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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431141/does-tranexamic-acid-lead-to-changes-in-mri-measures-of-brain-tissue-health-in-patients-with-spontaneous-intracerebral-haemorrhage-protocol-for-a-mri-substudy-nested-within-the-double-blind-randomised-controlled-tich-2-trial
#1
Rob A Dineen, Stefan Pszczolkowski, Katie Flaherty, Zhe K Law, Paul S Morgan, Ian Roberts, David J Werring, Rustam Al-Shahi Salman, Tim England, Philip M Bath, Nikola Sprigg
OBJECTIVES: To test whether administration of the antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid (TXA) in patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH) leads to increased prevalence of diffusion-weighted MRI-defined hyperintense ischaemic lesions (primary hypothesis) or reduced perihaematomal oedema volume, perihaematomal diffusion restriction and residual MRI-defined SICH-related tissue damage (secondary hypotheses). DESIGN: MRI substudy nested within the double-blind randomised controlled Tranexamic Acid for Hyperacute Primary Intracerebral Haemorrhage (TICH)-2 trial (ISRCTN93732214)...
February 3, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431100/sheehan-s-syndrome-presenting-as-cardiac-tamponade
#2
Ankit Mittal, Animesh Ray, Ram Manohar Talupula, Rita Sood
A 50-year-old woman presented with progressive dyspnoea and oedema with rapid deterioration over the last few days. Clinical examination revealed hypotension with cold clammy skin, raised jugular venous pressure and muffled heart sounds and was diagnosed to have cardiac tamponade, later confirmed on two-dimensional echocardiography. However, patient had bradycardia, and the other striking examination findings were coarse facies with pallor, madarosis, absent axillary and pubic hair and breast atrophy. Her blood sugar level was also low...
February 3, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422315/loss-of-endothelial-barrier-antigen-immunoreactivity-in-rat-retinal-microvessels-is-correlated-with-clostridium-perfringens-type-d-epsilon-toxin-induced-damage-to-the-blood-retinal-barrier
#3
K A Mander, J W Finnie
Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin (ETX) is a potent neurotoxin producing a severe, and often fatal, neurological disorder in ruminant livestock. Microvascular damage appears to be the fundamental action of ETX in the brain and, recently, similar vascular injury, with subsequent severe vasogenic oedema, has been reported in the retina of rats given ETX. Endothelial barrier antigen (EBA) is a useful marker of an intact blood-brain barrier in rats and it has been shown that loss of EBA immunoreactivity is correlated with ETX-induced cerebral microvascular damage in this species...
January 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411993/hepatic-encephalopathy-causes-and-health-related-burden
#4
Michelle Clayton
Patients with cirrhosis are at risk of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). While its pathogenesis is not fully understood, the circulation of increased levels of ammonia through the bloodstream to the brain is thought to be a key causative factor. The ammonia penetrates the blood-brain barrier, ultimately leading to cerebral oedema. This can result in cognitive impairments, which can exhibit in multiple ways, adversely affecting quality of life for both patients and their families. The need for hospitalisation and longer hospital stays associated with HE has cost implications for the health service...
February 7, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409679/peritoneal-dialysis-a-factor-of-risk-or-protection-for-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-review-of-the-literature
#5
Mercedes Moreiras-Plaza, Francisco Fernández-Fleming, Naiara Azkárate-Ramírez, Walfred Nájera-de la Garza, Isabel Martín-Baez, Maria Hernansanz-Pérez
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a clinical and radiological entity with acute or subacute neurological presentation associated with brain lesions that primarily affect the white matter of the posterior regions. It is often associated with the rapid onset of severe hypertension and/or with kidney failure (acute and chronic), but it has also been reported as a neurological complication in several medical conditions. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of cases and related publications due to the advance of diagnostic imaging techniques...
February 3, 2018: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359959/the-ketogenic-diet-as-a-treatment-for-traumatic-brain-injury-a-scoping-review
#6
Alexandre McDougall, Mark Bayley, Sarah Ep Munce
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The ketogenic diet (KD) has been identified as a potential therapy to enhance recovery after TBI. The purpose of this study is to complete a scoping review and synthesize the evidence regarding the KD and its therapeutic effects in TBI. The methodological framework of Arksey and O'Malley was employed. Databases searched include Medline, EMBASE, CCRCT, CINAHL and WebOfScience. Two reviewers independently screened titles, abstracts and full texts in a two-step screening protocol to determine inclusion...
