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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076656/combined-inhaled-beta-agonist-and-anticholinergic-agents-for-emergency-management-in-adults-with-asthma
#1
REVIEW
Scott W Kirkland, Christine Vandenberghe, Britt Voaklander, Taylor Nikel, Sandra Campbell, Brian H Rowe
BACKGROUND: Inhaled short-acting anticholinergics (SAAC) and short-acting beta₂-agonists (SABA) are effective therapies for adult patients with acute asthma who present to the emergency department (ED). It is unclear, however, whether the combination of SAAC and SABA treatment is more effective in reducing hospitalisations compared to treatment with SABA alone. OBJECTIVES: To conduct an up-to-date systematic search and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of combined inhaled therapy (SAAC + SABA agents) vs...
January 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067285/residential-exposure-to-chlorinated-hydrocarbons-from-groundwater-contamination-and-the-impairment-of-renal-function-an-ecological-study
#2
Hui-Ming Chen, Ming-Tsang Wu
Groundwater pollution from the petrochemical industry causes serious deterioration of soil and groundwater quality and impacts on human health worldwide. However, few studies have examined the effect of residential exposure to petrochemical chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater on renal function impairment in humans. We conducted an ecological study to investigate the two. A polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plant was located in one of the six villages, the study area, in Kaohsiung city of southwestern Taiwan...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065167/diagnostic-utility-of-brain-activity-flow-patterns-analysis-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
J Biederman, P Hammerness, B Sadeh, Z Peremen, A Amit, H Or-Ly, Y Stern, A Reches, A Geva, S V Faraone
BACKGROUND: A previous small study suggested that Brain Network Activation (BNA), a novel ERP-based brain network analysis, may have diagnostic utility in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study we examined the diagnostic capability of a new advanced version of the BNA methodology on a larger population of adults with and without ADHD. METHOD: Subjects were unmedicated right-handed 18- to 55-year-old adults of both sexes with and without a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD...
January 9, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060545/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-adenovirus-35-tb-vaccine-candidate-in-adults-with-active-or-previous-tb-a-randomized-trial
#4
Richard N van Zyl-Smit, Aliasgar Esmail, Mary E Bateman, Rodney Dawson, Jonathan Goldin, Eva van Rikxoort, Macaya Douoguih, Maria Grazia Pau, Jerald C Sadoff, J Bruce McClain, Margaret Ann Snowden, Jacqueline Benko, David A Hokey, Kathryn Tucker Rutkowski, Andrew Graves, Barbara Shepherd, Sadritdin Ishmukhamedov, Benjamin M N Kagina, Brian Abel, Willem A Hanekom, Thomas J Scriba, Eric D Bateman
RATIONALE: Administration of tuberculosis vaccines in participants with previous or current pulmonary tuberculosis may have the potential for causing harmful post-vaccination immunological (Koch-type) reactions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and immunogenicity of three dose levels of the AERAS-402 live, replication-deficient adenovirus 35-vectored tuberculosis candidate vaccine, containing three mycobacterial antigens, in individuals with current or previous pulmonary tuberculosis...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059955/diagnosis-of-opportunistic-infections-hiv-co-infections-tuberculosis
#5
Lesley Scott, Pedro da Silva, Catharina C Boehme, Wendy Stevens, Chris Gilpin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis (TB) incidence has declined ∼1.5% annually since 2000, but continued to affect 10.4 million individuals in 2015, with 1/3 remaining undiagnosed or underreported. The diagnosis of TB among those co-infected with HIV is challenging as TB remains the leading cause of death in such individuals. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of active TB will avert mortality in both adults and children, reduce transmission, and assist in timeous decisions for antiretroviral therapy initiation...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053999/b-cell-populations-discriminate-between-pediatric-and-adult-onset-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Alexander Schwarz, Bettina Balint, Mirjam Korporal-Kuhnke, Sven Jarius, Kathrin von Engelhardt, Alexandra Fürwentsches, Cornelia Bussmann, Friedrich Ebinger, Brigitte Wildemann, Jürgen Haas
OBJECTIVE: To comparatively assess the B-cell composition in blood and CSF of patients with pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (pedMS) and adult-onset multiple sclerosis (adMS). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we obtained blood and CSF samples from 25 patients with pedMS (8-18 years) and 40 patients with adMS (23-65 years) and blood specimens from 66 controls (1-55 years). By using multicolor flow cytometry, we identified naive, transitional, isotype class-switched memory, nonswitched memory, and double-negative memory B-cell subsets as well as plasmablasts (PB) and terminally differentiated plasma cells (PC)...
