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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442108/effect-of-egyptian-propolis-on-cryptosporidiosis-in-immunosuppressed-rats-with-special-emphasis-on-oocysts-shedding-leukogram-protein-profile-and-ileum-histopathology
#1
Hamdy Soufy, Nadia M El-Beih, Soad M Nasr, Tamer H Abd El-Aziz, Fathia A M Khalil, Youssef F Ahmed, Hala A A Abou Zeina
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the activity of Egyptian propolis extracts (ethanol and water) on cryptosporidiosis in experimentally infected dexamethasone-immunosuppressed rats. METHODS: A total of 180 male rats (190-220) g BWt were randomly divided into 9 equal groups (G1-G9). Groups of rats were kept as (G1): normal control, (G2-G9): immunosuppressed with dexamethasone and (G3-G9): infected with Cryptosporidium oocysts. Rats from (G4-G9) were given orally ethanol and water extract of propolis (at a dose of 50 mg/kg BWt) and nitazoxanide (standard anti-cryptosporidial drug at a dose of 100 mg/kg BWt) to infected rats with different regimes...
March 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433573/rodents-as-a-reservoir-of-infection-caused-by-multiple-zoonotic-species-genotypes-of-c-parvum-c-hominis-c-suis-c-scrofarum-and-the-first-evidence-of-c-muskrat-genotypes-i-and-ii-of-rodents-in-europe
#2
REVIEW
Oľga Danišová, Alexandra Valenčáková, Michal Stanko, Lenka Luptáková, Elena Hatalová, Alexander Čanády
Cryptosporidium spp. is an important causative agent of intestinal parasitoses-induced diarrhoea in humans and animals worldwide. Rodents (small mammals), the main reservoir of infections, are globally expanded and overpopulated, which increases the risk of transfer of human and zoonotic pathogens from the genus Cryptosporidium. In this study, Cryptosporidium was detected in wild immunocompetent asymptomatic small mammals. Altogether 262 faecal samples were collected from five areas in eastern Slovakia from four different rodent species (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus flavicollis, Rattus norvegicus), eight samples originated from two insectivore species (Sorex araneus, Crocidura suaveolens) and two sample from a carnivore Mustela nivalis...
April 19, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420373/early-outbreak-detection-by-linking-health-advice-line-calls-to-water-distribution-areas-retrospectively-demonstrated-in-a-large-waterborne-outbreak-of-cryptosporidiosis-in-sweden
#3
Pär Bjelkmar, Anette Hansen, Caroline Schönning, Jakob Bergström, Margareta Löfdahl, Marianne Lebbad, Anders Wallensten, Görel Allestam, Stephan Stenmark, Johan Lindh
BACKGROUND: In the winter and spring of 2011 a large outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred in Skellefteå municipality, Sweden. This study summarizes the outbreak investigation in terms of outbreak size, duration, clinical characteristics, possible source(s) and the potential for earlier detection using calls to a health advice line. METHODS: The investigation included two epidemiological questionnaires and microbial analysis of samples from patients, water and other environmental sources...
April 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389892/in-silico-identification-and-validation-of-a-novel-hypothetical-protein-in-cryptosporidium-hominis-and-virtual-screening-of-inhibitors-as-therapeutics
#4
Arpit Kumar Shrivastava, Subrat Kumar, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu, Rajani Kanta Mahapatra
Computational approaches to predict structure/function and other biological characteristics of proteins are becoming more common in comparison to the traditional methods in drug discovery. Cryptosporidiosis is a major zoonotic diarrheal disease particularly in children, which is caused primarily by Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Currently, there are no vaccines for cryptosporidiosis and recommended drugs are ineffective. With the availability of complete genome sequence of C. hominis, new targets have been recognized for the development of effective and better drugs and/or vaccines...
