon nanowire (SiNW) - modified atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes are fabricated using focused ion beam (FIB) microfabrication technology and vapor-solid-solid synthesis. Commercially available soft silicon nitride probes are used for localized nanowire growth yielding soft high-aspect ratio AFM probes. The SiNW-modified cantilevers are used here for imaging in PeakForce Tappingۛ (PFT) mode, which offers high force control along with valuable information about tip-sample adhesion...
March 28, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
Ulrike Blumröder, Matthias Zilk, Hannes Hempel, Patrick Hoyer, Thomas Pertsch, Rainer Eichberger, Thomas Unold, Stefan Nolte
The influence of structure geometry on THz emission from Black Silicon (BS) surfaces fabricated by reactive ion etching (RIE) has been investigated by a comprehensive study including optical simulations, optical-pump THz probe and THz emission studies. A strong enhancement of THz emission is observed with increasing structure depth, which is mainly related to the increased number of carriers created within the silicon needles and not due to the overall absorption enhancement as previously claimed for silicon nanowires...
March 20, 2017: Optics Express
Xuefei Qin, Zihuan Xia, Yonggang Wu, Jian Zhou, Zongyi Zhang
Silicon nanowire-based arrays have demonstrated superior light trapping properties and great potential for next-generation photovoltaics. In this paper, we propose a perpendicular elliptical nanocone (PENC) array solar cell, which introduces an asymmetry in the direction parallel to the array surface in addition to the asymmetry in the direction normal to the array surface, which has been implemented in the circular nanocone (CNC) array. The PENC array displays more and higher resonant absorption peaks in the long wavelength compared with the CNC array...
March 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Jiawen Lu, Xuexi Sheng, Guoqing Tong, Zhongwei Yu, Xiaolin Sun, Linwei Yu, Xiangxin Xu, Junzhuan Wang, Jun Xu, Yi Shi, Kunji Chen
Inorganic CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I, or hybrid among them) perovskite quantum dots (IPQDs) are promising building blocks for exploring high performance optoelectronic applications. In this work, the authors report a new hybrid structure that marries CsPbX3 IPQDs to silicon nanowires (SiNWs) radial junction structures to achieve ultrafast and highly sensitive ultraviolet (UV) detection in solar-blind spectrum. A compact and uniform deployment of CsPbX3 IPQDs upon the sidewall of low-reflective 3D radial junctions enables a strong light field excitation and efficient down-conversion of the ultraviolet incidences, which are directly tailored into emission bands optimized for a rapid photodetection in surrounding ultrathin radial p-i-n junctions...
March 29, 2017: Advanced Materials
Zhibin Pei, Haibo Hu, Shuxin Li, Changhui Ye
In this work, the different orientation of SiNWs on Si pyramids by a two step MACE method have been fabricated. By tuning the structure of Ag catalyst film and controlling the concentration of H2O2 or the etching temperature, the tunability of the orientation of SiNWs from <111> to <100> on Si pyramids was realized. Si structures composed of Si pyramids and SiNWs exhibit better omnidirectional light-trapping ability by multiple reflections. Si structures with structural tunability and enhanced light harvesting performance will find a wide variety of significant applications in solar cells, photodetectors, and optoelectronic devices...
April 7, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Shinya Kato, Tatsuya Yamazaki, Yasuyoshi Kurokawa, Shinsuke Miyajima, Makoto Konagai
Surface passivation and bulk carrier lifetime of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are essential for their application in solar cell devices. The effective minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor material is influenced by both its surface passivation and bulk carrier lifetime. We found that the effective carrier lifetime of SiNWs passivated with aluminum oxide (Al2O3) was significantly influenced by the fabrication process of SiNWs. We could not measure the effective lifetime of SiNWs fabricated by thermal annealing of amorphous silicon nanowires...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Linling Qin, Cheng Zhang, Runfeng Li, Xiaofeng Li
This work reports the plasmonically enhanced refractive index sensor consisting of silicon nanowire array (Si-NWA) coated by a conformal gold (Au) nanoshell. Compared to the pure Si or Au NWA system, the Si-Au core-shell setup leads to substantially enhanced optical in-coupling to excite strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for highly sensitive sensors. Results indicate that the SPR wavelength can be subtly tuned by manipulating the nanowire radius, and it shows a strong shift with very small variation of the refractive index of the analyte...
April 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Yang Li, Yuli Hao, Chunyu Huang, Xingyao Chen, Xinyu Chen, Yushuang Cui, Changsheng Yuan, Kai Qiu, Haixiong Ge, Yanfeng Chen
We demonstrated a simple and effective approach to fabricate dense and high aspect ratio sub-50 nm pillars based on phase separation of a polymer blend composed of a cross-linkable polysiloxane and polystyrene (PS). In order to obtain the phase-separated domains with nanoscale size, a liquid prepolymer of cross-linkable polysiloxane was employed as one moiety for increasing the miscibility of the polymer blend. After phase separation via spin-coating, the dispersed domains of liquid polysiloxane with sub-50 nm size could be solidified by UV exposure...