January 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049967/stimulated-salivary-flow-rate-and-oral-health-status
#7
Yoshihiro Shimazaki, Bohan Fu, Koji Yonemoto, Sumio Akifusa, Yukie Shibata, Toru Takeshita, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Yutaka Kiyohara, Yoshihisa Yamashita
This study examined the relationship between stimulated salivary flow rate and oral health status in an adult population. Multinomial multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations of salivary flow rate with dental caries status and periodontal status at the individual level among 2,110 Japanese adults with ≥10 teeth. Then, a spline model was used to examine the nonlinear relationship between salivary flow rate and teeth with dental caries or periodontal disease in multilevel analysis...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039295/third-generation-cd28-4-1bb-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cells-for-chemotherapy-relapsed-or-refractory-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-a-non-randomised-open-label-phase-i-trial-protocol
#8
Xiao-Yi Tang, Yao Sun, Ang Zhang, Guo-Liang Hu, Wei Cao, Dan-Hong Wang, Bin Zhang, Hu Chen
INTRODUCTION: There is no curative treatment available for patients with chemotherapy relapsed or refractory CD19+ B cells-derived acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (r/r B-ALL). Although CD19-targeting second-generation (2nd-G) chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells carrying CD28 or 4-1BB domains have demonstrated potency in patients with advanced B-ALL, these 2 signalling domains endow CAR-T cells with different and complementary functional properties. Preclinical results have shown that third-generation (3rd-G) CAR-T cells combining 4-1BB and CD28 signalling domains have superior activation and proliferation capacity compared with 2nd-G CAR-T cells carrying CD28 domain...
December 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035765/risk-stratification-of-adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma-using-immunophenotyping
#9
Huseini H Kagdi, Maria A Demontis, Paul A Fields, Juan Carlos Ramos, Charles R M Bangham, Graham P Taylor
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), a human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated disease, has a highly variable clinical course and four subtypes with therapeutic and prognostic implications. However, there are overlapping features between ATL subtypes and between ATL and nonmalignant (non-ATL) HTLV-1 infection complicating diagnosis and prognostication. To further refine the diagnosis and prognosis of ATL, we characterized the immunophenotype of HTLV-1-infected cells in ATL and non-ATL. A retrospective study of peripheral blood samples from 10 HTLV-1-uninfected subjects (UI), 54 HTLV-1-infected patients with non-ATL, and 22 with ATL was performed using flow cytometry...
December 30, 2016: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029066/cardiac-autonomic-and-haemodynamic-recovery-after-a-single-session-of-aerobic-exercise-with-and-without-blood-flow-restriction-in-older-adults
#10
Marina Lívia Venturini Ferreira, Amanda Veiga Sardeli, Giovana Vergínia De Souza, Valéria Bonganha, Lucas Do Carmo Santos, Alex Castro, Cláudia Regina Cavaglieri, Mara Patrícia Traina Chacon-Mikahil
This study investigated the autonomic and haemodynamic responses to different aerobic exercise loads, with and without blood flow restriction (BFR). In a crossover study, 21 older adults (8 males and 13 females) completed different aerobic exercise sessions: low load without BFR (LL) (40% VO2max), low load with BFR (LL-BFR) (40% VO2max + 50% BFR) and high load without BFR (HL) (70% VO2max). Heart rate variability and haemodynamic responses were recorded during rest and throughout 30 min of recovery. HL reduced R-R interval, the root mean square of successive difference of R-R intervals and high frequency during 30 min of recovery at a greater magnitude compared with LL and LL-BFR...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025878/intra-and-interday-reproducibility-of-high-flow-mediated-constriction-response-in-young-adults
#11
Joseph D Ostrem, Nicholas G Evanoff, Justin R Ryder, Donald R Dengel
BACKGROUND: Previously, we have demonstrated that high-flow-mediated constriction (H-FMC) of the brachial artery has been shown to negatively affect flow-mediated dilation (FMD). However, the reproducibility of an H-FMC response is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the intra- and interday reproducibility of H-FMC in young adults. METHODS: Thirty young adults (15 male, 15 female; 24 ± 3 years) were assessed for H-FMC reproducibility via high-resolution ultrasound imaging of the brachial artery during and after forearm occlusion of a normal FMD procedure...
