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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536073/differences-in-the-occurrence-and-epidemiology-of-cryptosporidiosis-in-aboriginal-and-non-aboriginal-people-in-western-australia-2002-2012
#1
Josephine S Y Ng-Hublin, Barry Combs, Simon Reid, Una Ryan
Cryptosporidiosis is a diarrhoeal illness caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium. In Australia, very little is known about the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in Aboriginal peoples. The present study analysed long-term cryptosporidiosis patterns across Western Australia (WA) (2001-2012), combined with genotyping and subtyping data at the 18S and glycoprotein 60 (gp60) loci respectively. Comparison of cryptosporidiosis notifications between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in WA, revealed that notification rates among Aboriginal people were up to 50 times higher compared to non-Aboriginal people, highlighting the burden of the disease in this population...
May 20, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533246/5-aminopyrazole-4-carboxamide-based-compounds-prevent-the-growth-of-cryptosporidium-parvum
#2
Wenlin Huang, Ryan Choi, Matthew A Hulverson, Zhongsheng Zhang, Molly C McCloskey, Deborah A Schaefer, Grant R Whitman, Lynn K Barrett, Rama Subba Rao Vidadala, Michael W Riggs, Dustin J Maly, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Kayode K Ojo, Erkang Fan
Cryptosporidium parvum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CpCDPK1) is a promising target for drug development against cryptosporidiosis. We report a series of low nanomolar CpCDPK1 5-aminopyrazole-4-carboxamide (AC) scaffold inhibitors that also potently inhibit C. parvum growth in vitro Correlation between anti-CpCDPK1 and C. parvum growth inhibition, as previously reported for pyrazolopyrimidines, was not apparent. Nonetheless, lead AC-compounds exhibited a substantial reduction of parasite burden in the neonatal mouse cryptosporidiosis model when dosed at 25 mg/kg...
May 22, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528556/proventriculitis-associated-with-cryptosporidium-baileyi-in-a-snowy-owl-bubo-scandiacus-and-its-epidemiological-investigation
#3
Shotaro Nakagun, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Miki Sugimoto, Sohei Tomikawa, Kenichi Watanabe, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi
We describe an unusual case of proventriculitis associated with Cryptosporidium baileyi in a 7-wk-old snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus) chick kept at a zoo. Necropsy of this animal revealed diffuse mucosal thickening of the proventriculus. Subsequent histopathological examinations of the proventriculus showed marked ductal epithelial hyperplasia with intestinal metaplasia and severe inflammatory cell infiltration in the lamina propria and submucosa. These lesions were associated with numerous periodic-acid-Schiff-positive cryptosporidia-like protozoan parasites...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520707/using-molecular-characterization-to-support-investigations-of-aquatic-facility-associated-outbreaks-of-cryptosporidiosis-alabama-arizona-and-ohio-2016
#4
Michele C Hlavsa, Dawn M Roellig, Matthew H Seabolt, Amy M Kahler, Jennifer L Murphy, Taishayla K McKitt, Evelyn F Geeter, Ron Dawsey, Sherri L Davidson, Thuy N Kim, Theresa H Tucker, Sally Ann Iverson, Brenna Garrett, Nicole Fowle, Jennifer Collins, Gregory Epperson, Scott Zusy, Joli R Weiss, Ken Komatsu, Edwin Rodriguez, J Gage Patterson, Rebecca Sunenshine, Brandi Taylor, Katie Cibulskas, Lynn Denny, Keoni Omura, Boris Tsorin, Kathleen E Fullerton, Lihua Xiao
Cryptosporidiosis is a nationally notifiable gastrointestinal illness caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium, which can cause profuse, watery diarrhea that can last up to 2-3 weeks in immunocompetent patients and can lead to life-threatening wasting and malabsorption in immunocompromised patients. Fecal-oral transmission of Cryptosporidium oocysts, the parasite's infectious life stage, occurs via ingestion of contaminated recreational water, drinking water, or food, or following contact with infected persons or animals, particularly preweaned bovine calves (1)...
