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Shahira A Ahmed, Panagiotis Karanis
In this review all of the methods that are currently in use for the investigation of Cryptosporidium in stool material are highlighted and critically discussed. It appears that more qualifications and background knowledge in this field regarding the diagnosis of the Cryptosporidium parasite is required. Furthermore, there is no standardization for the protocols that are commonly used to either detect oocysts in faeces or to diagnose the Cryptosporidium infection. It is therefore necessary to initiate further education and research that will assist in improving the accuracy of the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the faecal micro-cosmos...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Shumin Xiao, Pengna Yin, Yan Zhang, Xiaoyun Zhao, Liping Sun, Hongying Yuan, Jingfang Lu, Sike Hu
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are critical parasites in the etiology of diarrhea worldwide, and often cause waterborne outbreaks. The presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recreational lakes was investigated with molecular characterization, and a comprehensive quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of protozoan infections was performed, considering multiple exposure pathways, differences in age, sex, and disease severity, and the genotypes of the protozoa. Forty-three (82.7%) and 51 (98.1%) water samples were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, respectively, with average counts of 3...
May 10, 2018: Water Research
Aparna Lal, Jonathan Marshall, Jackie Benschop, Aleisha Brock, Simon Hales, Michael G Baker, Nigel P French
Spatio-temporal disease patterns can provide clues to etiological pathways, but can be complex to model. Using a flexible Bayesian hierarchical framework, we identify previously undetected space-time clusters and environmental and socio-demographic risk factors for reported giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis at the New Zealand small area level. For giardiasis, there was no seasonal pattern in outbreak probability and an inverse association with density of dairy cattle (β^1  = -0.09, Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR) 0...
June 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Samah S Abdel Gawad, Mousa A M Ismail, Naglaa F A Imam, Ahmed H A Eassa, Enas Yahia Abu-Sarea
Cryptosporidium species is an important cause of gastrointestinal infections globally. This study aimed to shed light on its role in diarrheic immunocompetent patients in Beni-Suef, Egypt and to compare three diagnostic methods. Two hundred diarrheic patients, 37±16.8 year old, were enrolled. Stool samples were examined by light microscopy, using modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain (MZN) for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Coproantigens were detected by sandwich ELISA. DNA molecular diagnosis was done by nested PCR...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Hao Zheng, Jianfeng He, Li Wang, Rong Zhang, Zhen Ding, Wenbiao Hu
The epidemiological features of Cryptosporidium infection among school-age children in China still remain unclear. Hereby, a cross-sectional study of 1637 children aged 3⁻9 years was designed to investigate the risk factors and spatial clusters of Cryptosporidium infection in a rural region of Eastern China. Stool specimens collected from participants were examined using the auramine-phenol and modified acid-fast staining. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify the risk factors of Cryptospordium infection...
May 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Justin A Gerding, Nailya O DeLellis, Antonio J Neri, Timothy A Dignam
This study used a unique approach to examine Florida county health department environmental health (EH) program performance of the 10 Essential Environmental Public Health Services (EEPHS) and its relationship with environment-related disease, described by enteric disease rates. Correlation analysis tested the association between performance of each EEPHS and five different enteric disease rates, while multivariate regression analysis further examined the relationships while considering program organizational characteristics as potential confounders...
2018: Florida Public Health Review
Narges Kalantari, Salman Ghaffari, Masomeh Bayani
Background: Cryptosporidiosis is an important cause of diarrhea in children and immunosuppressive patients. The current study was intended to evaluate the prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium infection and clarify the epidemiological characteristics of the infection in both children and immunosuppressive patients in Iran. Methods: Five English electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus and Cochrane, and two Persian language databases Magiran and Scientific Information Database were searched...
2018: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
Zsófia Iglói, L Mughini-Gras, L Nic Lochlainn, A Barrasa, J Sane, S Mooij, B Schimmer, J Roelfsema, W van Pelt, T Kortbeek
To determine the frequency of occurrence of sequelae following cryptosporidiosis. A follow-up study was performed during a case-control study for sporadic cryptosporidiosis in the Netherlands (2013-2016). Cryptosporidiosis cases were invited to complete a follow-up questionnaire 4 months after diagnosis. Using a case-crossover study design, we compared the frequencies of reported symptoms 4 months after the acute phase to those reported 4 months before the onset of illness and during illness. Frequencies of symptoms in the pre- to post-infection phases were also compared with those of a population control group...
