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cryptosporidiosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102513/incidence-of-cryptosporidium-andersoni-in-diarrheal-patients-from-southern-assam-india-a-molecular-approach
#1
G Hussain, S Roychoudhury, B Singha, J Paul
The distribution and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in humans and bovine differ across geographical areas. Cryptosporidium species causes a disease known as cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. To characterize the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in humans in southern Assam, India, stool samples (n = 1119) of diarrhea patients were collected from different hospitals and from the community during the period January 2014 to July 2016. Fecal smears were examined microscopically for Cryptosporidium species using modified acid fast staining and were screened to ascertain the presence of Cryptosporidium antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098070/epidemiology-of-cryptosporidium-infection-in-cattle-in-china-a-review
#2
Chao Gong, Xue-Feng Cao, Lei Deng, Wei Li, Xiang-Ming Huang, Jing-Chao Lan, Qi-Cheng Xiao, Zhi-Jun Zhong, Fan Feng, Yue Zhang, Wen-Bo Wang, Ping Guo, Kong-Ju Wu, Guang-Neng Peng
The present review discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in cattle in China and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution in China, which is critical to understanding the economic and public health importance of cryptosporidiosis transmission in cattle. To date, 10 Cryptosporidium species have been detected in cattle in China, with an overall infection rate of 11.9%. The highest rate of infection (19.5%) was observed in preweaned calves, followed by that in juveniles (10...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079280/cryptosporidiosis-outbreak-at-an-academic-animal-research-laboratory-colorado-2014
#3
Jessica Hancock-Allen, Nisha B Alden, Alicia B Cronquist
BACKGROUND: After cryptosporidiosis was reported in three workers caring for preweaned calves at an academic research laboratory, we sought to identify cases, determine risk factors, and implement control measures. METHODS: A cryptosporidiosis case was defined as diarrhea duration ≥72 hr, abdominal cramps, or vomiting in an animal research laboratory worker during July 14-July 31. A confirmed case had laboratory evidence of Cryptosporidium infection. Staff were interviewed regarding illness, potential exposures, training, and personal protective equipment (PPE) standard operating procedures (SOPs)...
February 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052996/a-novel-bioengineered-3d-human-intestinal-model-for-long-term-infection-of-cryptosporidium-parvum
#4
Maria A DeCicco RePass, Ying Chen, Yinan Lin, Wenda Zhou, David L Kaplan, Honorine D Ward
Cryptosporidium spp. are apicomplexan parasites of global importance that cause human diarrheal disease. In vitro culture models to study this parasite with physiological relevance to in vivo infection remain sub-optimal. Thus, the pathogenesis of cryptosporidiosis remains poorly characterized, and interventions for the disease are limited. In this study, we evaluated the potential of a novel bioengineered 3D human intestinal tissue model (which we developed previously) to support long term infection by C. parvum...
January 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051192/global-warming-and-its-health-impact
#5
Antonella Rossati
Since the mid-19th century, human activities have increased greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the Earth's atmosphere that resulted in increased average temperature. The effects of rising temperature include soil degradation, loss of productivity of agricultural land, desertification, loss of biodiversity, degradation of ecosystems, reduced fresh-water resources, acidification of the oceans, and the disruption and depletion of stratospheric ozone. All these have an impact on human health, causing non-communicable diseases such as injuries during natural disasters, malnutrition during famine, and increased mortality during heat waves due to complications in chronically ill patients...
