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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154521/cryptosporidiosis-outbreak-associated-with-a-single-hotel
#1
Mary-Margaret A Fill, Jennifer Lloyd, Tamal Chakraverty, David Sweat, Judy Manners, Katie Garman, Michele C Hlavsa, Dawn M Roellig, John R Dunn, William Schaffner, Timothy F Jones
We investigated a gastrointestinal illness cluster among persons who attended a baseball tournament (>200 teams) during July 2015. We interviewed representatives of 19 teams; illness was reported among only the 9 (47%) teams that stayed at Hotel A (p < .01). We identified 55 primary cases. A case-control study demonstrated that pool exposure at Hotel A was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio: 7.3; 95% confidence interval: 3.6, 15.2). Eight out of nine (89%) stool specimens tested were positive for Cryptosporidium, with C...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144216/the-truth-about-in-vitro-culture-of-cryptosporidium-species
#2
Panagiotis Karanis
Cryptosporidium research has focused on the development of infection control, and effective therapy that has thus far been hampered by the inability to culture Cryptosporidium in vitro. Other limitations include inadequate animal models, cumbersome screening procedures for chemotherapeutic approaches and a lack of tools for genetic manipulation. These limitations can, however, be eased by the improvement and focused development of in vitro cultivation. The ability to culture relevant Cryptosporidium isolates in vitro and to propagate the life cycle stages that are responsible for causing disease in an infected host is still a critical link...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140544/a-cryptosporidium-infection-in-a-patient-with-relapsed-t-lymphoblastic-lymphoma-undergoing-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#3
Joanna Schiller, Sebastian Klein, Marianne Engels, Reinhard Büttner, Jan Rybniker, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Christof Scheid, Christian Wybranski, Alexander Quaas, Hans Christian Reinhardt, Ruth Waßermann
Cryptosporidium infection is a rare cause of enterocolitis. In immunocompromised patients, cryptosporidiosis may lead to debilitating and life-threatening diarrhea and malabsorption, occasionally with multi organ involvement. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) requires long-term immunosuppressive therapy, while cellular immunity is usually compromised due to intensive conditioning chemotherapy. Diarrhea in patients who underwent allo-HSCT may be a sign of an infection, but can also be the result of intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137189/microscopic-and-molecular-tracing-of-cryptosporidium-oocysts-identifying-a-possible-reservoir-of-infection-in-red-grouse
#4
David Baines, Michaela Giles, Michael Richardson
Infection by Cryptosporidiumbaileyi causes respiratory cryptosporidiosis in red grouse Lagopuslagopusscotica. First diagnosed in 2010, it has since been detected across half of moors managed for grouse shooting in northern England. We hypothesised that contaminated grouse faeces within communal trays visited by grouse containing grit coated with flubendazole, provided to control Trichostrongylustenuis parasites of grouse, is a reservoir of infection. To establish the basis to this hypothesis, contents of 23 trays from a grouse moor were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts...
November 13, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126146/genomic-and-proteomic-evidence-for-the-presence-of-a-peroxisome-in-the-apicomplexan-parasite-toxoplasma-gondii-and-other-coccidia
#5
Daniel Moog, Jude M Przyborski, Uwe G Maier
Apicomplexans are successful parasites responsible for severe human diseases including malaria, toxoplasmosis and cryptosporidiosis. For many years it has been discussed whether these parasites are in possession of peroxisomes, highly variable eukaryotic organelles usually involved in fatty acid degradation and cellular detoxification. Conflicting experimental data has been published. With the age of genomics, ever more high quality apicomplexan genomes have become available, that now allow a new assessment of the dispute...
November 6, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122606/foodborne-cryptosporidiosis
#6
REVIEW
Una Ryan, Nawal Hijjawi, Lihua Xiao
Foodborne illness, the majority of which is caused by enteric infectious agents, costs global economies billions of dollars each year. The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium is particularly suited to foodborne transmission and is responsible for >8 million cases of foodborne illness annually. Procedures have been developed for sensitive detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts on fresh produce and molecular diagnostic assays have been widely used in case linkages and infection source tracking, especially during outbreak investigations...
November 7, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114483/cryptosporidiosis-a-mini-review
#7
REVIEW
K Vanathy, Subhash Chandra Parija, Jharna Mandal, Abdoul Hamide, Sriram Krishnamurthy
Cryptosporidium spp. was first described in mice in 1907. The first human case was reported in an acquired immune deficiency syndrome patient after which it gained importance. It is one of the emerging protozoan parasites according to the Centre of Disease Control and Prevention. The special structure which is present in them such as rhoptries and micronemes are responsible for their virulence and pathogenicity. They can be transmitted from animals, human to human, water, food, and tends to cause waterborne outbreaks...
