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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645746/cortical-aquaporin-4-in-relation-to-brain-oedema-and-neurological-function-of-cortical-cryo-injured-mice
#1
Edmond Jonathan Gandham, Prabhakaran Vasudevan, Ranjith K Moorthy, Kesavan Narasimhan, Muthukumar Murthy, Grace Rebekah, Vedantam Rajshekhar
To estimate the spatial and temporal expression of Aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) in a murine model of automated cerebral cryoinjury and correlate AQP-4 expression with development of brain oedema and neurological function. AQP-4 levels were determined quantitatively by Western blots at site of injury and at sites adjacent to and distant from injury in brains of cryoinjured (experimental) (n=18), sham injured (n=18) & normal mice at 24, 48, 72h post injury. AQP-4 expression was correlated with percentage water content of brain, Neurological Severity Score (NSS) and rotarod scores...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627942/diffusion-imaging-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-impact-accelerated-rodent-model-a-pilot-study
#2
Zora Kikinis, Marc Muehlmann, Ofer Pasternak, Sharon Peled, Praveen Kulkarni, Craig Ferris, Sylvain Bouix, Yogesh Rathi, Inga K Koerte, Steve Pieper, Alexander Yarmarkovich, Caryn L Porter, Bruce S Kristal, Martha E Shenton
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: There is a need to understand pathologic processes of the brain following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Previous studies report axonal injury and oedema in the first week after injury in a rodent model. This study aims to investigate the processes occurring 1 week after injury at the time of regeneration and degeneration using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the impact acceleration rat mTBI model. RESEARCH DESIGN: Eighteen rats were subjected to impact acceleration injury, and three rats served as sham controls...
June 19, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571812/a-hypothesis-for-mechanism-for-brain-oedema-due-to-glycine
#3
Suchita J Mehta, Andrea Roche Recinos, Subodh J Saggi, Man S Oh
Death following the use the glycine distension solution in transurethral prostatectomy (TURP) or hysteroscopic surgery has been attributed to the toxic effect of glycine on the brain through the glycine receptors and hyperammonemia, contending that glycine-associated hyponatremia is isosmotic and therefore would not cause brain oedema. Here we propose a hypothesis that the mechanism of brain oedema and death is actually osmotic brain oedema caused by selective diffusion of glycine into the brain while sodium cannot diffuse out of the brain despite favourable concentration gradient because of the absence of sodium transporter on the cerebral capillaries needed for the exit of sodium from the brain...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571231/central-variant-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-a-rare-case-report
#4
K G Srinivasan, Padhmini Balasubramanian, K R Mayilvaganan, Usha Nandhini Kannan, Mohamed Bilal
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a clinicoradiological condition associated with headache, altered mental status, dizziness and white matter vasogenic oedema in parieto-occipital region. It is often associated with hypertension but can also occur in diverse clinical settings like immunosuppression, eclampsia, etc. It is due to failure of autoregulatory mechanism of posterior circulation in response to change in blood pressure. We hereby report a rare case of central variant of PRES secondary to severe hypertension diagnosed with 3T MRI...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551302/acute-stroke-differential-diagnosis-stroke-mimics
#5
Pedro Vilela
Stroke mimics (SM) are non-vascular conditions that present with an acute neurological deficit simulating acute ischemic stroke and represent a significant percentage of all acute stroke hospital admissions. The most common clinical SM includes conversion/functional (psychiatric disorder); seizures and postictal paralysis; toxic-metabolic disturbances; brain tumours; infections, and migraine. Imaging is essential for SM recognition, being Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion imaging and angiographic studies very useful...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533826/a-novel-triage-tool-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-in-traumatic-brain-injury-and-its-correlation-to-rotterdam-computed-tomography-ct-scoring
#6
Sudha Kiran Das, Sachin P Shetty, Kamal Kumar Sen
BACKGROUND: Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) evaluated in CT imaging as well as Rotterdam CT Score (RCTS) are proven independent predictors of outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). To date, no study has correlated ONSD on admission CT scan with RCTS. MATERIAL/METHODS: Retrospective cohort study comprised of consecutive patients undergoing CT imaging for traumatic brain injury recruited between January and October 2015. Bilateral ONSD was measured 3 mm behind the eyeball in axial and sagittal planes and mean value was calculated...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520217/the-gene-encoding-the-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-channel-kir4-1-may-be-involved-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#7
Siri H Opdal, Åshild Vege, Arne Stray-Pedersen, Torleiv O Rognum
AIM: Disturbances in brain function and development may play a role in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). This Norwegian study aimed to test the hypothesis that specific variants of genes involved in water transport and potassium homeostasis would be predisposing factors for SIDS. METHODS: Genetic variation in the genes encoding aquaporin-4 (AQP4), Kir4.1 (KCNJ10) and α-syntrophin were analysed in 171 SIDS cases (62.6% male) with a median age of 15.5 (2-52) weeks and 398 adult controls (70...
