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Irving Weissman

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880904/lyve1-marks-the-divergence-of-yolk-sac-definitive-hemogenic-endothelium-from-the-primitive-erythroid-lineage
#1
Lydia K Lee, Yasamine Ghorbanian, Wenyuan Wang, Yanling Wang, Yeon Joo Kim, Irving L Weissman, Matthew A Inlay, Hanna K A Mikkola
The contribution of the different waves and sites of developmental hematopoiesis to fetal and adult blood production remains unclear. Here, we identify lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE1) as a marker of yolk sac (YS) endothelium and definitive hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Endothelium in mid-gestation YS and vitelline vessels, but not the dorsal aorta and placenta, were labeled by Lyve1-Cre. Most YS HSPCs and erythro-myeloid progenitors were Lyve1-Cre lineage traced, but primitive erythroid cells were not, suggesting that they represent distinct lineages...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856424/eradication-of-canine-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-in-a-murine-xenograft-model-with-cd47-blockade-and-anti-cd20
#2
Kipp Weiskopf, Katie L Anderson, Daisuke Ito, Peter J Schnorr, Hirotaka Tomiyasu, Aaron M Ring, Kristin Bloink, Jem Efe, Sarah Rue, David Lowery, Amira Barkal, Susan Prohaska, Kelly M McKenna, Ingrid Cornax, Timothy D O'Brien, M Gerard O'Sullivan, Irving L Weissman, Jaime F Modiano
Cancer immunotherapies hold much promise, but their potential in veterinary settings has not yet been fully appreciated. Canine lymphomas are among the most common tumors of dogs and bear remarkable similarity to human disease. In this study, we examined the combination of CD47 blockade with anti-CD20 passive immunotherapy for canine lymphoma. The CD47/SIRPα axis is an immune checkpoint that regulates macrophage activation. In humans, CD47 is expressed on cancer cells and enables evasion from phagocytosis...
December 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814480/inhibition-of-apoptosis-overcomes-stage-related-compatibility-barriers-to-chimera-formation-in-mouse-embryos
#3
Hideki Masaki, Megumi Kato-Itoh, Yusuke Takahashi, Ayumi Umino, Hideyuki Sato, Keiichi Ito, Ayaka Yanagida, Toshinobu Nishimura, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Masumi Hirabayashi, Takumi Era, Kyle M Loh, Sean M Wu, Irving L Weissman, Hiromitsu Nakauchi
Cell types more advanced in development than embryonic stem cells, such as EpiSCs, fail to contribute to chimeras when injected into pre-implantation-stage blastocysts, apparently because the injected cells undergo apoptosis. Here we show that transient promotion of cell survival through expression of the anti-apoptotic gene BCL2 enables EpiSCs and Sox17(+) endoderm progenitors to integrate into blastocysts and contribute to chimeric embryos. Upon injection into blastocyst, BCL2-expressing EpiSCs contributed to all bodily tissues in chimeric animals while Sox17(+) endoderm progenitors specifically contributed in a region-specific fashion to endodermal tissues...
November 3, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763252/myeloid-cell-origins-differentiation-and-clinical-implications
#4
Kipp Weiskopf, Peter J Schnorr, Wendy W Pang, Mark P Chao, Akanksha Chhabra, Jun Seita, Mingye Feng, Irving L Weissman
The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is a multipotent stem cell that resides in the bone marrow and has the ability to form all of the cells of the blood and immune system. Since its first purification in 1988, additional studies have refined the phenotype and functionality of HSCs and characterized all of their downstream progeny. The hematopoietic lineage is divided into two main branches: the myeloid and lymphoid arms. The myeloid arm is characterized by the common myeloid progenitor and all of its resulting cell types...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510901/hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-immunocompetent-hosts-without-radiation-or-chemotherapy
#5
Akanksha Chhabra, Aaron M Ring, Kipp Weiskopf, Peter John Schnorr, Sydney Gordon, Alan C Le, Hye-Sook Kwon, Nan Guo Ring, Jens Volkmer, Po Yi Ho, Serena Tseng, Irving L Weissman, Judith A Shizuru
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation can cure diverse diseases of the blood system, including hematologic malignancies, anemias, and autoimmune disorders. However, patients must undergo toxic conditioning regimens that use chemotherapy and/or radiation to eliminate host HSCs and enable donor HSC engraftment. Previous studies have shown that anti-c-Kit monoclonal antibodies deplete HSCs from bone marrow niches, allowing donor HSC engraftment in immunodeficient mice. We show that host HSC clearance is dependent on Fc-mediated antibody effector functions, and enhancing effector activity through blockade of CD47, a myeloid-specific immune checkpoint, extends anti-c-Kit conditioning to fully immunocompetent mice...
