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High flow adults

Petter Bjornstad, David Z Cherney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Compared to adult-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D), youth with T2D have a more aggressive phenotype with greater insulin resistance (IR), more rapid β cell decline, and higher prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). RECENT FINDINGS: Hyperfiltration is common in youth with T2D and predicts progressive DKD. Hyperfiltration is a consequence of early changes in intrarenal hemodynamic function, including increased renal plasma flow (RPF) and glomerular pressure...
March 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Janelle L Harris, Keyur Dave, Jeffrey Gorman, Kum Kum Khanna
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: 5T4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein with limited expression in normal adult tissues and expression in some solid tumours. It is unclear whether 5T4 is preferentially expressed by stem or differentiated cell types. Modes of 5T4 regulation are unknown despite its ongoing development as a cancer immunotherapy target. Our aims were to clarify the differentiation status of 5T4 expressing cells in breast cancer and to understand the mechanism underlying 5T4 membrane presentation...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
James R Smith, Jaboury Ghazoul, David F R P Burslem, Akira Itoh, Eyen Khoo, Soon Leong Lee, Colin R Maycock, Satoshi Nanami, Kevin Kit Siong Ng, Chris J Kettle
Documenting the scale and intensity of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS), and the processes that shape it, is relevant to the sustainable management of genetic resources in timber tree species, particularly where logging or fragmentation might disrupt gene flow. In this study we assessed patterns of FSGS in three species of Dipterocarpaceae (Parashorea tomentella, Shorea leprosula and Shorea parvifolia) across four different tropical rain forests in Malaysia using nuclear microsatellite markers. Topographic heterogeneity varied across the sites...
2018: PloS One
Julia J Mack, M Luisa Iruela-Arispe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The formation of a hierarchical vascular network is a complex process that requires precise temporal and spatial integration of several signaling pathways. Amongst those, Notch has emerged as a key regulator of multiple steps that expand from endothelial sprouting to arterial specification and remains relevant in the adult. This review aims to summarize major concepts and rising hypotheses on the role of Notch signaling in the endothelium. RECENT FINDINGS: A wealth of new information has helped to clarify how Notch signaling cooperates with other pathways to orchestrate vascular morphogenesis, branching, and function...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
Md Abu Sayeed, Kamrul Islam, Motaher Hossain, Noor Jahan Akter, Md Nur Alam, Nishat Sultana, Farhana Khanam, Meagan Kelly, Richelle C Charles, Pavol Kováč, Peng Xu, Jason R Andrews, Stephen B Calderwood, Jakia Amin, Edward T Ryan, Firdausi Qadri
Recognizing cholera cases early, especially in the initial phase of an outbreak and in areas where cholera has not previously circulated, is a high public health priority. Laboratory capacity in such settings is often limited. To address this, we have developed a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) termed Cholkit that is based on an immunochromatographic lateral flow assay for the diagnosis of cholera cases using stool. Cholkit contains a monoclonal antibody (ICL-33) to the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) component of V...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mu Qiao, Kinh N Truong, Jason R Franz
BACKGROUND: Older adults are at an exceptionally high risk of falls, and most falls occur during locomotor activities such as walking. Reduced local dynamic stability in old age is often interpreted to suggest a lessened capacity to respond to more significant balance challenges encountered during walking and future falls risk. However, it remains unclear whether local dynamic stability during normal, unperturbed walking predicts the response to larger external balance disturbances. RESEARCH QUESTION: We tested the hypothesis that larger values of local dynamic instability during unperturbed walking would positively correlate with larger changes thereof due to optical flow balance perturbations...
March 5, 2018: Gait & Posture
Katherine Schultz, Leanne Carroll, Kristin Mainey, Elsa Dent
BACKGROUND: Transition care programs (TCPs) are designed to optimise functional recovery and independence in older adults post-hospitalisation. These programs are under high demand, and understanding inefficiencies in patient flow are a key step towards service improvement. AIMS: To identify service improvement opportunities in an Australian community TCP service. METHODS: An in-depth retrospective study of 113 community TCP clients. RESULTS: TCP occupancy was high (94%) and client functional level improved across the program...
March 10, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Yuka Matsunaga, Masataka Ishimura, Hazumu Nagata, Kiyoshi Uike, Tadamune Kinjo, Masayuki Ochiai, Kenichiro Yamamura, Hidetoshi Takada, Yoshihisa Tanoue, Masaki Hayakawa, Masanori Matsumoto, Toshiro Hara, Shouichi Ohga
BACKGROUND: Thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) are microvascular occlusive disorders characterized by systemic or intrarenal platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and red cell fragmentation. Post-operative TMA mostly occurs in adult patients with cardiovascular surgery, with the distinct pathophysiology from classical thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) although the exact pathophysiology remains unclear. CASE PRESENTATION: A one-month-old infant developed TMA after the initial surgery of double outlet right ventricle...