January 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039407/cryptosporidium-parvum-infection-attenuates-the-ex%C3%A2-vivo-propagation-of-murine-intestinal-enteroids
#6
Xin-Tian Zhang, Ai-Yu Gong, Yang Wang, Xiqiang Chen, Sheng-Yau S Lim, Courtney E Dolata, Xian-Ming Chen
Cryptosporidium, a ubiquitous coccidian protozoan parasite that infects the gastrointestinal epithelium and other mucosal surfaces, is an important opportunistic pathogen for immunocompromised individuals and a common cause of diarrhea in young children in the developing countries. One of the pathological hallmarks of intestinal cryptosporidiosis is villous atrophy, which results in a shorter height of intestinal villi. Here, we investigated the effects of Cryptosporidium infection on intestinal epithelial growth, using an ex vivo model of intestinal cryptosporidiosis employing enteroids from mice...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039197/an-evaluation-of-health-protection-practices-for-the-investigation-and-management-of-cryptosporidium-in-england-and-wales
#7
R M Chalmers, N McCarthy, K L Barlow, R Stiff
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a major cause of gastroenteritis (cryptosporidiosis). Case and outbreak report rates vary geographically, which may in part reflect public health practice. METHODS: To examine the public health management of cryptosporidiosis, an online questionnaire was administered to the 28 Health Protection Teams (HPTs) in England and Wales in 2014. Practices for investigation and management of cases and outbreaks were compared. RESULTS: Practice varied among the 24 (86%) respondents in terms of who undertook actions (HPT or Local Authority) to investigate and manage cryptosporidiosis...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039137/attenuation-of-cryptosporidium-across-the-wastewater-treatment-train-recycled-water-fit-for-purpose
#8
Brendon King, Stella Fanok, Renae Phillips, Melody Lau, Ben van den Akker, Paul Monis
: Compliance with guideline removal targets for Cryptosporidium, which do not provide any credit for the inactivation of oocysts through wastewater treatment processes, can considerably increase the cost of providing recycled water. Here we present the application of an integrated assay to quantify both oocyst numbers and infectivity after various treatment stages at three Victorian and two South Australian (SA) Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs). Oocyst density in the raw sewage was commensurate with community disease burden, with early rounds of sampling capturing a widespread cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Victoria...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013266/natural-history-of-cryptosporidiosis-in-a-birth-cohort-in-southern-india
#9
Deepthi Kattula, Nithya Jeyavelu, Ashok D Prabhakaran, Prasanna S Premkumar, Vasanthakumar Velusamy, Srinivasan Venugopal, Jayanthi C Geetha, Robin P Lazarus, Princey Das, Karthick Nithyanandhan, Chandrabose Gunasekaran, Jayaprakash Muliyil, Rajiv Sarkar, Christine Wanke, Sitara Swarna Rao Ajjampur, Sudhir Babji, Elena N Naumova, Honorine D Ward, Gagandeep Kang
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of moderate to severe childhood diarrhea in resource-poor settings. Understanding the natural history of cryptosporidiosis and the correlates of protection are essential to develop effective and sustainable approaches to disease control and prevention. METHODS: Children (N = 497) were recruited at birth in semiurban slums in Vellore, India, and followed for 3 years with twice-weekly home visits. Stool samples were collected every 2 weeks and during diarrheal episodes were tested for Cryptosporidium species by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007919/delivery-of-parasite-rna-transcripts-into-infected-epithelial-cells-during-cryptosporidium-infection-and-its-potential-impact-on-host-gene-transcription
#10
Yang Wang, Ai-Yu Gong, Shibin Ma, Xiqiang Chen, Yan Li, Chun-Jen Su, Dana Norall, Jing Chen, Juliane K Strauss-Soukup, Xian-Ming Chen
Cryptosporidium parvum is an important opportunistic parasite pathogen for immunocompromised individuals and a common cause of diarrhea in young children. Previous studies have identified a panel of RNA transcripts of very low protein-coding potential in C. parvum Using an in vitro model of human intestinal cryptosporidiosis, we report here that some of these C. parvum RNA transcripts were selectively delivered into the nuclei of host epithelial cells during C. parvum infection. Nuclear delivery of several such parasitic RNAs, including Cdg7_FLc_0990, involved heat-shock protein 70-mediated nuclear importing mechanism...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998735/real-time-nucleic-acid-sequence-based-amplification-nasba-assay-targeting-mic1-for-detection-of-cryptosporidium-parvum-and-cryptosporidium-hominis-oocysts
#11
Birgitte K Hønsvall, Lucy J Robertson
Both Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis are often associated with cryptosporidiosis in humans, but whereas humans are the main host for C. hominis, C. parvum is zoonotic and able to infect a variety of species. The oocyst transmission stages of both species of parasites are morphologically identical and molecular techniques, usually polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are required to distinguish between oocysts detected by standard methods in environmental samples, such as water. In this study, we developed two primer sets for real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), targeting the MIC1 transcript in C...