August 10, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492049/breaking-down-the-barriers-to-precision-cancer-nanomedicine
#6
Christina von Roemeling, Wen Jiang, Charles K Chan, Irving L Weissman, Betty Y S Kim
Nanomedicine offers unique advantages in treating human cancers. However, physiological and pathological barriers within normal and disease tissues, which are highly variable among individuals, often hinder its effectiveness. The body possesses specific innate responses to nanoparticles (NPs), which when combined with unique pathophysiological signatures in the tumor microenvironment, can severely limit the utility of nanomedicine in the oncological setting. Furthermore, with the successes of cancer immunotherapies, understanding nanoimmune interactions and developing immune-smart cancer nanomedicine that can take advantage of the body's immune functions will increasingly become clinically relevant...
August 1, 2016: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477289/antibody-therapy-targeting-cd47-and-cd271-effectively-suppresses-melanoma-metastasis-in-patient-derived-xenografts
#7
Michael Ngo, Arum Han, Anita Lakatos, Debashis Sahoo, Stephanie J Hachey, Kipp Weiskopf, Andrew H Beck, Irving L Weissman, Alexander D Boiko
The high rate of metastasis and recurrence among melanoma patients indicates the existence of cells within melanoma that have the ability to both initiate metastatic programs and bypass immune recognition. Here, we identify CD47 as a regulator of melanoma tumor metastasis and immune evasion. Protein and gene expression analysis of clinical melanoma samples reveals that CD47, an anti-phagocytic signal, correlates with melanoma metastasis. Antibody-mediated blockade of CD47 coupled with targeting of CD271(+) melanoma cells strongly inhibits tumor metastasis in patient-derived xenografts...
August 9, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437576/cd47-blocking-antibodies-restore-phagocytosis-and-prevent-atherosclerosis
#8
Yoko Kojima, Jens-Peter Volkmer, Kelly McKenna, Mete Civelek, Aldons Jake Lusis, Clint L Miller, Daniel Direnzo, Vivek Nanda, Jianqin Ye, Andrew J Connolly, Eric E Schadt, Thomas Quertermous, Paola Betancur, Lars Maegdefessel, Ljubica Perisic Matic, Ulf Hedin, Irving L Weissman, Nicholas J Leeper
Atherosclerosis is the disease process that underlies heart attack and stroke. Advanced lesions at risk of rupture are characterized by the pathological accumulation of diseased vascular cells and apoptotic cellular debris. Why these cells are not cleared remains unknown. Here we show that atherogenesis is associated with upregulation of CD47, a key anti-phagocytic molecule that is known to render malignant cells resistant to programmed cell removal, or 'efferocytosis'. We find that administration of CD47-blocking antibodies reverses this defect in efferocytosis, normalizes the clearance of diseased vascular tissue, and ameliorates atherosclerosis in multiple mouse models...
August 4, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27419872/mapping-the-pairwise-choices-leading-from-pluripotency-to-human-bone-heart-and-other-mesoderm-cell-types
#9
Kyle M Loh, Angela Chen, Pang Wei Koh, Tianda Z Deng, Rahul Sinha, Jonathan M Tsai, Amira A Barkal, Kimberle Y Shen, Rajan Jain, Rachel M Morganti, Ng Shyh-Chang, Nathaniel B Fernhoff, Benson M George, Gerlinde Wernig, Rachel E A Salomon, Zhenghao Chen, Hannes Vogel, Jonathan A Epstein, Anshul Kundaje, William S Talbot, Philip A Beachy, Lay Teng Ang, Irving L Weissman
Stem-cell differentiation to desired lineages requires navigating alternating developmental paths that often lead to unwanted cell types. Hence, comprehensive developmental roadmaps are crucial to channel stem-cell differentiation toward desired fates. To this end, here, we map bifurcating lineage choices leading from pluripotency to 12 human mesodermal lineages, including bone, muscle, and heart. We defined the extrinsic signals controlling each binary lineage decision, enabling us to logically block differentiation toward unwanted fates and rapidly steer pluripotent stem cells toward 80%-99% pure human mesodermal lineages at most branchpoints...