May 18, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506130/fullerenol-nanoparticles-decrease-ischaemia-induced-brain-injury-and-oedema-through-inhibition-of-oxidative-damage-and-aquaporin-1-expression-in-ischaemic-stroke
#8
Shamsi Darabi, Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: We examined the possible protective effects of fullerenol nanoparticles on brain injuries and oedema in experimental model of ischaemic stroke through inhibition of oxidative damage and aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) expression. METHODS: Experiment was done in three groups of rats (N = 66): sham, control ischaemia and ischaemic treatment. Ischaemia was induced by 90-minutes middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Rats received a dose of 10 mg/kg of fullerenol 30 minutes before MCAO...
May 16, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478966/a-rare-case-of-multiple-brain-abscess-and-probably-disseminated-phaeohyphomycosis-due-to-cladophialophora-bantiana-in-an-immunosuppressed-individual-from-india
#9
S Lahiri Mukhopadhyay, A Mahadevan, V H Bahubali, R Dawn Bharath, A R Prabhuraj, S Maji, N Siddaiah
Cladophialophora bantiana, a dematiaceous neurotropic mold causes rare and lethal brain abscess, commonly in immunocompetent hosts. We report a rare and probably a case of disseminated infection with this black mold in an immunosuppressed individual from India. A 55-year-old diabetic male presented with severe headache, blurred-vision, behavioural abnormalities, eye-pain and ear-discharge. He was undergoing treatment for hypertension, prostatomegaly and obstructive pulmonary disease. He was on steroids for the past six years for uveitis...
May 3, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468633/myocardial-and-haemodynamic-responses-to-two-fluid-regimens-in-african-children-with-severe-malnutrition-and-hypovolaemic-shock-afrim-study
#10
Nchafatso Obonyo, Bernadette Brent, Peter Olupot-Olupot, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Irene Kuipers, Sidney Wong, Kenji Shiino, Jonathan Chan, John Fraser, Job B M van Woensel, Kathryn Maitland
BACKGROUND: Fluid therapy in severely malnourished children is hypothesized to be deleterious owing to compromised cardiac function. We evaluated World Health Organization (WHO) fluid resuscitation guidelines for hypovolaemic shock using myocardial and haemodynamic function and safety endpoints. METHODS: A prospective observational study of two sequential fluid management strategies was conducted at two East African hospitals. Eligible participants were severely malnourished children, aged 6-60 months, with hypovolaemic shock secondary to gastroenteritis...
May 3, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441632/emergency-computed-tomography-in-patients-with-first-seizure
#11
Kaisa Kotisaari, Pekka Virtanen, Nina Forss, Daniel Strbian, Filip Scheperjans
PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of emergent imaging findings on head computed tomography (CT) in an adult population of first seizure (FS) patients presenting to an emergency department (ED); and to search for associations between clinical features and emergent imaging findings among these patients. METHODS: For this retrospective registry-based study, adult FS patients presenting to Helsinki University Hospital ED in 2006 were identified based on ICD-10 diagnosis...
May 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400397/fluorescence-in-a-cryptococcoma-following-administration-of-5-aminolevulinic-acid-hydrochloride-gliolan
#12
Waldo Gerard Solis, Mitchell Hansen
A 54-year-old man presented with two episodes of dysarthria and left facial droop. Both episodes resolved by the time of examination. MRI of the brain revealed a right frontotemporal, heterogeneously enhancing mass with surrounding vasogenic oedema, suggestive of a high-grade primary brain neoplasm. The patient was administered preoperative 5-aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride (Gliolan), and fluorescence-guided resection of the lesion was undertaken. Cryptococcus gattii infection was diagnosed from the specimen and the patient was given appropriate antifungal treatment...