July 2017: Tropical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113613/dna-barcoding-of-cryptosporidium
#8
Jan Šlapeta
Cryptosporidium spp. (Apicomplexa) causing cryptosporidiosis are of medical and veterinary significance. The genus Cryptosporidium has benefited from the application of what is considered a DNA-barcoding approach, even before the term 'DNA barcoding' was formally coined. Here, the objective to define the DNA barcode diversity of Cryptosporidium infecting mammals is reviewed and considered to be accomplished. Within the Cryptosporidium literature, the distinction between DNA barcoding and DNA taxonomy is indistinct...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092797/gold-nanoparticles-against-parasites-and-insect-vectors
#9
REVIEW
Giovanni Benelli
Nanomaterials are currently considered for many biological, biomedical and environmental purposes, due to their outstanding physical and chemical properties. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is of high interest for research in parasitology and entomology, since these nanomaterials showed promising applications, ranging from detection techniques to drug development, against a rather wide range of parasites of public health relevance, as well as on insect vectors. Here, I reviewed current knowledge about the bioactivity of Au NPs on selected insect species of public health relevance, including major mosquito vectors, such as Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus...
October 29, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061171/use-of-a-bioinformatic-assisted-primer-design-strategy-to-establish-a-new-nested-pcr-based-method-for-cryptosporidium
#10
Anson V Koehler, Pasi K Korhonen, Ross S Hall, Neil D Young, Tao Wang, Shane R Haydon, Robin B Gasser
BACKGROUND: The accurate tracking of Cryptosporidium in faecal, water and/or soil samples in water catchment areas is central to developing strategies to manage the potential risk of cryptosporidiosis transmission to humans. Various PCR assays are used for this purpose. Although some assays achieve specific amplification from Cryptosporidium DNA in animal faecal samples, some do not. Indeed, we have observed non-specificity of some oligonucleotide primers in the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (SSU), which has presented an obstacle to the identification and classification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes (taxa) from faecal samples...
October 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056688/a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-an-outbreak-of-cryptosporidiosis-among-veterinary-students
#11
Jackie Benschop, Christina M Booker, Tui Shadbolt, Jenny F Weston
An outbreak of gastrointestinal illness occurred among a cohort of 56 veterinary technology and 100 veterinary science students at Massey University over an eight-week period in 2013. This coincided with calving in New Zealand's seasonal dairy farming system and a time when calves with diarrhoea are commonly seen by veterinarians. Laboratory and epidemiological investigations were instigated by MidCentral Public Health Service (MCPHS) in conjunction with the Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences (IVABS) at Massey University...
May 24, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040071/prevalence-and-direct-costs-of-emergency-department-visits-and-hospitalizations-for-selected-diseases-that-can-be-transmitted-by-water-united-states
#12
E A Adam, S A Collier, K E Fullerton, J W Gargano, M J Beach
National emergency department (ED) visit prevalence and costs for selected diseases that can be transmitted by water were estimated using large healthcare databases (acute otitis externa, campylobacteriosis, cryptosporidiosis, Escherichia coli infection, free-living ameba infection, giardiasis, hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, Legionnaires' disease, nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection, Pseudomonas-related pneumonia or septicemia, salmonellosis, shigellosis, and vibriosis or cholera). An estimated 477,000 annual ED visits (95% CI: 459,000-494,000) were documented, with 21% (n = 101,000, 95% CI: 97,000-105,000) resulting in immediate hospital admission...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035847/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-bovine-cryptosporidium-from-dairy-cows-in-northern-thailand
#13
Tawin Inpankaew, Tawisa Jiyipong, Chainirun Sunanta, Chanya Kengradomkij, Nongnuch Pinyopanuwat, Sathaporn Jittapalapong
Cryptosporidiosis is a common protozoan infection in humans and domestic animals. It is the culprit for significant neonatal morbidity in cattle as well as weight loss and delayed growth, which leads to large economic losses in the farming industry. Furthermore, bovine Cryptosporidium is also a principal source of human Cryptosporidium infections. The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence and genotype of Cryptosporidium spp. from feces of dairy cows from the northern parts of Thailand (Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, and Lumpang provinces)...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973041/the-therapeutic-efficacy-of-azithromycin-and-nitazoxanide-in-the-acute-pig-model-of-cryptosporidium-hominis
#14
Sangun Lee, Melanie Harwood, Don Girouard, Marvin J Meyers, Mary A Campbell, Gillian Beamer, Saul Tzipori