July 14, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392224/cirm-and-ukrmp-different-ways-to-invest-in-regenerative-medicine
#10
Irving L Weissman, Fiona M Watt
The California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) and the UK Regenerative Medicine Platform (UKRMP) have similar objectives, but their histories, funding mechanisms, and governance could hardly be more different. Here, we compare the two programs and explore their impact in translating stem cell research into clinical applications.
July 7, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294525/cd47-blocking-immunotherapies-stimulate-macrophage-mediated-destruction-of-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
Kipp Weiskopf, Nadine S Jahchan, Peter J Schnorr, Sandra Cristea, Aaron M Ring, Roy L Maute, Anne K Volkmer, Jens-Peter Volkmer, Jie Liu, Jing Shan Lim, Dian Yang, Garrett Seitz, Thuyen Nguyen, Di Wu, Kevin Jude, Heather Guerston, Amira Barkal, Francesca Trapani, Julie George, John T Poirier, Eric E Gardner, Linde A Miles, Elisa de Stanchina, Shane M Lofgren, Hannes Vogel, Monte M Winslow, Caroline Dive, Roman K Thomas, Charles M Rudin, Matt van de Rijn, Ravindra Majeti, K Christopher Garcia, Irving L Weissman, Julien Sage
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive subtype of lung cancer with limited treatment options. CD47 is a cell-surface molecule that promotes immune evasion by engaging signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα), which serves as an inhibitory receptor on macrophages. Here, we found that CD47 is highly expressed on the surface of human SCLC cells; therefore, we investigated CD47-blocking immunotherapies as a potential approach for SCLC treatment. Disruption of the interaction of CD47 with SIRPα using anti-CD47 antibodies induced macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of human SCLC patient cells in culture...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263782/identification-of-human-erythroid-lineage-committed-progenitors
#12
Yasuo Mori, Koichi Akashi, Irving L Weissman
Elucidating the developmental pathway leading to erythrocytes and being able to isolate their progenitors is crucial to understanding and treating disorders of red cell imbalance such as anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and polycythemia vera. Endoglin (CD105) is a key marker for purifying mouse erythroid lineage-committed progenitors (EPs) from bone marrow. Herein, we show that human EPs can also be isolated from adult bone marrow. We identified three subfractions that possessed different expression patterns of CD105 and CD71 within the previously defined human megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitor (hMEP; Lineage-CD34(+)CD38(+)IL-3Rα(-)CD45RA(-)) population...
May 2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217570/developmental-cell-death-programs-license-cytotoxic-cells-to-eliminate-histocompatible-partners
#13
Daniel M Corey, Benyamin Rosental, Mark Kowarsky, Rahul Sinha, Katherine J Ishizuka, Karla J Palmeri, Stephen R Quake, Ayelet Voskoboynik, Irving L Weissman
In a primitive chordate model of natural chimerism, one chimeric partner is often eliminated in a process of allogeneic resorption. Here, we identify the cellular framework underlying loss of tolerance to one partner within a natural Botryllus schlosseri chimera. We show that the principal cell type mediating chimeric partner elimination is a cytotoxic morula cell (MC). Proinflammatory, developmental cell death programs render MCs cytotoxic and, in collaboration with activated phagocytes, eliminate chimeric partners during the "takeover" phase of blastogenic development...
June 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27168238/how-one-thing-led-to-another
#14
Irving Weissman
I started research in high school, experimenting on immunological tolerance to transplantation antigens. This led to studies of the thymus as the site of maturation of T cells, which led to the discovery, isolation, and clinical transplantation of purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The induction of immune tolerance with HSCs has led to isolation of other tissue-specific stem cells for regenerative medicine. Our studies of circulating competing germline stem cells in colonial protochordates led us to document competing HSCs...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27092773/anti-cd47-treatment-stimulates-phagocytosis-of-glioblastoma-by-m1-and-m2-polarized-macrophages-and-promotes-m1-polarized-macrophages-in-vivo
#15
Michael Zhang, Gregor Hutter, Suzana A Kahn, Tej D Azad, Sharareh Gholamin, Chelsea Y Xu, Jie Liu, Achal S Achrol, Chase Richard, Pia Sommerkamp, Matthew Kenneth Schoen, Melissa N McCracken, Ravi Majeti, Irving Weissman, Siddhartha S Mitra, Samuel H Cheshier
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent an important cellular subset within the glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) microenvironment and are a potential therapeutic target. TAMs display a continuum of different polarization states between antitumorigenic M1 and protumorigenic M2 phenotypes, with a lower M1/M2 ratio correlating with worse prognosis. Here, we investigated the effect of macrophage polarization on anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of human glioblastoma cells in vitro, as well as the effect of anti-CD47 on the distribution of M1 versus M2 macrophages within human glioblastoma cells grown in mouse xenografts...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27035983/identification-of-tumorigenic-cells-and-therapeutic-targets-in-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#16
Geoffrey Wayne Krampitz, Benson M George, Stephen B Willingham, Jens-Peter Volkmer, Kipp Weiskopf, Nadine Jahchan, Aaron M Newman, Debashis Sahoo, Allison J Zemek, Rebecca L Yanovsky, Julia K Nguyen, Peter J Schnorr, Pawel K Mazur, Julien Sage, Teri A Longacre, Brendan C Visser, George A Poultsides, Jeffrey A Norton, Irving L Weissman
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are a type of pancreatic cancer with limited therapeutic options. Consequently, most patients with advanced disease die from tumor progression. Current evidence indicates that a subset of cancer cells is responsible for tumor development, metastasis, and recurrence, and targeting these tumor-initiating cells is necessary to eradicate tumors. However, tumor-initiating cells and the biological processes that promote pathogenesis remain largely uncharacterized in PanNETs...