April 7, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329187/bumped-kinase-inhibitors-for-therapy-of-cryptosporidiosis
#5
Matthew A Hulverson, Sumiti Vinayak, Ryan Choi, Deborah A Schaefer, Alejandro Castellanos-Gonzalez, Rama S R Vidadala, Carrie F Brooks, Gillian T Herbert, Dana P Betzer, Grant R Whitman, Hayley N Sparks, Samuel L M Arnold, Kasey L Rivas, Lynn K Barrett, A Clinton White, Maly Dustin J, Michael W Riggs, Boris Striepen, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Kayode K Ojo
Bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs) of Cryptosporidium parvum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CpCDPK1) are leading candidates for treatment of cryptosporidiosis diarrhea. Potential cardiotoxicity related to anti-human ether-à-go-go potassium channel (hERG) activity of the first generation anti-Cryptosporidium BKIs triggered further testing for efficacy. A luminescence assay adapted for high-throughput screening was used to measure inhibitory activities of BKIs on in vitro C. parvum. Furthermore, neonatal and interferon-γ knockout mouse models of C...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325609/cryptosporidium-species-from-common-edible-bivalves-in-manila-bay-philippines
#6
Edison Jay A Pagoso, Windell L Rivera
Manila Bay is one of the major propagation sites of edible bivalves in the Philippines. Studies have shown that bivalves might be contaminated with human pathogens like the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium, one of the major causes of gastroenteritis in the world. In this study, Cryptosporidium from four species of edible bivalves were isolated using a combination of sucrose flotation and immunomagnetic separation. Using direct fluorescent antibody test, Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 67 out of 144 samples collected...
March 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316422/validation-of-romanowsky-staining-as-a-novel-screening-test-for-the-detection-of-faecal-cryptosporidial-oocysts
#7
A P S Brar, N K Sood, L D Singla, P Kaur, K Gupta, B S Sandhu
Cryptosporidiosis is an emerging waterborne protozoan disease and one of the major causes of neonatal diarrhea in humans and animals. But the disease remains under diagnosed due to lack of availability of special stains in majority of laboratories at primary health centers. Therefore, it requires a rapid screening test for routine diagnosis in conventional laboratory set up. In this pursuit, the present study was planned. During this study, fecal samples from 100 representative animals randomly selected from 17 out breaks of bovine calf diarrhea, were stained with modified Ziehl Neelsen staining (mZN) and Leishman's stain to demonstrate cryptosporidial oocysts and for routine fecal examination, respectively...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316401/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-species-in-cattle-and-buffalo-calves-in-mumbai-region-of-india
#8
A C Hingole, J G Gudewar, R P Pednekar, M L Gatne
Faecal samples of cattle and buffaloes of Mumbai region collected between November 2012 to June 2013 were analysed by conventional and molecular tools to note the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and species involved in the infection. Conventional analysis viz., direct faecal smear examination, faecal smear examination after normal saline sedimentation, Sheather's floatation and Sheather's floatation sedimentation smear methods demonstrated oocysts of Cryptosporidium in 141 (36.06 %) of 391 samples with higher occurrence in buffaloes (36...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303816/occurrence-of-enteric-parasitic-infections-among-hiv-infected-individuals-and-its-relation-to-cd4-t-cell-counts-with-a-special-emphasis-on-coccidian-parasites-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-south-india
#9
Chinnambedu R Swathirajan, Ramachandran Vignesh, Ambrose Pradeep, Sunil S Solomon, Suniti Solomon, Pachamuthu Balakrishnan
CONTEXT: Diarrhoea is one of the major complications occurring in over 90% of HIV-infected individuals in developing countries. Coccidian group of parasites, being opportunistic pathogens, have been implicated as the most common causative agents of diarrhoea among HIV-infected population. AIMS: The aim was to study the magnitude of parasitic diarrhoea with special context to coccidian parasitic infections in HIV-infected individuals and their association with the patient's immunological status measured by CD4 T-cell counts...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276701/genomics-of-apicomplexan-parasites
#10
Lakshmipuram Seshadri Swapna, John Parkinson
The increasing prevalence of infections involving intracellular apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium (the causative agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively) represent a significant global healthcare burden. Despite their significance, few treatments are available; a situation that is likely to deteriorate with the emergence of new resistant strains of parasites. To lay the foundation for programs of drug discovery and vaccine development, genome sequences for many of these organisms have been generated, together with large-scale expression and proteomic datasets...