Recent reports highlighting the global significance of cryptosporidiosis among children, have renewed efforts to develop control measures. We have optimized the gnotobiotic piglet model of acute diarrhea to evaluate azithromycin (AZR), nitazoxanide (NTZ), or treatment with both against Cryptosporidium hominis, the species responsible for most human cases. Piglets, animals reproducibly clinically susceptible to C. hominis, when inoculated with 106 oocysts, developed acute diarrhea with oocyst excretion in feces within 3 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961856/involvement-of-cryptosporidium-parvum-cdg7_flc_1000-rna-in-the-attenuation-of-intestinal-epithelial-cell-migration-via-trans-suppression-of-host-cell-smpd3-gene
#15
Zhenping Ming, Ai-Yu Gong, Yang Wang, Xin-Tian Zhang, Min Li, Nicholas W Mathy, Juliane K Strauss-Soukup, Xian-Ming Chen
Intestinal infection by Cryptosporidium parvum causes inhibition of epithelial turnover but underlying mechanisms are unclear. Previous studies demonstrate that a panel of parasite RNA transcripts of low protein-coding potential are delivered into infected epithelial cells. Using in vitro and in vivo models of intestinal cryptosporidiosis, we report here that host delivery of parasite Cdg7_Flc_1000 RNA results in inhibition of epithelial cell migration through suppression of the sphingomyelinase 3 (SMPD3) gene...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960437/safety-and-efficacy-of-biologic-agents-for-the-management-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-after-liver-transplantation
#16
Suhail A Shaikh, Linda Stuckey, Sarah Tischer
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) frequently progresses to end-stage liver disease and cirrhosis, requiring liver transplantation. Approximately 70% of patients with PSC have concomitant inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during their clinical course. After liver transplantation for PSC, corticosteroids and other high-intensity immunosuppressants are initiated to keep IBD in remission. Patients with IBD that is refractory to these agents may need to be managed with biologic therapies. Biologic agents, however, may further increase the risks for malignancy and infection due their immunosuppressive effects...
September 27, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938260/cryptosporidium-species-are-frequently-present-but-rarely-detected-in-clinical-samples-from-children-with-diarrhea-in-a-developed-country
#17
Daniel M Skovgaards, Gitte N Hartmeyer, Marianne N Skov, Silje V Hoegh, Michael Kemp
Two studies were done on cryptosporidiosis in children. A retrospective survey showed that from 2005 to 2015 Cryptosporidium species was detected by microscopy of stool from 0.25% of children with diarrhea. In a subsequent prospective study PCR detected Cryptosporidium species in 4 (1,3%) of 304 children. Cryptosporidium species is as frequent as other intestinal pathogens in childhood diarrhea. Testing is relevant.
September 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932217/molecular-epidemiology-of-cryptosporidiosis-in-china
#18
REVIEW
Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis is an active research area in China. The use of genotyping and subtyping tools in prevalence studies has led to the identification of unique characteristics of Cryptosporidium infections in humans and animals. Human cryptosporidiosis in China is exemplified by the high diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. at species and subtype levels, with dominant C. hominis and C. parvum subtypes being rarely detected in other countries. Similarly, preweaned dairy calves, lambs, and goat kids are mostly infected with non-pathogenic Cryptosporidium species (C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930007/economic-assessment-of-waterborne-outbreak-of-cryptosporidiosis
#19
Aksana Chyzheuskaya, Martin Cormican, Raghavendra Srivinas, Diarmuid O'Donovan, Martina Prendergast, Cathal O'Donoghue, Dearbháile Morris
In 2007, a waterborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection occurred in western Ireland, resulting in 242 laboratory-confirmed cases and an uncertain number of unconfirmed cases. A boil water notice was in place for 158 days that affected 120,432 persons residing in the area, businesses, visitors, and commuters. This outbreak represented the largest outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Ireland. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost of this outbreak. We adopted a societal perspective in estimating costs associated with the outbreak...
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929769/design-and-solidification-of-fast-releasing-clofazimine-nanoparticles-for-treatment-of-cryptosporidiosis
#20
Yingyue Zhang, Jie Feng, Simon A McManus, Hoang D Lu, Kurt D Ristroph, Eugene J Cho, Ellen L Dobrijevic, Hak-Kim Chan, Robert K Prud'homme
Clofazimine, a lipophilic (log P = 7.66) riminophenazine antibiotic approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a good safety record, was recently identified as a lead hit for cryptosporidiosis through a high-throughput phenotypic screen. Cryptosporidiosis requires fast-acting treatment as it leads to severe symptoms which, if untreated, result in morbidity for infants and small children. Consequently, a fast-releasing oral formulation of clofazimine in a water-dispersible form for pediatric administration is highly desirable...
October 2, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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