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metformin SGLT-2 Inhibitor

Rohit Kedia, Supriya Kulkarni, Meredith Ross, Vijay Shivaswamy
The dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and public health care costs worldwide. The need for new, effective, and long-lasting drugs is urgent. Recent research has focused on the role of the inhibitors of sodium- glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2). Clinical trials have shown that SGLT-2 inhibitors have glycemic efficacy and weight-lowering potential. Dual drug therapy is a recommended therapy for patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes who need significant glycemic control...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Thomas Vanhove, Quinten Remijsen, Dirk Kuypers, Pieter Gillard
Post-transplant diabetes mellitus is a frequent complication of solid organ transplantation that generally requires treatment with lifestyle interventions and antidiabetic medication. A number of demonstrated and potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) exist between commonly used immunosuppressants and antidiabetic drugs, which are comprehensively summarized in this review. Cyclosporine (CsA) itself inhibits the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 enzyme and a variety of drug transporters. As a result, it increases exposure to repaglinide and sitagliptin, will likely increase the exposure to nateglinide, glyburide, saxagliptin, vildagliptin and alogliptin, and could theoretically increase the exposure to gliquidone and several sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitors...
September 14, 2016: Transplantation Reviews
Michael Einar Røder, Heidi Storgaard, Jørgen Rungby, Filip Krag Knop, Tina Vilsbøll
The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT-2i)-class is efficacious as monotherapy and as add-on therapy with an expected lowering of the glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration of approximately 7 mmol/mol. Side effects relate to the mode of action, genital infections are the main problem. Extremely rare cases of ketoacidosis are reported, mostly in patients with Type 1 diabetes. One SGLT-2i, empagliflozin, has been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality and progression of kidney disease in patients with Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
September 19, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
André J Scheen
INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disease with multiple defects, which generally require a combination of several pharmacological approaches to control hyperglycemia. Combining a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) and a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitor (SGT2i) appears to be an attractive approach. AREA COVERED: An extensive literature search was performed to analyze the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical experience of different gliptin-gliflozin combinations...
July 29, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Charalampos Tzanetakos, Nicholas Tentolouris, Georgia Kourlaba, Nikos Maniadakis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic progressive disease that has been spread worldwide over the past three decades and associated with increased morbidity and mortality resulting in considerable socioeconomic implications for national healthcare systems. Effective management of disease is highly needed ensuring patients receive the best possible care within the available budget. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, compared with a sulfonylurea (SU) or a dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i), when added to metformin, in T2DM patients inadequately controlled on metformin alone in Greece...
August 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
Bianca Hemmingsen, Jesper Krogh, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Bernd Richter
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors were recently approved as glucose-lowering interventions in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Potential beneficial or harmful effects of SGLT 2 inhibitors in people at risk for the development of T2DM are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of SGLT 2 inhibitors focusing on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people with impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting blood glucose or moderately elevated glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or any combination of these...
April 21, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Marcus May, Christoph Schindler
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus often require multifactorial pharmacological treatment due to different comorbidities. An increasing number of concomitantly taken medications elevate the risk of the patient experiencing adverse drug effects or drug interactions. Drug interactions can be divided into pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions affecting cytochrome (CYP) enzymes, absorption properties, transporter activities and receptor affinities. Furthermore, nutrition, herbal supplements, patient's age and gender are of clinical importance...
April 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Nisa M Maruthur, Eva Tseng, Susan Hutfless, Lisa M Wilson, Catalina Suarez-Cuervo, Zackary Berger, Yue Chu, Emmanuel Iyoha, Jodi B Segal, Shari Bolen
BACKGROUND: Clinicians and patients need updated evidence on the comparative effectiveness and safety of diabetes medications to make informed treatment choices. PURPOSE: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness and safety of monotherapy (thiazolidinediones, metformin, sulfonylureas, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP-4] inhibitors, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 [SGLT-2] inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] receptor agonists) and selected metformin-based combinations in adults with type 2 diabetes...
June 7, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Stanley S Schwartz, Arie Katz
In type 2 diabetes (T2D), early combination therapy using agents that target a number of the underlying pathophysiologic defects contributing to hyperglycemia may improve patient outcomes. For many patients, the combination of metformin with a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor may be a good option because these agents have complementary mechanisms of action, neutral-to-positive effects on body weight, and a low risk of hypoglycemia. This review focuses on the combination of metformin with dapagliflozin, a member of the SGLT-2 inhibitor class of antidiabetes agents...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Deepson S Shyangdan, Olalekan A Uthman, Norman Waugh
OBJECTIVE: Because of the lack of head-to-head trials, the aim was to indirectly compare sodium glucose transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Systematic review and network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from January 2005 to January 2015. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials assessing the efficacy of SGLT-2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with diet and exercise alone or metformin monotherapy...