May 19, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502018/evolutionary-processes-in-populations-of-cryptosporidium-inferred-from-gp60-sequence-data
#5
Juan C Garcia-R, David T S Hayman
Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most common human infectious diseases globally. The gp60 gene has been adopted as a key marker for molecular epidemiological investigations into this protozoan disease because of the capability to characterize genotypes and detect variants within Cryptosporidium species infecting humans. However, we know relatively little about the potential spatial and temporal variation in population demography that can be inferred from this gene beyond that it is recognized to be under selective pressure...
May 13, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474590/epidemiology-of-cryptosporidium-in-pediatric-diarrheal-illnesses
#6
Aashima Dabas, Dheeraj Shah, Shinjini Bhatnagar, Rakesh Lodha
CONTEXT: Cryptosporidium spp. is a zoonotic infection, now being recognized as a significant cause of diarrhea in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. However, there still exist significant knowledge gaps in its estimated global burden, epidemiology, diagnosis and management. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A semi-systematic search was performed across PubMed to select studies on epidemiological burden of cryptosporidium diarrhea using the following keywords- ['crytosporidiosis' OR 'cryptosporidium'] AND ['diarrhea' OR 'diarrhoea']...
April 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459011/cryptosporidiosis-in-children-in-the-indian-subcontinent
#7
Malathi Murugesan, Santhosh Kumar Ganesan, Sitara Sr Ajjampur
Cryptosporidiosis is a leading cause of diarrheal disease among children under two in developing countries. Previous estimates have shown a high burden of cryptosporidial diarrhea in children from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Asymptomatic cryptosporidial infections which go undetected and untreated have been shown to result in significant malnutrition. In this review, we carried out a literature search of studies published on cryptosporidiosis in children in the Indian subcontinent from 1983 to 2016. Of the 154 publications identified, 54 were included for final analysis with both hospital-based and community-based studies...
January 2017: Tropical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459010/revisiting-the-global-problem-of-cryptosporidiosis-and-recommendations
#8
Arpit Kumar Shrivastava, Subrat Kumar, Woutrina A Smith, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu
Cryptosporidiosis is a gastrointestinal illness caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium species, which is a leading cause of diarrhea in a variety of vertebrate hosts. The primary mode of transmission is through oral routes; infections spread with the ingestion of oocysts by susceptible animals or humans. In humans, Cryptosporidium infections are commonly found in children and immunocompromised individuals. The small intestine is the most common primary site of infection in humans while extraintestinal cryptosporidiosis occurs in immunocompromised individuals affecting the biliary tract, lungs, or pancreas...
January 2017: Tropical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442108/effect-of-egyptian-propolis-on-cryptosporidiosis-in-immunosuppressed-rats-with-special-emphasis-on-oocysts-shedding-leukogram-protein-profile-and-ileum-histopathology
#9
Hamdy Soufy, Nadia M El-Beih, Soad M Nasr, Tamer H Abd El-Aziz, Fathia A M Khalil, Youssef F Ahmed, Hala A A Abou Zeina
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the activity of Egyptian propolis extracts (ethanol and water) on cryptosporidiosis in experimentally infected dexamethasone-immunosuppressed rats. METHODS: A total of 180 male rats (190-220) g BWt were randomly divided into 9 equal groups (G1-G9). Groups of rats were kept as (G1): normal control, (G2-G9): immunosuppressed with dexamethasone and (G3-G9): infected with Cryptosporidium oocysts. Rats from (G4-G9) were given orally ethanol and water extract of propolis (at a dose of 50 mg/kg BWt) and nitazoxanide (standard anti-cryptosporidial drug at a dose of 100 mg/kg BWt) to infected rats with different regimes...