December 18, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923949/novel-bumped-kinase-inhibitors-are-safe-and-effective-therapeutics-in-the-calf-clinical-model-for-cryptosporidiosis
#12
Deborah A Schaefer, Dana P Betzer, Kylie D Smith, Zachary G Millman, Hannah C Michalski, Sarah E Menchaca, Jennifer A Zambriski, Kayode K Ojo, Matthew A Hulverson, Samuel L M Arnold, Kasey L Rivas, Rama S R Vidadala, Wenlin Huang, Lynn K Barrett, Dustin J Maly, Erkang Fan, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Michael W Riggs
Cryptosporidiosis, caused by the apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum, is a diarrheal disease that has produced a large global burden in mortality and morbidity in humans and livestock. There are currently no consistently effective parasite-specific pharmaceuticals available for this disease. Bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs) specific for parasite calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have been shown to reduce infection in several parasites having medical and veterinary importance, including Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, and C...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895856/genetic-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-spp-among-patients-with-gastrointestinal-complaints
#13
Reza Ranjbar, Kaveh Baghaei, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini Mojarad
AIM: This study investigated subtypes of Cryptosporidium in patients with gastrointestinal complaints in Tehran, Iran. BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium, an intracellular protozean parasite, is among the major causative agents of gastroenteritis disorders in humans. It also causes water-borne and food-borne outbreaks of diarrheal diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1685 fecal samples were collected from patients with gastrointestinal complaints who had been referred to clinical laboratories Tehran, Iran...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895021/1-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-sulfur-containing-linear-bisphosphonates-against-apicomplexan-parasites
#14
Sergio H Szajnman, Tamila Galaka, Zhu-Hong Li, Catherine Li, Nathan M Howell, María N Chao, Boris Striepen, Vasant Muralidharan, Silvia N J Moreno, Juan B Rodriguez
We tested a series of sulfur-containing linear bisphosphonates against Toxoplasma gondii, the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis. The most potent compound ( 22: , 1-[(n-decylsulfonyl)ethyl]-1,1-biphosphonic acid) is a sulfone-containing compound, which had an EC50 of 0.11 ± 0.02 μM against intracellular tachyzoites. The compound showed low toxicity when tested in tissue culture with a selectivity index of >2,000. 22: also showed high activity in vivo in a toxoplasmosis mouse model. The compound inhibited the Toxoplasma farnesyl diphosphate synthase (TgFPPS) but the concentration needed to inhibit 50% of the enzymatic activity (IC50) was higher than the concentration that inhibited 50% of growth...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890948/study-of-infections-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome-patients-in-shadan-hospital-telangana-india
#15
Sukumar Gajjala Reddy, Syed Yousuf Ali, Azheel Khalidi
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemicity is a major concern today as it causes greater loss of productivity than any other disease. HIV infection leads to profound immune deficiency and patients become highly susceptible to opportunistic infections (OIs). HIV epidemic in India is heterogeneous in nature, both in terms of routes of transmission as well as geographical spread. AIMS: (1) Determine prevalence of OIs among HIV-seropositive patients and their relation to CD4 count and to focus on the routes of transmission...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876988/cryptosporidiosis-in-a-buffalo-calf-at-meerut-uttar-pradesh-and-its-successful-therapeutic-management
#16
P S Maurya, Shivani Sahu, N R Sudhakar, Vikas Jaiswal, D G Prashant, Shriya Rawat, Harshit Verma