December 26, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010936/oscillatory-shear-stress-flow-mediated-dilatation-and-circulating-microparticles-at-sea-level-and-high-altitude
#12
Joshua C Tremblay, Stephen R Thom, Ming Yang, Philip N Ainslie
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exposing the endothelium to acute periods of imposed oscillatory shear stress reduces endothelial function and elevates circulating microparticles (MPs). Oscillatory shear stress may be especially pathogenic when superimposed on hypoxia, an environmental stimulus that disrupts the endothelial milieu. We examined the effects of acute manipulation of oscillatory shear stress on endothelial function and circulating MPs at sea level (SL) and high altitude (HA). METHODS: Healthy adults (n = 12) participated, once at SL and once on the second or third day at HA (3800 m)...
December 2, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009788/effect-of-load-carriage-on-upper-limb-performance
#13
Amir Hadid, Inbar Katz, Tal Haker, Gabi Zeilig, Ruth Defrin, Yoram Epstein, Amit Gefen
: Carrying heavy backpacks are often associated with shoulder discomfort or pain, loss of sensorimotor functions, and brachial plexus injuries that might hamper performance. Based on previous research, the cause of these symptoms could be tissue deformations of the brachial plexus and the subclavian artery caused by the shoulder straps. PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes in the upper extremity hemodynamic and neural function, and to assess how they are associated with brachial plexus tissue deformation during heavy load carriage...
December 22, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009757/frequency-and-outcomes-of-patients-with-increased-mean-pulmonary-artery-pressure-at-the-time-of-liver-transplantation
#14
Erin S DeMartino, Rodrigo Cartin-Ceba, James Y Findlay, Julie K Heimbach, Michael J Krowka
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) exists when mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) is 25 mm Hg or greater. mPAP of 35 mm Hg or greater, with increased pulmonary vascular resistance from portopulmonary hypertension, has been associated with increased post-liver transplant (LT) mortality. However, mPAP of 35 mm Hg or greater can also occur in the setting of normal pulmonary vascular resistance from a high flow state and/or increased pulmonary venous volume. We describe the frequency of patients with mPAP of 35 mm Hg or greater at LT and correlate their clinical outcomes with hemodynamic characteristics...
January 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008958/zika-virus-infection-induces-mitosis-abnormalities-and-apoptotic-cell-death-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells
#15
Bruno S F Souza, Gabriela L A Sampaio, Ciro S Pereira, Gubio S Campos, Silvia I Sardi, Luiz A R Freitas, Claudio P Figueira, Bruno D Paredes, Carolina K V Nonaka, Carine M Azevedo, Vinicius P C Rocha, Antonio C Bandeira, Rosalia Mendez-Otero, Ricardo Ribeiro Dos Santos, Milena B P Soares
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with severe complications both in the developing and adult nervous system. To investigate the deleterious effects of ZIKV infection, we used human neural progenitor cells (NPC), derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). We found that NPC are highly susceptible to ZIKV and the infection results in cell death. ZIKV infection led to a marked reduction in cell proliferation, ultrastructural alterations and induction of autophagy. Induction of apoptosis of Sox2(+) cells was demonstrated by activation of caspases 3/7, 8 and 9, and by ultrastructural and flow cytometry analyses...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005296/current-wheeze-asthma-respiratory-infections-and-rhinitis-among-adults-in-relation-to-inspection-data-and-indoor-measurements-in-single-family-houses-in-sweden-the-betsi-study
#16
Juan Wang, Karin Engvall, Greta Smedje, Håkan Nilsson, Dan Norbäck
In the Swedish BETSI study, a total of 1160 adults from 605 single-family houses answered a questionnaire on respiratory health. Building inspectors investigated the homes and measured temperature, air humidity, air exchange rate and wood moisture content (in attic and crawl space). Moisture load was calculated as the difference between indoor and outdoor absolute humidity. Totally 7.3% were smokers; 8.7% had doctor' diagnosed asthma; 11.2% current wheeze and 9.5% current asthma symptoms. Totally 50.3% had respiratory infections and 26...