January 23, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356789/tolerance-and-outcomes-of-stereotactic-radiosurgery-combined-with-anti-programmed-cell-death-1-pembrolizumab-for-melanoma-brain-metastases
#7
Charlee Nardin, Christine Mateus, Mathieu Texier, Emilie Lanoy, Salima Hibat-Allah, Samy Ammari, Caroline Robert, Frederic Dhermain
Anti-programmed cell death-1 (anti-PD1) antibodies are currently the first-line treatment for patients with metastatic BRAF wild-type melanoma, alone or combined with the anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody, ipilimumab. To date, data on safety and the outcomes of patients treated with the anti-PD1 monoclonal antibodies, pembrolizumab (PB), or nivolumab, combined with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), for melanoma brain metastases (MBM) are scarce. We retrospectively reviewed all patients with MBM treated with PB combined with SRS between 2012 and 2015...
January 19, 2018: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330587/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-with-spinal-cord-involvement-pres-sci-as-a-rare-complication-of-severe-diabetic-ketoacidosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Jianfei Nao, Han Zhang, Si Wu, Xiaotian Zhang, Dongming Zheng
INTRODUCTION: In addition to diffuse brain oedema, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can lead to ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke, extrapontine myelinolysis, and sinovenous thrombosis. However, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and spinal cord oedema are rarely reported in patients with DKA. METHODS: We present a case of a 17-year-old-girl who developed headache, blurred vision, and paraplegia after her DKA was controlled. Sequential magnetic resonance (MR) scans of the brain and spinal cord were performed...
January 12, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295526/inhibition-of-aquaporin-4-improves-the-outcome-of-ischaemic-stroke-and-modulates-brain-paravascular-drainage-pathways
#9
Ionica Pirici, Tudor Adrian Balsanu, Catalin Bogdan, Claudiu Margaritescu, Tamir Divan, Vacaras Vitalie, Laurentiu Mogoanta, Daniel Pirici, Roxana Octavia Carare, Dafin Fior Muresanu
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the most abundant water channel in the brain, and its inhibition before inducing focal ischemia, using the AQP4 inhibitor TGN-020, has been showed to reduce oedema in imaging studies. Here, we aimed to evaluate, for the first time, the histopathological effects of a single dose of TGN-020 administered after the occlusion of the medial cerebral artery (MCAO). On a rat model of non-reperfusion ischemia, we have assessed vascular densities, albumin extravasation, gliosis, and apoptosis at 3 and 7 days after MCAO...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290197/primary-cns-lymphoma-vs-tumefactive-multiple-sclerosis-a-diagnostic-challenge
#10
Sameen Bin Naeem, Farheen Niazi, Atif Baig, Hina Sadiq, Mubbasher Sattar
Primary CNS (central nervous system) lymphoma is a rare condition with the incidence of less than 1% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) and approximately 2% of all primary brain tumours. Diagnosis can be challenging and necessitates brain biopsy for definitive diagnosis. A 41-year male presented with history of impaired cognition, facial asymmetry, visual impairment and left sided body weakness. MRI brain demonstrated multiple enhancing lesions with one larger lesion in right basal ganglia with surrounding oedema and mass effect...
January 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288974/jobelyn%C3%A2-attenuates-inflammatory-responses-and-neurobehavioural-deficits-associated-with-complete-freund-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-in-mice
#11
Osarume Omorogbe, Abayomi M Ajayi, Benneth Ben-Azu, Ejiroghene E Oghwere, Adaeze Adebesin, Adegbuyi O Aderibigbe, Olajuwon Okubena, Solomon Umukoro
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of the patients and a major cause of work disability. Current drugs for its treatment only provide palliative effect, as cure for the disease still remains elusive. Jobelyn® (JB), a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory dietary supplement obtained from Sorghum bicolor, has been claimed to relieve arthritic pain. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate its effect on inflammatory and biochemical changes as well as neurobehavioural deficits associated with complete Freund-adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in mice...
December 27, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278306/haematoma-scavenging-in-intracerebral-haemorrhage-from-mechanisms-to-the-clinic
#12
REVIEW
Gaiqing Wang, Li Wang, Xin-Gang Sun, Jiping Tang
The products of erythrocyte lyses, haemoglobin (Hb) and haem, are recognized as neurotoxins and the main contributors to delayed cerebral oedema and tissue damage after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Finding a means to efficiently promote absorption of the haemolytic products (Hb and haem) around the bleeding area in the brain through stimulating the function of the body's own garbage cleaning system is a novel clinical challenge and critical for functional recovery after ICH. In this review, available information of the brain injury mechanisms underlying ICH and endogenous haematoma scavenging system is provided...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260011/isolated-pons-involvement-in-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
REVIEW
Mariangela Ferrara, Pietro Di Viesti, Vincenzo Inchingolo, Raffaela Rita Latino, Teresa Popolizio, Salvatore Angelo De Cosmo, Flavia Pugliese, Maurizio Angelo Leone
Background: Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiological syndrome, usually reversible and with a favorable prognosis, which recognizes a variety of etiologies and clinical patterns and is likely due to an impairment in cerebral blood flow autoregulation. It is typically characterized by subcortical, predominantly parieto-occipital, vasogenic brain oedema in patients with acute-subacute neurological symptoms. Infratentorial oedema on neuroimaging has been mostly described in association with the typical supratentorial pattern and seldom as isolated...