Cryptosporidium spp. are recognized as one of the most important enteric pathogens causing enteritis and severe diarrhoea in calves up to 1 month of age. Although the infection may be responsible for some mortality, its impact is mainly associated with the impairment of gastrointestinal functions and lower performance of animals. A female buffalo calf of 25 days old was presented to OPD section, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, SVPUA&T, Meerut, with the symptoms of severe voluminous watery cholera like diarrhea with mucous and blood tinge since 4-5 days...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876975/detection-of-cryptosporidium-spp-in-free-ranging-animals-of-tehran-iran
#17
Mehran Mirzaghavami, Javid Sadraei, Mehdi Forouzandeh
Cryptosporidium is a world widely distributed parasite which comparatively has a high prevalence in developing countries. The zoonotic potential of some Cryptosporidium species has made the cryptosporidiosis a significant concern to physicians and veterinarians. The occurrence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium species in probable reservoir hosts for man infections was determined by examining faeces of symptomatic and asymptomatic animals. The aim of this study is to screen the presence of Cryptosporidium in fecal sample of free ranging animals in Tehran using Ziehl-Neelsen staining method...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876910/low-sensitivity-of-the-immunocardstat-%C3%A2-crypto-giardia-rapid-assay-test-for-the-detection-of-giardia-and-cryptosporidium-in-fecal-samples-from-children-living-in-libreville-central-africa
#18
M K Bouyou-Akotet, M Owono-Medang, M N Moussavou-Boussougou, M Mabika Mamfoumbi, R Mintsa-Nguema, D P Mawili-Mboumba, M Kombila
Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are now recognized as neglected tropical parasitic diseases. The risk of their dissemination  in developing countries, such as Gabon, is increasing, due to urban crowding and poor sanitation. Accurate, simple and rapid diagnosis tools are thus necessary for the estimation of their real burden. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of the ImmunocardSTAT(®)Crypto/Giardia Rapid Assay test for the detection of Cryptosporidium (C.) spp. and Giardia (G.) duodenalis in children living in Libreville, Gabon...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876907/prevalence-of-cryptosporidium-spp-in-ruminants-of-lorestan-province-iran
#19
Haddad Shafieyan, Alireza Alborzi, Hossein Hamidinejat, Mohammad Reza Tabandeh, Mohammad Rahim Haji Hajikolaei
Cryptosporidiosis is one of the important zoonotic diseases caused by an intracellular protozoan parasite called Cryptosporidium. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection on 1,115 ruminants, cattle, sheep and goats, in Lorestan province, Iran. Using formol-ether concentration technique and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method afterwards, the overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in ruminants of Lorestan province was 7.17 %. Prevalence of infection was 9...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836030/validation-of-a-new-technique-to-detect-cryptosporidium-spp-oocysts-in-bovine-feces
#20
Sandra Valéria Inácio, Jancarlo Ferreira Gomes, Bruno César Miranda Oliveira, Alexandre Xavier Falcão, Celso Tetsuo Nagase Suzuki, Bianca Martins Dos Santos, Monally Conceição Costa de Aquino, Rafaela Silva de Paula Ribeiro, Danilla Mendes de Assunção, Pamella Almeida Freire Casemiro, Marcelo Vasconcelos Meireles, Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani
Due to its important zoonotic potential, cryptosporidiosis arouses strong interest in the scientific community, because, it was initially considered a rare and opportunistic disease. The parasitological diagnosis of the causative agent of this disease, the protozoan Cryptosporidium spp., requires the use of specific techniques of concentration and permanent staining, which are laborious and costly, and are difficult to use in routine laboratory tests. In view of the above, we conducted the feasibility, development, evaluation and intralaboratory validation of a new parasitological technique for analysis in optical microscopy of Cryptosporidium spp...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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