February 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248679/cryptosporidium-species-and-subtypes-in-diarrheal-children-and-hiv-infected-persons-in-ebonyi-and-nsukka-nigeria
#11
Boniface Nwofoke Ukwah, Ifeoma Maureen Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla Ezeonu, Dawn Roellig, Lihua Xiao
INTRODUCTION: Cryptosporidiosis is a common disease of children and immune-compromised persons. This study evaluated the diversity and distribution of Cryptosporidium species in diarrheal children and HIV-infected persons on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and those not on HAART. METHODOLOGY: A total of 394 fecal specimens were collected from patients attending clinics in Nsukka and Ebonyi, Nigeria. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species were conducted by PCR-RFLP of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, whereas subtyping was done by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242275/recent-developments-in-drug-discovery-against-the-protozoal-parasites-cryptosporidium-and-toxoplasma
#12
REVIEW
Prinessa Chellan, Peter J Sadler, Kirkwood M Land
Apicomplexan parasites cause some of the most devastating human diseases, including malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis. New drug discovery is imperative in light of increased resistance. In this digest article, we briefly explore some of the recent and promising developments in new drug discovery against two apicomplexan parasites, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma.
April 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235458/no-molecular-epidemiological-evidence-supporting-household-transmission-of-zoonotic-giardia-duodenalis-and-cryptosporidium-spp-from-pet-dogs-and-cats-in-the-province-of-%C3%A3-lava-northern-spain
#13
Aida de Lucio, Begoña Bailo, María Aguilera, Guillermo A Cardona, Juan C Fernández-Crespo, David Carmena
The role of pet dogs and cats as suitable source of human infections by the diarrheagenic protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. has been a topic of intense debate for long time and still remains a largely unsolved problem. In this cross-sectional molecular epidemiological survey we attempted to investigate whether zoonotic (or zooanthroponotic) disease transmission was occurring among humans and domestic dogs and cats sharing the same spatial and temporal setting in both rural and urban areas of the province of Álava, Northern Spain...
February 21, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222719/descriptive-study-of-enteric-zoonoses-in-ontario-canada-from-2010-2012
#14
Yvonne Whitfield, Karen Johnson, Leigh Hobbs, Dean Middleton, Badal Dhar, Linda Vrbova
BACKGROUND: Contact with animals and their environment has long been recognized as an important source of enteric zoonoses. However, there are limited data available on the burden of illness associated with specific types of animals in Canada. This study describes the overall burden of enteric zoonoses in Ontario, Canada from 2010 to 2012. METHODS: Confirmed cases of seven enteric zoonotic diseases (campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, listeriosis, salmonellosis, verotoxin-producing E...
February 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219812/detection-and-molecular-diversity-of-giardia-duodenalis-and-cryptosporidium-spp-in-sheltered-dogs-and-cats-in-northern-spain
#15
Horacio Gil, Lourdes Cano, Aida de Lucio, Begoña Bailo, Marta Hernández de Mingo, Guillermo A Cardona, José A Fernández-Basterra, Juan Aramburu-Aguirre, Nuria López-Molina, David Carmena
Domestic dogs and cats may act as natural reservoirs of a large number of zoonotic pathogens, including the enteric parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., the most relevant protozoan species causing gastrointestinal disease worldwide. A cross-sectional epidemiological study aiming to assess the prevalence and molecular diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. was conducted in an animal rescue centre in the province of Álava (Northern Spain). A total of 194 and 65 faecal dropping samples from individual dogs and cats, respectively, were collected between November 2013 and June 2016...