March 2017: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233198/clinical-efficacy-and-safety-of-switch-from-bosentan-to-macitentan-in-children-and-young-adults-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#14
Ebru Aypar, Dursun Alehan, Tevfik Karagöz, Hayrettin Hakan Aykan, İlker Ertugrul
BACKGROUND: Macitentan is an orally active, potent, dual endothelin receptor antagonist and is the only registered treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension that significantly reduced morbidity and mortality in a long-term event-driven study. Aim Few studies compared the clinical efficacy and safety of switch from bosentan to macitentan only in adult patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. We aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of switch from bosentan to macitentan in children and young adults...
December 13, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227981/gamma-secretase-inhibitors-attenuate-neurotrauma-and-neurogenic-acute-lung-injury-in-rats-by-rescuing-the-accumulation-of-hypertrophic-microglia
#15
Hung-Jung Lin, Chien-Chin Hsu, Chung-Ching Chio, Yu-Feng Tian, Mao-Tsun Lin, Ting-Wei Lin, Chih-Hsien Chang, Ching-Ping Chang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In response to traumatic brain injury (TBI), activated microglia exhibit changes in their morphology from the resting ramified phenotype toward the activated hypertrophic or amoeboid phenotype. Here, we provide the first description of the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of γ-secretase inhibitors on TBI outcomes in rats. METHODS: The neuroprotective effects of γ-secretase inhibitors such as LY411575 or CHF5074 on TBI-induced neurotoxicity were analysed using a neurological motor function evaluation, cerebral contusion assay, immunohistochemical staining for microglia phenotypes, lung injury score and Evans Blue dye extravasation assay of brain and lung oedema...
December 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210074/white-matter-degeneration-in-vascular-and-other-ageing-related-dementias
#16
REVIEW
Yoshika Hase, Karen Horsburgh, Masafumi Ihara, Raj N Kalaria
Advances in neuroimaging have enabled greater understanding of the progression of cerebral degenerative processes associated with ageing-related dementias. Leukoaraiosis or rarefied white matter (WM) originally described on computed tomography is one of the most prominent changes which occurs in older age. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) evident on magnetic resonance imaging have become commonplace to describe WM changes in relation to cognitive dysfunction, types of stroke injury, cerebral small vessel disease and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198072/pres-in-the-course-of-hemato-oncological-treatment-in-children
#17
Katarzyna Musioł, Sylwia Waz, Michał Boroń, Magdalena Kwiatek, Magdalena Machnikowska-Sokołowska, Katarzyna Gruszczyńska, Grażyna Sobol-Milejska
INTRODUCTION: Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical syndrome of varying aetiologies, characterised by acute neurological symptoms of brain dysfunction with MRI abnormalities in posterior cerebral white and grey matter. In most cases, symptoms resolve without neurological consequences. AIM: The aim of this paper is the analysis of predisposing factors, clinical outcomes and radiological features of PRES in eight children with hemato-oncological disease...
December 2, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187254/acute-disseminated-melioidosis-giving-rise-to-pneumonia-and-renal-abscesses-complicated-with-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura-in-a-post-partum-woman-a-case-report
#18
Piyumi Sachindra Alwis Wijewickrama, Rohini Weerakoon
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is an established endemic infection in Sri Lanka, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, a gram negative bacterium distributed in saprophytes in soil and surface water. Main mode of transmission is via percutaneous inoculation. Pneumonia is the most common presentation in acute disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 33 year old previously healthy Sinhalese female with an occupational exposure to surface water in paddy fields, who was on postpartum day 6 following an uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery via an elective caesarian section...
November 29, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166939/acute-cerebellitis-in-adults-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
A Van Samkar, M N F Poulsen, H P Bienfait, R B Van Leeuwen
BACKGROUND: Acute cerebellitis is a rare disease with the majority of cases described in children. Little is known about the clinical characteristics and outcome in adults. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old Caucasian woman presented with headache, nausea, and photophobia, and was diagnosed as having a migraine attack. Two days later, she subsequently returned with aggravated headache, dysarthria and horizontal nystagmus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a swollen cerebellum and hydrocephalus and the patient was diagnosed with acute cerebellitis...
November 22, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165777/the-use-of-crystalloids-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Wojciech Dąbrowski, Tom Woodcock, Ziemowit Rzecki, Manu L N G Malbrain
Fluid therapy is one of the most important treatments in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as both hypo- and hypervolaemia can cause harm. The main goals of fluid therapy for patients with TBI are to optimize cerebral perfusion and to maintain adequate cerebral oxygenation. The avoidance of cerebral oedema is clearly essential. The current weight of evidence in the published literature suggests that albumin therapy is harmful and plasma substitutes have failed to demonstrate superiority over crystalloids solutions...
November 22, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
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