March 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433573/rodents-as-a-reservoir-of-infection-caused-by-multiple-zoonotic-species-genotypes-of-c-parvum-c-hominis-c-suis-c-scrofarum-and-the-first-evidence-of-c-muskrat-genotypes-i-and-ii-of-rodents-in-europe
#10
REVIEW
Oľga Danišová, Alexandra Valenčáková, Michal Stanko, Lenka Luptáková, Elena Hatalová, Alexander Čanády
Cryptosporidium spp. is an important causative agent of intestinal parasitoses-induced diarrhoea in humans and animals worldwide. Rodents (small mammals), the main reservoir of infections, are globally expanded and overpopulated, which increases the risk of transfer of human and zoonotic pathogens from the genus Cryptosporidium. In this study, Cryptosporidium was detected in wild immunocompetent asymptomatic small mammals. Altogether 262 fecal samples were collected from five areas in Eastern Slovakia from four different rodent species (Myodes glareolus, Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus flavicollis, Rattus norvegicus), eight samples originated from two insectivore species (Sorex araneus, Crocidura suaveolens), and two sample from a carnivore Mustela nivalis...
April 20, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420373/early-outbreak-detection-by-linking-health-advice-line-calls-to-water-distribution-areas-retrospectively-demonstrated-in-a-large-waterborne-outbreak-of-cryptosporidiosis-in-sweden
#11
Pär Bjelkmar, Anette Hansen, Caroline Schönning, Jakob Bergström, Margareta Löfdahl, Marianne Lebbad, Anders Wallensten, Görel Allestam, Stephan Stenmark, Johan Lindh
BACKGROUND: In the winter and spring of 2011 a large outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred in Skellefteå municipality, Sweden. This study summarizes the outbreak investigation in terms of outbreak size, duration, clinical characteristics, possible source(s) and the potential for earlier detection using calls to a health advice line. METHODS: The investigation included two epidemiological questionnaires and microbial analysis of samples from patients, water and other environmental sources...
April 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389892/in-silico-identification-and-validation-of-a-novel-hypothetical-protein-in-cryptosporidium-hominis-and-virtual-screening-of-inhibitors-as-therapeutics
#12
Arpit Kumar Shrivastava, Subrat Kumar, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu, Rajani Kanta Mahapatra
Computational approaches to predict structure/function and other biological characteristics of proteins are becoming more common in comparison to the traditional methods in drug discovery. Cryptosporidiosis is a major zoonotic diarrheal disease particularly in children, which is caused primarily by Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Currently, there are no vaccines for cryptosporidiosis and recommended drugs are ineffective. With the availability of complete genome sequence of C. hominis, new targets have been recognized for the development of effective and better drugs and/or vaccines...
April 7, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329187/bumped-kinase-inhibitors-for-cryptosporidiosis-therapy
#13
Matthew A Hulverson, Sumiti Vinayak, Ryan Choi, Deborah A Schaefer, Alejandro Castellanos-Gonzalez, Rama S R Vidadala, Carrie F Brooks, Gillian T Herbert, Dana P Betzer, Grant R Whitman, Hayley N Sparks, Samuel L M Arnold, Kasey L Rivas, Lynn K Barrett, A Clinton White, Dustin J Maly, Michael W Riggs, Boris Striepen, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Kayode K Ojo
Bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs) of Cryptosporidium parvum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CpCDPK1) are leading candidates for treatment of cryptosporidiosis-associated diarrhea. Potential cardiotoxicity related to anti-human ether-à-go-go potassium channel (hERG) activity of the first-generation anti-Cryptosporidium BKIs triggered further testing for efficacy. A luminescence assay adapted for high-throughput screening was used to measure inhibitory activities of BKIs against C. parvum in vitro. Furthermore, neonatal and interferon γ knockout mouse models of C...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325609/cryptosporidium-species-from-common-edible-bivalves-in-manila-bay-philippines
#14
Edison Jay A Pagoso, Windell L Rivera
Manila Bay is one of the major propagation sites of edible bivalves in the Philippines. Studies have shown that bivalves might be contaminated with human pathogens like the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium, one of the major causes of gastroenteritis in the world. In this study, Cryptosporidium from four species of edible bivalves were isolated using a combination of sucrose flotation and immunomagnetic separation. Using direct fluorescent antibody test, Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 67 out of 144 samples collected...