April 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379220/long-term-consumption-of-fermented-rooibos-herbal-tea-offers-neuroprotection-against-ischemic-brain-injury-in-rats
#13
Olusiji Akinrinmade, Sylvester Omoruyi, Daneel Dietrich, Okobi Ekpo
Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide, affecting about 240 people a day in South Africa and leaving survivors with residual disabilities. At the moment, there is no clinically approved neuroprotective product for stroke but the consumption of plant polyphenols has been suggested to offer some protection against stroke. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term consumption of fermented rooibos herbal tea (FRHT) on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury in adult male Wistar rats...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355299/mild-hypothermia-alleviates-brain-oedema-and-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-by-attenuating-tight-junction-and-adherens-junction-breakdown-in-a-swine-model-of-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#14
Jiebin Li, Chunsheng Li, Wei Yuan, Junyuan Wu, Jie Li, Zhenhua Li, Yongzhen Zhao
Mild hypothermia improves survival and neurological recovery after cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine whether mild hypothermia alleviates early blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. We investigated the effects of mild hypothermia on neurologic outcome, survival rate, brain water content, BBB permeability and changes in tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) after CA and CPR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331021/aspergillus-niger-infection-in-an-immunosuppressed-patient-confined-solely-to-the-brain
#15
Lucy Simmonds, Sian Mitchell, Barrie White, Shanika A Crusz, David Denning
A 68-year-old woman with a background of hypertension, stroke and rheumatoid arthritis presented to her local hospital after a 4-week history of gradual deterioration and increasing confusion with new onset right-sided weakness. Her initial CT scan revealed a rim enhancing mass lesion with surrounding oedema in the left parietal lobe for which she underwent CT stealth-guided biopsy. Microbiology culture of the 2 biopsy samples yielded Aspergillus niger and she was started on the antifungal agent voriconazole...
March 22, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299538/decompressive-surgery-in-malignant-cerebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis-what-predicts-its-outcome
#16
Rohan Mahale, Anish Mehta, Ravi Gopal Varma, Alangar S Hegde, Purushottam T Acharya, Rangasetty Srinivasa
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is common in Asians, accounting for 15% of all strokes in the young. CVST causing malignant cerebral oedema with brain herniation and death are referred as malignant CVST. This study was aimed at evaluating the outcome of patients and factors predicting the outcome with malignant CVST after decompressive surgery. It was a retrospective, observational, single centre, hospital-based and cross-sectional study. Records of patients with malignant CVST who had decompressive surgery were analysed...
May 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265034/extracellular-matrix-inflammation-in-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#17
REVIEW
Gary A Rosenberg
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) include a wide spectrum of chronic manifestations of vascular disease related to large vessel strokes and small vessel disease (SVD). Lacunar strokes and white matter (WM) injury are consequences of SVD. The main vascular risk factor for SVD is brain hypoperfusion from cerebral blood vessel narrowing due to chronic hypertension. The hypoperfusion leads to activation and degeneration of astrocytes with the resulting fibrosis of the extracellular matrix (ECM)...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247519/three-cases-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-with-chronic-kidney-disease-triggered-by-infection
#18
Kahori Nasu, Madoka Fujisawa, Hideki Kato, Masaomi Nangaku
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical and radiological condition with diverse neurological manifestations. Many clinical factors are known causes of PRES, but only a few cases of PRES have been reported in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and infectious disease. We describe three cases of PRES in patients with CKD triggered by various infectious diseases. Characteristic hyperintense signals on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicating reversible vasogenic brain oedema in various parts of the brain were observed...
April 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247179/neuroprotective-effect-of-3-naphthalen-2-yl-propoxy-methyl-azetidine-hydrochloride-on-brain-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury
#19
Eun-A Kim, Jung-Min Na, Jiae Kim, Soo Young Choi, Jee-Yin Ahn, Sung-Woo Cho
Because ischaemic stroke is one of the most common brain disorders, diverse effective therapies are urgently required. Recent studies reported a variety of azetidine-based scaffolds for the development of central nervous system-focused lead-like libraries. However, their mechanisms of action and in vivo functions remain unclear. Here, we investigated the potential mechanism and beneficial effects of 3-(naphthalen-2-yl(propoxy)methyl)azetidine hydrochloride (KHG26792), a novel azetidine derivative, on ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) brain injury...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246141/vasopressor-use-following-traumatic-injury-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#20
Mathieu Hylands, Augustin Toma, Nicolas Beaudoin, Anne-Julie Frenette, Frederick D'Aragon, Emilie Belley-Côté, Morten Hylander, François Lauzier, Reed Alexander Siemieniuk, Emmanuel Charbonney, Joey Kwong, Jon Henrik Laake, Gordon Guyatt, Per Olav Vandvik, Bram Rochwerg, Robert Green, Ian Ball, Damon Scales, Srinivas Murthy, Sandro Rizoli, Pierre Asfar, François Lamontagne
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, traumatic casualties are projected to exceed 8 million by year 2020. Haemorrhagic shock and brain injury are the leading causes of death following trauma. While intravenous fluids have traditionally been used to support organ perfusion in the setting of haemorrhage, recent investigations have suggested that restricting fluid therapy by tolerating more severe hypotension may improve survival. However, the safety of permissive hypotension remains uncertain, particularly among patients who have suffered a traumatic brain injury...
February 28, 2017: BMJ Open
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