February 7, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Mu Qiao, Jody A Feld, Jason R Franz
BACKGROUND: Older adults are more susceptible to balance perturbations during walking than young adults. However, we lack an individual joint-level understanding of how aging affects the neuromechanical strategies used to accommodate balance perturbations. RESEARCH QUESTION: We investigated gait phase-dependence in and aging effects on leg joint kinematic variability during walking with balance perturbations. We hypothesized that leg joint variability would: 1) vary across the gait cycle and 2) increase with balance perturbations...
February 21, 2018: Gait & Posture
Thomas Moller, Harald Lindberg, May Brit Lund, Henrik Holmstrom, Gaute Dohlen, Erik Thaulow
We previously demonstrated an abnormally high right ventricular systolic pressure response to exercise in 50% of adolescents operated on for isolated ventricular septal defect. The present study investigated the prevalence of abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response in 20 adult (age 30-45 years) patients who underwent surgery for early ventricular septal defect closure and its association with impaired ventricular function, pulmonary function, or exercise capacity. The patients underwent cardiopulmonary tests, including exercise stress echocardiography...
March 6, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Brandon K Martinez, Brenda Yik, Raymond Tran, Sabrina Ilham, Craig I Coleman, Douglas L Jennings, William L Baker
Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) prolong survival in advanced heart failure patients. Anticoagulation control is critical in CF-LVAD patients due to increased thromboembolic and bleeding risk. We assessed the quality of INR control in CF-LVAD patients measured by time in therapeutic range (TTR). We performed a systematic literature search of MEDLINE and SCOPUS through July 2017 to identify studies evaluating TTR in anticoagulated adult CF-LVAD patients. Data on key characteristics and the TTR end point were then extracted from each study by two investigators using a standardized tool...
March 6, 2018: Artificial Organs
Elie Azoulay, Virginie Lemiale, Djamel Mokart, Saad Nseir, Laurent Argaud, Frédéric Pène, Loay Kontar, Fabrice Bruneel, Kada Klouche, François Barbier, Jean Reignier, Anabelle Stoclin, Guillaume Louis, Jean-Michel Constantin, Julien Mayaux, Florent Wallet, Achille Kouatchet, Vincent Peigne, Pierre Perez, Christophe Girault, Samir Jaber, Johanna Oziel, Martine Nyunga, Nicolas Terzi, Lila Bouadma, Christine Lebert, Alexandre Lautrette, Naike Bigé, Jean-Herlé Raphalen, Laurent Papazian, Antoine Rabbat, Michael Darmon, Sylvie Chevret, Alexandre Demoule
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is the leading reason for intensive care unit (ICU) admission in immunocompromised patients. High-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) therapy is an alternative to standard oxygen. By providing warmed and humidified gas, HFNO allows the delivery of higher flow rates via nasal cannula devices, with FiO2 values of nearly 100%. Benefits include alleviation of dyspnea and discomfort, decreased respiratory distress and decreased mortality in unselected patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure...
March 5, 2018: Trials
Lu Zhao, Mengchen Shi, Lina Zhou, Hengchang Sun, Xiaona Zhang, Lei He, Zeli Tang, Caiqin Wang, Yinjuan Wu, Tingjin Chen, Mei Shang, Xinyi Zhou, Zhipeng Lin, Xuerong Li, Xinbing Yu, Yan Huang
BACKGROUND: Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is the most widespread human liver fluke in East Asia including China and Korea. Clonorchiasis as a neglected tropical zoonosis, leads to serious economic and public health burden in China. There are considerable evidences for an etiological relation between chronic clonorchiasis and liver fibrosis in human beings. Liver fibrosis is a highly conserved and over-protected response to hepatic tissue injury. Immune cells including CD4+ T cell as well as dendritic cell (DC), and pro-fibrogenic cytokines like interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-13 have been identified as vital manipulators in liver fibrogenesis...
March 5, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Eanna P Connaughton, Serika Naicker, Shirley A Hanley, Stephanie M Slevin, John K Eykelenboom, Noel F Lowndes, Timothy O'Brien, Rhodri Ceredig, Matthew D Griffin, Michael C Dennedy
Human blood monocytes are sub-classified as classical, intermediate and non-classical. In this study, it was shown that conventionally-defined human intermediate monocytes (IM) can be divided into two distinct subpopulations with mid- and high-level surface expression of HLA-DR (referred to as DRmid and DRhi IM). These IM subpopulations were phenotypically and functionally characterized in healthy adult blood by flow cytometry, migration assays and lipoprotein uptake assays. Their absolute numbers and proportions were then compared in blood samples from obese and non-obese adults...