May 5, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Caoimhe McKerr, Sarah J O'Brien, Rachel M Chalmers, Roberto Vivancos, Robert M Christley
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite of humans and other animals worldwide and is one of the greatest contributors to human diarrhoeal illness. Transmission can occur indirectly via contaminated food or water, or directly via contact with animals or other infected people. Risk exposures are often identified from outbreak investigations, but a subset of cases remains unexplained, and sources for sporadic disease and pathways to infection are still unclear. Given the few systematic syntheses of reported evidence in industrialised populations, the aim of this review is to consolidate the literature to describe exposures associated with human cryptosporidiosis in industrialised countries, specifically including the UK, and describe any differences between outbreak-associated and sporadic disease...
May 2, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Mamun Kabir, Emtiaz Ahmed, Biplob Hossain, Masud Alam, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Mami Taniuchi, Carol A Gilchrist, Eric R Houpt, A S G Faruque, William A Petri, Rashidul Haque
Background: Cryptosporidiumis a major cause of childhood diarrhea. Current modes of cryptosporidiosis diagnosis involve procedures which are costly and require both a well-equipped laboratory and technical expertise. Therefore, a cost effective, user friendly and rapid method for point-of-care detection of Cryptosporidium species in fecal samples is desirable. Methodology: A total of 832 diarrheal stool specimens collected from 200 children aged below two years were tested by Giardia/Cryptosporidium QUIK CHEK®, ELISA and qPCR to compare the performance of the individual techniques...
April 27, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Adekunle B. Ayinmode, Victor I. Agbajelola
Cryptosporidiosis is an infectious protozoan disease that affects a wide range of animals including reptiles. This is the first report of cryptosporidiosis in a fire skink (Lepidothyris fernandi), an insectivorous reptile commonly found in tropical West Africa. Faecal sample was collected from a fire skink at necropsy for the detection of parasites by faecal sedimentation method, Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) acid-fast staining, Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Nucleotide sequencing. Sections of the intestines were also processed for histopathology...
2018: Annals of Parasitology
Poonum S Korpe, Cristian Valencia, Rashidul Haque, Mustafa Mahfuz, Monica McGrath, Eric Houpt, Margaret Kosek, Benjamin J J McCormick, Pablo Penataro Yori, Sudhir Babji, Gagandeep Kang, Dennis Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Amidou Samie, Pascal Bessong, A S G Faruque, Esto Mduma, Rosemary Nshama, Alexandre Havt, Ila F N Lima, Aldo A M Lima, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Ashish Shreshtha, William A Petri, Tahmeed Ahmed, Priya Duggal
Background: Cryptosporidium spp are enteric protozoa that cause significant morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. We characterized the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in children from eight resource-limited sites of the MAL-ED study. Methods: Children were enrolled within 17 days of birth, and followed twice weekly for 24 months. Diarrheal and monthly surveillance stool samples were tested for Cryptosporidium by ELISA. Socioeconomic data were collected by survey and anthropometry was measured monthly...
April 26, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Felipe J Colón-González, Iain R Lake, Roger A Morbey, Alex J Elliot, Richard Pebody, Gillian E Smith
BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance complements traditional public health surveillance by collecting and analysing health indicators in near real time. The rationale of syndromic surveillance is that it may detect health threats faster than traditional surveillance systems permitting more timely, and hence potentially more effective public health action. The effectiveness of syndromic surveillance largely relies on the methods used to detect aberrations. Very few studies have evaluated the performance of syndromic surveillance systems and consequently little is known about the types of events that such systems can and cannot detect...
April 24, 2018: BMC Public Health
Vasiliki Papanikolopoulou, Djamel Baroudi, Yaqiong Guo, Yuanfei Wang, Elias Papadopoulos, Shwakat Q Lafi, Mohamed M Abd El-Tawab, Anastasia Diakou, Nektarios D Giadinis, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
Inconsistent data exist on the distribution of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in sheep and goats in European countries, and few such data are available from Greece. In this study, 280 fecal specimens were collected from 132 diarrheic lambs and 148 diarrheic goat kids aged 4 to 15 days on 15 farms in northern Greece, and examined for Cryptosporidium spp. using microscopy of Ziehl-Neelsen-stained fecal smears. Cryptosporidium spp. in 80 microscopy-positive fecal specimens (39 from lambs and 41 from goat kids) were genotyped by PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene and subtyped by sequence analysis the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene...