March 18, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316422/validation-of-romanowsky-staining-as-a-novel-screening-test-for-the-detection-of-faecal-cryptosporidial-oocysts
#15
A P S Brar, N K Sood, L D Singla, P Kaur, K Gupta, B S Sandhu
Cryptosporidiosis is an emerging waterborne protozoan disease and one of the major causes of neonatal diarrhea in humans and animals. But the disease remains under diagnosed due to lack of availability of special stains in majority of laboratories at primary health centers. Therefore, it requires a rapid screening test for routine diagnosis in conventional laboratory set up. In this pursuit, the present study was planned. During this study, fecal samples from 100 representative animals randomly selected from 17 out breaks of bovine calf diarrhea, were stained with modified Ziehl Neelsen staining (mZN) and Leishman's stain to demonstrate cryptosporidial oocysts and for routine fecal examination, respectively...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316401/prevalence-and-molecular-characterization-of-cryptosporidium-species-in-cattle-and-buffalo-calves-in-mumbai-region-of-india
#16
A C Hingole, J G Gudewar, R P Pednekar, M L Gatne
Faecal samples of cattle and buffaloes of Mumbai region collected between November 2012 to June 2013 were analysed by conventional and molecular tools to note the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and species involved in the infection. Conventional analysis viz., direct faecal smear examination, faecal smear examination after normal saline sedimentation, Sheather's floatation and Sheather's floatation sedimentation smear methods demonstrated oocysts of Cryptosporidium in 141 (36.06 %) of 391 samples with higher occurrence in buffaloes (36...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303816/occurrence-of-enteric-parasitic-infections-among-hiv-infected-individuals-and-its-relation-to-cd4-t-cell-counts-with-a-special-emphasis-on-coccidian-parasites-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-south-india
#17
Chinnambedu R Swathirajan, Ramachandran Vignesh, Ambrose Pradeep, Sunil S Solomon, Suniti Solomon, Pachamuthu Balakrishnan
CONTEXT: Diarrhoea is one of the major complications occurring in over 90% of HIV-infected individuals in developing countries. Coccidian group of parasites, being opportunistic pathogens, have been implicated as the most common causative agents of diarrhoea among HIV-infected population. AIMS: The aim was to study the magnitude of parasitic diarrhoea with special context to coccidian parasitic infections in HIV-infected individuals and their association with the patient's immunological status measured by CD4 T-cell counts...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276701/genomics-of-apicomplexan-parasites
#18
Lakshmipuram Seshadri Swapna, John Parkinson
The increasing prevalence of infections involving intracellular apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium (the causative agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively) represent a significant global healthcare burden. Despite their significance, few treatments are available; a situation that is likely to deteriorate with the emergence of new resistant strains of parasites. To lay the foundation for programs of drug discovery and vaccine development, genome sequences for many of these organisms have been generated, together with large-scale expression and proteomic datasets...
February 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248679/cryptosporidium-species-and-subtypes-in-diarrheal-children-and-hiv-infected-persons-in-ebonyi-and-nsukka-nigeria
#19
Boniface Nwofoke Ukwah, Ifeoma Maureen Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla Ezeonu, Dawn Roellig, Lihua Xiao
INTRODUCTION: Cryptosporidiosis is a common disease of children and immune-compromised persons. This study evaluated the diversity and distribution of Cryptosporidium species in diarrheal children and HIV-infected persons on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and those not on HAART. METHODOLOGY: A total of 394 fecal specimens were collected from patients attending clinics in Nsukka and Ebonyi, Nigeria. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species were conducted by PCR-RFLP of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, whereas subtyping was done by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242275/recent-developments-in-drug-discovery-against-the-protozoal-parasites-cryptosporidium-and-toxoplasma
#20
REVIEW
Prinessa Chellan, Peter J Sadler, Kirkwood M Land
Apicomplexan parasites cause some of the most devastating human diseases, including malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis. New drug discovery is imperative in light of increased resistance. In this digest article, we briefly explore some of the recent and promising developments in new drug discovery against two apicomplexan parasites, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma.
April 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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