March 5, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
E Tsitsikov, M H Harris, L B Silverman, S E Sallan, O K Weinberg
INTRODUCTION: Minimal residual disease (MRD) in B lymphoblastic leukemia has been demonstrated to be a powerful predictor of clinical outcome in numerous studies in both children and adults. In this study, we evaluated 86 pediatric patients with both diagnostic and remission flow cytometry studies and compared expression of CD81, CD58, CD19, CD34, CD20, and CD38 in the detection of MRD. METHODS: We evaluated 86 patients with B lymphoblastic leukemia who had both diagnostic studies and remission studies for the presence of MRD using multicolor flow cytometry...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Roberto Romero, Yi Xu, Derek Miller, Yaozhu Leng, Bogdan Panaitescu, Pablo Silva, Jonathan Faro, Ali Alhousseini, Navleen Gill, Sonia S Hassan, Chaur-Dong Hsu
PROBLEM: The immune cellular composition of amniotic fluid is poorly understood. Herein, we determined: 1) the immunophenotype of amniotic fluid immune cells during the second and third trimester in the absence of intra-amniotic infection/inflammation; 2) whether amniotic fluid T cells and ILCs display different phenotypical characteristics to that of peripheral cells; and 3) whether the amniotic fluid immune cells are altered in women with intra-amniotic infection/inflammation. METHOD OF STUDY: Amniotic fluid samples (n = 57) were collected from 15 to 40 weeks of gestation in women without intra-amniotic infection/inflammation...
March 3, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Hila Rosenfeld-Keidar, Rinat Eshel, Aviva Pinhasov, Menachem Bitan, Sabina Edelman, Marcela Broitman, Rina Dvir, Efraim Sadot, Dror Levin, Michal Manisterski, Sivan Berger-Achituv, Ronit Elhasid
Numerous adults' studies demonstrated that preaphaeresis CD34+ cells significantly correlate with the number of CD34+ cells collected by the aphaeresis procedure. Equivalent studies in children are scarce. We studied retrospectively 92 aphaeresis procedures performed following chemotherapy (44) or in steady state (48) in 60 pediatric patients (40 males, 20 females), median age of 7.5 years. Aphaeresis procedures were performed using a SPECTRA Optica (TERUMOBCT) continuous flow cell separator. CD34+ cell concentrations were assessed using flow cytometry...
March 2, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Francesco Buccisano, Luca Maurillo, Maria Ilaria Del Principe, Ambra Di Veroli, Eleonora De Bellis, Annalisa Biagi, Anangiulia Zizzari, Valentina Rossi, Vito Rapisarda, Sergio Amadori, Maria Teresa Voso, Francesco Lo-Coco, William Arcese, Adriano Venditti
Response to therapy is affected by the genetic heterogeneity of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and persistence of leukemic cells below the threshold of morphological complete remission (mCR). Such persistence is called minimal (or measurable) residual disease (MRD). Areas covered: MRD assessment allows early identification of patients who are at high risk of relapse and who should timely receive aggressive therapy (e.g. allogeneic stem cell transplantation) and of those with a good quality mCR in whom an aggressive front-line therapy can be spared, avoiding the harm of excessive treatment toxicity...
March 2, 2018: Expert Review of Hematology
Francesco Montecchia, Fabio Midulla, Paola Papoff
Measuring work of breathing (WOB) is an intricate task during high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy because the continuous unidirectional flow toward the patient makes pneumotachography technically difficult to use. We implemented a new method for measuring WOB based on a differential pneumotachography (DP) system, equipped with one pneumotachograph inserted in the HFNC circuit and another connected to a monitoring facemask, combined with a leak correction algorithm (LCA) that corrects flow measurement errors arising from leakage around the monitoring facemask...
February 24, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
Marcus Thudium, Ingo Heinze, Richard K Ellerkmann, Tobias Hilbert
BACKGROUND: Postoperative neurological injury still represents a major cause of morbidity after cardiac surgery. Our objective was to compare the limits as well as advantages of routine monitoring tools for the detection of cerebral function and perfusion deficits during cardiopulmonary bypass in a daily clinical setting. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with use of cardiopulmonary bypass were included. Patients received monitoring comprising Bispectral Index (BIS), Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and assessment of middle cerebral artery flow velocity (MCAV) using transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography...
January 31, 2018: Heart Surgery Forum
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