April 23, 2018: Parasitology International
Gabrielle Brankston, Cyndi Boughen, Victoria Ng, David N Fisman, Jan M Sargeant, Amy L Greer
Cryptosporidium is a waterborne parasite that causes diarrheal disease in humans and in cattle. Risk factors for human illness include contact with surface water such as lakes and rivers, exposure to contaminated municipal drinking water, as well as zoonotic transmission from livestock and agriculture. The objectives of this study are twofold: 1) to describe the temporal distribution of cryptosporidiosis in Southwestern Ontario; and 2) to determine the distribution of human cryptosporidiosis, in relation to exposures such as cryptosporidium positive cattle farms, weather events, and hydrological factors...
2018: PloS One
Geneva Graef, Natalie J Hurst, Lance Kidder, Tracy L Sy, Laura B Goodman, Whitney D Preston, Samuel L M Arnold, Jennifer A Zambriski
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children < 5 years globally and the parasite genus Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of that diarrhea. The global disease burden attributable to cryptosporidiosis is substantial and the only approved chemotherapeutic, nitazoxanide, has poor efficacy in HIV positive children. Chemotherapeutic development is dependent on the calf model of cryptosporidiosis, which is the best approximation of human disease. However, the model is not consistently applied across research studies...
April 25, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Emilie Mosnier, Noémie Martin, Romy Razakandrainibe, Frédéric Dalle, Guillaume Roux, Arnaud Buteux, Loïc Favennec, Paul Brousse, Basma Guarmit, Denis Blanchet, Loïc Epelboin, Camille Girouin, Elise Martin, Félix Djossou, Mathieu Nacher, Magalie Demar
In September 2014, an increase in the number of Cryptosporidium spp. gastrointestinal tract infections was reported over a 6-month period among children living in a remote area along the Maroni River in French Guiana. Children presented gastroenteritis symptoms with Cryptosporidium -positive stools. Questionnaires were administered and stool examinations were controlled 3 months after the onset of symptoms. Data collection included demographics, food consumption, river behavior, symptoms, and outcome. Stool specimens were tested using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction...
April 23, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Chinmaya Panda, Rajani Kanta Mahapatra
Unavailability of vaccines and effective drugs are primarily responsible for the growing menace of cryptosporidiosis. This study has incorporated a bioinformatics-based screening approach to explore potential vaccine candidates and novel drug targets in Cryptosporidium parvum proteome. A systematic strategy was defined for comparative genomics, orthology with related Cryptosporidium species, prioritization parameters and MHC class I and II binding promiscuity. The approach reported cytoplasmic protein cgd7_1830, a signal peptide protein, as a novel drug target...
April 25, 2018: Parasitology
Timothy S Mamba, Cecilia K Mbae, Johnson Kinyua, Erastus Mulinge, Gitonga Nkanata Mburugu, Zablon K Njiru
Background. Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite and a major cause of diarrhea in children and immunocompromised patients. Current diagnostic methods for cryptosporidiosis such as microscopy have low sensitivity while techniques such as PCR indicate higher sensitivity levels but are seldom used in developing countries due to their associated cost. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique, a method with shorter time to result and with equal or higher sensitivity compared to PCR, has been developed and applied in the detection of Cryptosporidium species...
2018: Journal of Tropical Medicine
Sangun Lee, Melanie Ginese, Gillian Beamer, Hillary R Danz, Donald J Girouard, Susan P Chapman-Bonofiglio, Minhee Lee, Matthew A Hulverson, Ryan Choi, Grant R Whitman, Kayode K Ojo, Samuel L M Arnold, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Saul Tzipori
Recent reports highlighting the global significance of cryptosporidiosis among children have renewed efforts to develop control measures. We evaluated the efficacy of bumped kinase inhibitor (BKI) 1369 in the gnotobiotic piglet model of acute diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium hominis , the species responsible for most human cases. Five day-treatment with BKI 1369 reduced signs of disease early during treatment compared with untreated animals. Piglets treated with BKI 1369 exhibited a significant reduction of oocyst excretion, mucosal colonization by C...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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