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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341586/development-of-a-novel-cytopathic-effect-based-phenotypic-screening-assay-against-cryptosporidium
#1
Alexander T Chao, Boon Heng Lee, Kah Fei Wan, Jeremy Selva, Bin Zou, Peter Gedeck, David Beer, Thierry T Diagana, Ghislain Bonamy, Ujjini H Manjunatha
Cryptosporidiosis is a diarrheal disease predominantly caused by Cryptosporidium parvum (Cp) and Cryptosporidium hominis (Ch), apicomplexan parasites which infect the intestinal epithelial cells of their human hosts. The only approved drug for cryptosporidiosis is nitazoxanide, which shows limited efficacy in immunocompromised children, the most vulnerable patient population. Thus, new therapeutics and in vitro infection models are urgently needed to address the current unmet medical need. Toward this aim, we have developed novel cytopathic effect (CPE)-based Cp and Ch assays in human colonic tumor (HCT-8) cells and compared them to traditional imaging formats...
January 17, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339392/a-novel-piperazine-based-drug-lead-for-cryptosporidiosis-from-the-medicines-for-malaria-venture-open-access-malaria-box
#2
R S Jumani, K Bessoff, M S Love, P Miller, E E Stebbins, J E Teixeira, M A Campbell, M J Meyers, J A Zambriski, V Nunez, A K Woods, C W McNamara, C D Huston
Cryptosporidiosis causes life-threatening diarrhea in children under age five, and prolonged diarrhea in immunodeficient people, especially AIDS patients. The standard of care, nitazoxanide, is modestly effective in children and ineffective in immunocompromised individuals. In addition to a need for new drugs, better knowledge of drug properties that drive in vivo efficacy is needed to facilitate drug development. We report identification of a piperazine-based lead compound for Cryptosporidium drug development, MMV665917, and a new pharmacodynamic method used for its characterization...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337611/interactions-between-parasites-and-the-bacterial-microbiota-of-chickens
#3
Rüdiger Hauck
Except for the important role coccidia have as predisposing factors of necrotic enteritis, the role parasites play in the dynamics of a healthy microbiota of chickens is not well explored. This review describes the interactions of relevant intestinal parasites of chickens with bacteria. Infection with Eimeria spp. favor the growth of Clostridium perfringens and suppress the growth of many other bacteria by increasing viscosity and passage time of the ingesta, and by causing lesions to the intestinal mucosa that improve the availability of nutrients for C...
December 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316479/response-of-cell-lines-to-actual-and-simulated-inoculation-with-cryptosporidium-proliferans
#4
Janka Melicherová, Lada Hofmannová, Andrea Valigurová
The need for an effective treatment against cryptosporidiosis has triggered studies in the search for a working in vitro model. The peculiar niche of cryptosporidia at the brush border of host epithelial cells has been the subject of extensive debates. Despite extensive research on the invasion process, it remains enigmatic whether cryptosporidian host-parasite interactions result from an active invasion process or through encapsulation. We used HCT-8 and HT-29 cell lines for in vitro cultivation of the gastric parasite Cryptosporidium proliferans strain TS03...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306010/high-resolution-melting-curve-hrm-analysis-for-c-meleagridis-identification-in-stool-samples
#5
Hanen Chelbi, Rym Essid, Refka Jelassi, Nesrine Bouzekri, I Zidi, Hamza Ben Salah, Ilhem Mrad, Iness Ben Sgaier, Rym Abdelmalek, Sameh Aissa, Aida Bouratbine, Karim Aoun
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis represents a major public health problem. This infection, caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Cryptosporidium, has been reported worldwide as a frequent cause of diarrhoea. In the immunocompetent host, the typical watery diarrhea can be self-limiting. However, it is severe and chronic, in the immunocompromised host and may cause death. Cryptosporidium spp. are coccidians, which complete their life cycle in both humans and animals. The two species C...