February 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217592/profile-of-infections-in-renal-transplant-recipients-from-india
#16
Arun Kumar, Chaturbhuj Agarwal, Ashok K Hooda, Ashutosh Ojha, Mukesh Dhillon, K V S Hari Kumar
BACKGROUND: Infectious disorders are a major cause of concern in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) leading to considerable morbidity and mortality. We studied the profile and outcomes of infectious disorders in a cohort of RTR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, we evaluated all RTR who presented with the features of infection. We also included asymptomatic patients with microbiological evidence of infection. We excluded patients with acute rejection, drug toxicity, and malignancy...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215875/occurrence-and-molecular-genotyping-of-giardia-duodenalis-and-cryptosporidium-spp-in-wild-mesocarnivores-in-spain
#17
Marta Mateo, Marta Hernández de Mingo, Aida de Lucio, Lucía Morales, Ana Balseiro, Alberto Espí, Marta Barral, José Francisco Lima Barbero, Miguel Ángel Habela, José L Fernández-García, Rafael Calero Bernal, Pamela C Köster, Guillermo A Cardona, David Carmena
There is a surprisingly scarce amount of epidemiological and molecular data on the prevalence, frequency, and diversity of the intestinal protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in wildlife in general and mesocarnivore species in particular. Consequently, the extent of the cyst/oocyst environmental contamination attributable to these wild host species and their potential implications for public veterinary health remain largely unknown. In this molecular epidemiological survey a total of 193 individual faecal samples from badgers (Meles meles, n=70), ferrets (Mustela putorius furo, n=2), genets (Genetta genetta, n=6), Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus, n=6), beech martens (Martes foina, n=8), mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon, n=2), otters (Lutra lutra, n=2), polecats (Mustela putorius, n=2), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n=87), wildcats (Felis silvestris, n=2), and wolves (Canis lupus, n=6) were obtained from road-killed, hunted, and accidentally found carcasses, and from camera-trap surveys or animals entering rescue shelters, during the period December 2003-April 2016...
February 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209732/direct-measurement-of-cortical-force-generation-and-polarization-in-a-living-parasite
#18
Rachel V Stadler, Lauren A White, Ke Hu, Brian P Helmke, William H Guilford
Apicomplexa is a large phylum of intracellular parasites that are notable for the diseases they cause, including toxoplasmosis, malaria and cryptosporidiosis. A conserved motile system is critical to their lifecycles as it drives directional gliding motility between cells, as well as invasion of and egress from host cells. However, our understanding of this system is limited by a lack of measurements of the forces driving parasite motion. We used a laser trap to measure the function of the motility apparatus of living Toxoplasma gondii by adhering a microsphere to the surface of an immobilized parasite...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168399/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-cryptosporidium-infection-in-farmed-pigs-in-zhejiang-guangdong-and-yunnan-provinces-china
#19
Yang Zou, Jian-Gang Ma, Dong-Mei Yue, Wen-Bin Zheng, Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Quan Zhao, Xing-Quan Zhu
Cryptosporidiosis is caused by species of Cryptosporidium protozoa that can infect a wide range of host animals worldwide. However, data regarding Cryptosporidium infection in farmed pigs in subtropical areas in China is limited. Therefore, a total of 396 fecal samples were obtained from farmed pigs from Zhejiang (n = 124), Guangdong (n = 72), and Yunnan (n = 200) provinces, China, and were tested by PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium in pigs was 17...
March 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166384/cryptosporidium-identification-and-genetic-typing
#20
Jan Šlapeta
Cryptosporidium spp. are obligate protozoan parasites of the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, including humans. In the majority of human cases, the diarrheal disease cryptosporidiosis is caused by either the human-adapted species Cryptosporidium hominis or the zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum 'bovine genotype' (also known as Cryptosporidium pestis). The infectious stage, environmentally resilient Cryptosporidium oocysts, are shed by the infected host. Cryptosporidium parasites are transmitted by the fecal-oral route and are one of the major water-borne pathogens...
February 6, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
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