2016: BMJ Open
Stanley S Schwartz, Intekhab Ahmed
Objective The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are an important addition to available treatments for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) as an adjunct to modifications in diet and exercise. SGLT-2 inhibitors may be prescribed alone or as add-on treatment in patients receiving metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and/or insulin across the natural history of the disease. Inhibition of SGLT-2, which is responsible for approximately 90% of renal glucose reabsorption, increases urinary glucose excretion and lowers blood glucose concentrations...
May 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Awadhesh Kumar Singh
Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are newly approved class of oral anti-diabetic drugs, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, which reduces blood glucose through glucouresis via the kidney, independent, and irrespective of available pancreatic beta-cells. Studies conducted across their clinical development program found, a modest reduction in glycated hemoglobin ranging from -0.5 to -0.8%, without any significant hypoglycemia. Moreover, head-to-head studies versus active comparators yielded comparable efficacy...
November 2015: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Hiromi Hamamoto, Mitsuhiko Noda
BACKGROUND: A detailed description is given of a case we encountered in which unexpectedly marked weight gain occurred following a treatment switch from a GLP-1 receptor agonist to an SGLT-2 inhibitor CASE REPORT: The patient, a 44-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus, had gained about 10 kg in weight in the previous year. Therefore, metformin was replaced with liraglutide to obtain reduction of body weight. Although the patient lost about 8 kg (7%), during the 18-month period on the medication, the weight loss stabilized; therefore, the treatment was again switched to tofogliflozin to obtain further reduction of body weight...
2015: American Journal of Case Reports
Bruce W Bode, Satish K Garg
OBJECTIVE: Review available data on adjunctive therapies for type 1 diabetes (T1D), with a special focus on newer antihyperglycemic agents. METHODS: Published data on hypoglycemia, obesity, mortality, and goal attainment in T1D were reviewed to determine unmet therapeutic needs. PubMed databases and abstracts from recent diabetes meetings were searched using the term "type 1 diabetes" and the available and investigational sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, and metformin...
February 2016: Endocrine Practice
Carlo Garofalo, Nicolangelo Iazzetta, Andrea Camocardi, Mario Pacilio, Carmela Iodice, Roberto Minutolo, Luca De Nicola, Giuseppe Conte
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most important non-communicable disease after hypertension. Prevalence of type 2 DM has progressively increased over the last decades. In Italy, 11.8% of the general adult population can be identified as diabetic. The major complication of DM is diabetic nephropathy (DM-CKD), which develops in approximately one-third of diabetics. Achieving optimal glycemic control is the first therapeutic goal in the management of DM-CKD. In recent years, new antidiabetic drugs have been marketed (GLP1 analogues, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT-2 inhibitors) to ameliorate glycemia in patients nave or treated by means of traditional agents, such as sulfonylureas, metformin, glinides, insulin...
September 2015: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Ting Yang, Min Lu, Lingyue Ma, Ying Zhou, Yimin Cui
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and tolerability of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, added on to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Literatures were searched from major electronic databases, as well as the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration and for unpublished studies. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing canagliflozin with placebo in combination with metformin were included...
November 2015: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Juris J Meier
The risk for cardiovascular events, congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia is significantly increased in patients with diabetes. Although poor glycaemic control has been associated with an increased cardiovascular event rate, aggressive glucose-lowering strategies have failed to improve cardiovascular endpoints or mortality. Therefore, treatment-associated adverse effects, especially hypoglycaemia and weight gain, must be carefully outbalanced against the potential benefits of better glycaemic control...
April 2015: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
M Charokopou, P McEwan, S Lister, L Callan, K Bergenheim, K Tolley, R Postema, R Townsend, M Roudaut
AIMS: To assess the cost-effectiveness of dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, compared with a sulfonylurea, when added to metformin for treatment of UK people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on metformin alone. METHODS: Clinical inputs sourced from a head-to-head randomized controlled trial (RCT) informed the Cardiff diabetes decision model. Risk equations developed from the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) were used in conjunction with the clinical inputs to predict disease progression and the incidence of micro- and macrovascular complications over a lifetime horizon...
July 2015: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Yongliang Jia, Yaoguang Lao, Siu-Wai Leung
INTRODUCTION: Past studies of network meta-analysis focused on evaluating drug combinations in treating type 2 diabetes but not on evaluating antidiabetic drugs in monotherapy. Clinical guidelines (eg, NICE (National Institute of Health and Care Excellence) clinical guidelines 66 and 87) were based only on the findings of individual clinical trials and pairwise meta-analysis in evaluating monotherapy. This study aims to fill this gap of research by conducting a Bayesian network meta-analysis to compare major antidiabetic drugs, including metformin, glimepiride, glyburide, glipizide, repaglinide, nateglinide, sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin and SGLT-2 (sodium-glucose transporter-2) inhibitors...
2015: BMJ Open
Harald Rupprecht
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2015: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
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