January 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304439/cryptosporidium-outbreak-in-calves-on-a-large-dairy-farm-effect-of-treatment-and-the-association-with-the-inflammatory-response-and-short-term-weight-gain
#6
Tarmo Niine, Elisabeth Dorbek-Kolin, Brian Lassen, Toomas Orro
Cryptosporidium spp. infections in neonatal dairy calves can cause diarrhoea and, in rare cases, death. The infection is usually self-limiting, but halofuginone lactate (HL) can be used prophylactically. Calves (n=144) in the study were born during a 2-month period on one farm. A total of 901 serum and 767 faecal samples were collected. Based on HL treatment, the calves were divided into 3 groups: I) not treated, II) treated incorrectly (treatment started >48h after birth, or lasted <7days), and III) treated correctly (started <48h after birth, and lasted ≥7days)...
December 27, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300993/the-existing-drug-vorinostat-as-a-new-lead-against-cryptosporidiosis-by-targeting-the-parasite-histone-deacetylases
#7
Fengguang Guo, Haili Zhang, Nina N McNair, Jan R Mead, Guan Zhu
Background: Cryptosporidiosis affects all human populations, but can be much more severe or life-threatening in children and individuals with weak or weakened immune systems. However, current options to treat cryptosporidiosis are limited. Methods: An in vitro phenotypic screening assay was employed to screen 1,200 existing drugs for their anti-cryptosporidial activity, and to determine the inhibitory kinetics of top hits. Selected top hits were further evaluated in mice...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295550/lessons-learned-from-protective-immune-responses-to-optimize-vaccines-against-cryptosporidiosis
#8
REVIEW
Maxime W Lemieux, Karine Sonzogni-Desautels, Momar Ndao
In developing countries, cryptosporidiosis causes moderate-to-severe diarrhea and kills thousands of infants and toddlers annually. Drinking and recreational water contaminated with Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts has led to waterborne outbreaks in developed countries. A competent immune system is necessary to clear this parasitic infection. A better understanding of the immune responses required to prevent or limit infection by this protozoan parasite is the cornerstone of development of an effective vaccine...
December 24, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277954/cryptosporidiosis-in-a-transplant-recipient-with-severe-intractable-diarrhea-detection-of-cryptosporidium-oocysts-by-intestinal-biopsies
#9
Kumiko Kagawa, Hikaru Fujino, Hirokazu Miki, Kimiko Sogabe, Mamiko Takahashi, Tomoko Maruhashi, Kengo Udaka, Masami Iwasa, Shiro Fujii, Shingen Nakamura, Masahiro Abe
Disseminated Cryptosporidium infection results in manifestations similar to those of graft versus host disease (GVHD), which hampers the detection of Cryptosporidium infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Surveillance of oocysts on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells is needed for early and appropriate detection of Cryptosporidium infection in transplant recipients on immunosuppressants with severe intractable diarrhea. We present the first case of Cryptosporidium meleagridis infection in Japan after allogeneic cord blood transplantation...
December 26, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273058/goats-in-the-city-prevalence-of-giardia-duodenalis-and-cryptosporidium-spp-in-extensively-reared-goats-in-northern-india
#10
Kjersti Selstad Utaaker, Nina Myhr, Rajinder Singh Bajwa, Himanshu Joshi, Anil Kumar, Lucy J Robertson
BACKGROUND: Various characteristics of goats mean they are highly suitable livestock for backyard rearing by people with limited resources. They are a popular livestock choice in India, where they are often kept to supplement an already scarce income. In these settings, hygiene and sanitation standards tend to be low, and weakens the interface between humans and animals, thus reducing the barrier between them and thereby increasing the likelihood that zoonotic and anthroponotic infections will occur...