April 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884166/new-tools-for-studying-microglia-in-the-mouse-and-human-cns
#17
Mariko L Bennett, F Chris Bennett, Shane A Liddelow, Bahareh Ajami, Jennifer L Zamanian, Nathaniel B Fernhoff, Sara B Mulinyawe, Christopher J Bohlen, Aykezar Adil, Andrew Tucker, Irving L Weissman, Edward F Chang, Gordon Li, Gerald A Grant, Melanie G Hayden Gephart, Ben A Barres
The specific function of microglia, the tissue resident macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, has been difficult to ascertain because of a lack of tools to distinguish microglia from other immune cells, thereby limiting specific immunostaining, purification, and manipulation. Because of their unique developmental origins and predicted functions, the distinction of microglia from other myeloid cells is critically important for understanding brain development and disease; better tools would greatly facilitate studies of microglia function in the developing, adult, and injured CNS...
March 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26871622/a-mechanism-for-somatic-brain-mosaicism
#18
COMMENT
Irving L Weissman, Fred H Gage
Double-strand break repair is required for neural development, and brain cells contain somatic genomic variations. Now, Wei et al. demonstrate that neural stem and progenitor cells undergo very frequent DNA breaks in a very restricted set of genes involved in neural cell adhesion and synapse function.
February 11, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26863982/hoxb5-marks-long-term-haematopoietic-stem-cells-and-reveals-a-homogenous-perivascular-niche
#19
James Y Chen, Masanori Miyanishi, Sean K Wang, Satoshi Yamazaki, Rahul Sinha, Kevin S Kao, Jun Seita, Debashis Sahoo, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Irving L Weissman
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are arguably the most extensively characterized tissue stem cells. Since the identification of HSCs by prospective isolation, complex multi-parameter flow cytometric isolation of phenotypic subsets has facilitated studies on many aspects of HSC biology, including self-renewal, differentiation, ageing, niche, and diversity. Here we demonstrate by unbiased multi-step screening, identification of a single gene, homeobox B5 (Hoxb5, also known as Hox-2.1), with expression in the bone marrow that is limited to long-term (LT)-HSCs in mice...
February 11, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26829621/training-the-next-generation-of-biomedical-investigators-in-glycosciences
#20
REVIEW
Peter Agre, Carolyn Bertozzi, Mina Bissell, Kevin P Campbell, Richard D Cummings, Umesh R Desai, Mary Estes, Terence Flotte, Guy Fogleman, Fred Gage, David Ginsburg, Jeffrey I Gordon, Gerald Hart, Vincent Hascall, Laura Kiessling, Stuart Kornfeld, John Lowe, John Magnani, Lara K Mahal, Ruslan Medzhitov, Richard J Roberts, Robert Sackstein, Rita Sarkar, Ronald Schnaar, Nancy Schwartz, Ajit Varki, David Walt, Irving Weissman
This position statement originated from a working group meeting convened on April 15, 2015, by the NHLBI and incorporates follow-up contributions by the participants as well as other thought leaders subsequently consulted, who together represent research fields relevant to all branches of the NIH. The group was deliberately composed not only of individuals with a current research emphasis in the glycosciences, but also of many experts from other fields, who evinced a strong interest in being involved in the discussions...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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