December 22, 2016: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003556/a-comparison-of-different-techniques-for-interfacing-capnography-with-adult-and-pediatric-supplemental-oxygen-masks
#17
Justin S Phillips, Lance P Pangilinan, Earl R E Mangalindan, Joseph L Booze, Richard H Kallet
BACKGROUND: Accurately measuring the partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2 ) in non-intubated patients is problematic due to dilution of expired CO2 at high O2 flows and mask designs that may either cause CO2 rebreathing or inadequately capture expired CO2. We evaluated the performance of 2 capnographic O2 masks (Cap-ONE and OxyMask) against a clinically expedient method using a standard O2 mask with a flow-directed nasal cannula used for capnography (CapnoLine) in a spontaneous breathing model of an adult and child under conditions of normal ventilation, hypoventilation, and hyperventilation...
January 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002202/bh4-improves-postprandial-endothelial-function-after-a-high-fat-meal-in-men-and-postmenopausal-women
#18
Yashesh Shah, Leon Bass, Gareth W Davison, Nichole Seigler, Jennifer S Pollock, Jeff Thomas, Ryan A Harris
OBJECTIVE: The timing and duration of menopause is important when evaluating the risk for cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women, likely related in part to nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. The flow-mediated dilation (FMD) test is a noninvasive assessment of NO bioavailability in humans, and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is essential for NO synthesis. A high-fat meal (HFM) has been used to increase lipemia and reduce NO bioavailability. Thus, this study sought to determine if menopausal transition has any impact on the postprandial endothelial function response to a HFM, and evaluate the effect of BH4 on postprandial endothelial function in postmenopausal women and men...
December 19, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998918/role-of-t-cell-dysfunction-inflammation-and-coagulation-in-microvascular-disease-in-hiv
#19
Arjun Sinha, Yifei Ma, Rebecca Scherzer, Sophia Hur, Danny Li, Peter Ganz, Steven G Deeks, Priscilla Y Hsue
BACKGROUND: Compared to uninfected adults, HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Given the increase in T-cell dysfunction, inflammation, and coagulation in HIV infection, microvascular dysfunction is thought to contribute to this excess cardiovascular risk. However, the relationships between these variables remain undefined. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a cross-sectional study of 358 HIV-infected adults from the SCOPE cohort...
December 20, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997734/effect-of-botulinum-toxin-a-on-vasoconstriction-and-sympathetic-neurotransmitters-in-a-murine-random-pattern-skin-flap-model
#20
Tai Suk Roh, Bok Ki Jung, Insik Yun, Dae Hyun Lew, Young Seok Kim
Blood supply is the most important factor determining the survival of a skin flap. Botulinum toxin-A (Botox-A) is used as pharmacologic agent not only for aesthetic purposes, but also for its vasomotor actions. This study was conducted to establish whether local application of Botox-A increased survival of random pattern skin flaps in rats by changing the expression of neurotransmitters. Forty adult Sprague-Dawley rats with a caudally-based random pattern skin flap were divided into two groups: Botox-A group and saline group...
December 20, 2016: Wound Repair and Regeneration
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