December 22, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261714/high-association-of-cryptosporidium-spp-infection-with-colon-adenocarcinoma-in-lebanese-patients
#11
Marwan Osman, Sadia Benamrouz, Karine Guyot, Martha Baydoun, Emilie Frealle, Magali Chabe, Nausicaa Gantois, Baptiste Delaire, Anne Goffard, Albert Aoun, Nawaf Jurdi, Fouad Dabboussi, Gael Even, Christian Slomianny, Pierre Gosset, Monzer Hamze, Colette Creusy, Eric Viscogliosi, Gabriela Certad
BACKGROUND: The association between Cryptosporidium and human colon cancer has been reported in different populations. However, this association has not been well studied. In order to add new strong arguments for a probable link between cryptosporidiosis and colon human cancer, the aim of this study was to determine prevalence and to identify species of Cryptosporidium among Lebanese patients. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, 218 digestive biopsies were collected in Tripoli, Lebanon, from three groups of patients: (i) patients with recently diagnosed colon intraepithelial neoplasia/adenocarcinoma before any treatment (n = 72); (ii) patients with recently diagnosed stomach intraepithelial neoplasia/adenocarcinoma before any treatment (n = 21); and (iii) patients without digestive intraepithelial neoplasia/adenocarcinoma but with persistent digestive symptoms (n = 125)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234679/detection-of-cryptosporidium-and-cyclospora-oocysts-from-environmental-water-for-drinking-and-recreational-activities-in-sarawak-malaysia
#12
Lesley Maurice Bilung, Ahmad Syatir Tahar, Nur Emyliana Yunos, Kasing Apun, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Elexson Nillian, Hashimatul Fatma Hashim
Cryptosporidiosis and cyclosporiasis are caused by waterborne coccidian protozoan parasites of the genera Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora, respectively. This study was conducted to detect Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora oocysts from environmental water abstracted by drinking water treatment plants and recreational activities in Sarawak, Malaysia. Water samples (12 each) were collected from Sungai Sarawak Kanan in Bau and Sungai Sarawak Kiri in Batu Kitang, respectively. In addition, 6 water samples each were collected from Ranchan Recreational Park and UNIMAS Lake at Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, respectively...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230047/three-dimensional-3d-culture-of-adult-murine-colon-as-an-in-vitro-model-of-cryptosporidiosis-proof-of-concept
#13
Martha Baydoun, Sadia Benamrouz Vanneste, Colette Creusy, Karine Guyot, Nausicaa Gantois, Magali Chabe, Baptiste Delaire, Anthony Mouray, Atallah Baydoun, Gerard Forzy, Vincent Chieux, Pierre Gosset, Vincent Senez, Eric Viscogliosi, Jérôme Follet, Gabriela Certad
Cryptosporidium parvum is a major cause of diarrheal illness and was recently potentially associated with digestive carcinogenesis. Despite its impact on human health, Cryptosporidium pathogenesis remains poorly known, mainly due to the lack of a long-term culture method for this parasite. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a three-dimensional (3D) culture model from adult murine colon allowing biological investigations of the host-parasite interactions in an in vivo-like environment and, in particular, the development of parasite-induced neoplasia...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221852/captive-bred-neotropical-birds-diagnosed-with-cryptosporidium-avian-genotype-iii
#14
Ricardo Silva Novaes, Marcus Sandes Pires, Adriana Pittella Sudré, Teresa Cristina Bergamo do Bomfim
Currently, there are only three valid species of Cryptosporidium infecting avian hosts, namely, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, Cryptosporidium baileyi, and Cryptosporidium galli, in addition to 13 genotypes of unknown species status, such as Avian genotypes I-VI, the black duck genotype, the Eurasian woodcock genotype, and goose genotypes I-V. The objectives of this study were to microscopically diagnose the presence of Cryptosporidium in birds from a commercial aviary located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; genotypically characterize species and/or genotypes of genus Cryptosporidum; and conduct sequencing and phylogenetic analyses to compare the obtained DNA sequences with those deposited in GenBank...