April 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Amelia H C Hart, Ryota Koizumi, John Hamel, Peter Samora Owuor, Yusuke Ito, Sehmus Ozden, Sanjit Bhowmick, Syed Asif Syed Amanulla, Thierry Tsafack, Kunttal Keyshar, Rahul Mital, Janet Hurst, Robert Vajtai, Chandra Sekhar Tiwary, Pulickel M Ajayan
The most recent and innovative silicon carbide (SiC) fiber ceramic matrix composites, used for lightweight high-heat engine parts in aerospace applications, are woven, layered, and then surrounded by a SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC). To further improve both the mechanical properties and thermal and oxidative resistance abilities of this material, SiC nanotubes and nanowires (SiCNT/NWs) are grown on the surface of the SiC fiber via carbon nanotube conversion. This conversion utilizes the shape memory synthesis (SMS) method, starting with carbon nanotube (CNT) growth on the SiC fiber surface, to capitalize on the ease of dense surface morphology optimization and the ability to effectively engineer the CNT-SiC fiber interface to create a secure nanotube-fiber attachment...
April 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hongki Kang, Jee-Yeon Kim, Yang-Kyu Choi, Yoonkey Nam
In this research, a high performance silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (transconductance as high as 34 µS and sensitivity as 84 nS/mV) is extensively studied and directly compared with planar passive microelectrode arrays for neural recording application. Electrical and electrochemical characteristics are carefully characterized in a very well-controlled manner. We especially focused on the signal amplification capability and intrinsic noise of the transistors. A neural recording system using both silicon nanowire field-effect transistor-based active-type microelectrode array and platinum black microelectrode-based passive-type microelectrode array are implemented and compared...
March 28, 2017: Sensors
Shun Dong, Ping Hu, Xinghong Zhang, Yuan Cheng, Cheng Fang, Jianguo Xu, Guiqing Chen
Ultralong Si3N4 nanowires (NWs) were successfully synthesized with size controlled in N2 gas by using an efficient method. The diameters of the Si3N4 NWs increased when the flow rate of N2 gas increased, with average diameters of 290 nm from flow rates of 100 ml/min, 343 nm from flow rates of 200 ml/min and 425 nm from flow rates of 400 ml/min. Young's modulus was found to rely strongly on the diameters of the Si3N4 NWs, decreasing from approximately 526.0 GPa to 321.9 GPa; as the diameters increased from 360 nm to 960 nm...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mirza Saquib Sarwar, Yuta Dobashi, Claire Preston, Justin K M Wyss, Shahriar Mirabbasi, John David Wyndham Madden
The development of bendable, stretchable, and transparent touch sensors is an emerging technological goal in a variety of fields, including electronic skin, wearables, and flexible handheld devices. Although transparent tactile sensors based on metal mesh, carbon nanotubes, and silver nanowires demonstrate operation in bent configurations, we present a technology that extends the operation modes to the sensing of finger proximity including light touch during active bending and even stretching. This is accomplished using stretchable and ionically conductive hydrogel electrodes, which project electric field above the sensor to couple with and sense a finger...
March 2017: Science Advances
Wolfgang A Vitale, Emanuele A Casu, Arnab Biswas, Teodor Rosca, Cem Alper, Anna Krammer, Gia V Luong, Qing-T Zhao, Siegfried Mantl, Andreas Schüler, A M Ionescu
Steep-slope transistors allow to scale down the supply voltage and the energy per computed bit of information as compared to conventional field-effect transistors (FETs), due to their sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing at room temperature. Currently pursued approaches to achieve such a subthermionic subthreshold swing consist in alternative carrier injection mechanisms, like quantum mechanical band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in Tunnel FETs or abrupt phase-change in metal-insulator transition (MIT) devices...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yatin J Mange, Soundarrajan Chandrasekaran, Nathan Hollingsworth, Nicolas H Voelcker, Ivan P Parkin, Thomas Nann, Thomas J Macdonald
Metal organic {Ni₄O₄} clusters, known oxidation catalysts, have been shown to provide a valuable route in increasing the photocurrent response on silicon nanowire (SiNW) photocathodes. {Ni₄O₄} clusters have been paired with SiNWs to form a new photocathode composite for water splitting. Under AM1.5 conditions, the combination of {Ni₄O₄} clusters with SiNWs gave a current density of -16 mA/cm², which corresponds to an increase in current density of 60% when compared to bare SiNWs. The composite electrode was fully characterised and shown to be an efficient and stable photocathode for water splitting...
February 6, 2017: Nanomaterials
Soundarrajan Chandrasekaran, Thomas Nann, Nicolas H Voelcker
The performance of silicon for water oxidation and hydrogen production can be improved by exploiting the antireflective properties of nanostructured silicon substrates. In this work, silicon nanowires were fabricated by metal-assisted electroless etching of silicon. An enhanced photocurrent density of -17 mA/cm² was observed for the silicon nanowires coated with an iron sulphur carbonyl catalyst when compared to bare silicon nanowires (-5 mA/cm²). A substantial amount of 315 µmol/h hydrogen gas was produced at low bias potentials for the silicon nanowires coated with an iron sulphur carbonyl catalyst...
August 5, 2016: Nanomaterials
Dorian Gaboriau, Maxime Boniface, Anthony Valero, Dmitry Aldakov, Thierry Brousse, Pascal Gentile, Said Sadki
Silicon nanowires were coated by a 1-5 nm thin alumina layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to replace poorly reproducible and unstable native silicon oxide by a highly conformal passivating alumina layer. The surface coating enabled probing the behavior of symmetric devices using such electrodes in the EMI-TFSI electrolyte, allowing us to attain a large cell voltage up to 6 V in ionic liquid, together with very high cyclability with less than 4% capacitance fade after 10(6) charge/discharge cycles...
April 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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