December 5, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215354/associations-between-extreme-precipitation-and-acute-gastro-intestinal-illness-due-to-cryptosporidiosis-and-giardiasis-in-an-urban-canadian-drinking-water-system-1997-2009
#15
Bimal K Chhetri, Tim K Takaro, Robert Balshaw, Michael Otterstatter, Sunny Mak, Marcus Lem, Marc Zubel, Mark Lysyshyn, Len Clarkson, Joanne Edwards, Manon D Fleury, Sarah B Henderson, Eleni Galanis
Drinking water related infections are expected to increase in the future due to climate change. Understanding the current links between these infections and environmental factors is vital to understand and reduce the future burden of illness. We investigated the relationship between weekly reported cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis (n = 7,422), extreme precipitation (>90th percentile), drinking water turbidity, and preceding dry periods in a drinking water system located in greater Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (1997-2009) using distributed lag non-linear Poisson regression models adjusted for seasonality, secular trend, and the effect of holidays on reporting...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185906/molecular-identification-of-cryptosporidium-spp-in-iranian-dogs-using-seminested-pcr-a-first-report
#16
Reza Ranjbar, Hossein Mirhendi, Morteza Izadi, Bahador Behrouz, Reza Mohammadi Manesh
Cryptosporidium is a parasitic protozoon with a wide range of vertebrate hosts. Cryptosporidiosis has been reported from numerous countries, including Iran. Molecular identification can be applied to characterize Cryptosporidium, of which there are over 30 species and 50 genotypes. Herein, we report the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in Iranian dogs for the first time based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. One hundred forty fecal samples of herd dogs were collected from Isfahan, central Iran...
November 29, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177580/molecular-detection-and-genetic-characterizations-of-cryptosporidium-spp-in-farmed-foxes-minks-and-raccoon-dogs-in-northeastern-china
#17
Ziyin Yang, Wei Zhao, Jianguang Wang, Guangxu Ren, Weizhe Zhang, Aiqin Liu
Cryptosporidium spp. are common intestinal protozoa causing diarrhea in humans and a variety of animal species. With the recent development of fur industry, a large number of fur animals are farmed worldwide, especially in China. The existence of identical Cryptosporidium species/genotypes in humans and fur animals suggests zoonotic potential. In order to assess the presence of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species and/or genotypes in farmed fur animals, 367 fecal specimens were collected from 213 foxes, 114 minks and 40 raccoon dogs farmed in Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning provinces, northeastern China, during the period from June 2014 to October 2016...
November 25, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162354/-cryptosporidiosis-a-cause-of-acute-diarrhea-a-review-and-retrospective-study-of-cases-in-rouen-university-hospital-s-pediatrics-department
#18
G Gargala, R Razakandrainibe, D Costa, D Leméteil, C Dumant Forest
Cryptosporidium is the most important diarrhea-causing protozoan parasite, with severe health consequences for very young, malnourished children living in endemic areas and for immunocompromised individuals. Cryptosporidium is widely distributed and disease transmission can occur through person-to-person or animal-to-person contact, or contaminated food or water (drinking or swimming), leading to large outbreaks. The zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum and the anthroponotic Cryptosporidium hominis are responsible for the majority of human cases...
November 18, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154521/cryptosporidiosis-outbreak-associated-with-a-single-hotel
#19
Mary-Margaret A Fill, Jennifer Lloyd, Tamal Chakraverty, David Sweat, Judy Manners, Katie Garman, Michele C Hlavsa, Dawn M Roellig, John R Dunn, William Schaffner, Timothy F Jones
We investigated a gastrointestinal illness cluster among persons who attended a baseball tournament (>200 teams) during July 2015. We interviewed representatives of 19 teams; illness was reported among only the 9 (47%) teams that stayed at Hotel A (p < .01). We identified 55 primary cases. A case-control study demonstrated that pool exposure at Hotel A was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio: 7.3; 95% confidence interval: 3.6, 15.2). Eight out of nine (89%) stool specimens tested were positive for Cryptosporidium, with C...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144216/the-truth-about-in-vitro-culture-of-cryptosporidium-species
#20
Panagiotis Karanis
Cryptosporidium research has focused on the development of infection control, and effective therapy that has thus far been hampered by the inability to culture Cryptosporidium in vitro. Other limitations include inadequate animal models, cumbersome screening procedures for chemotherapeutic approaches and a lack of tools for genetic manipulation. These limitations can, however, be eased by the improvement and focused development of in vitro cultivation. The ability to culture relevant Cryptosporidium isolates in vitro and to propagate the life cycle stages that are responsible for causing disease in an infected host is still a critical link...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
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