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Maureen N Kinyua, Ileana Wald, Fabricio Camacho-Céspedes, Ricardo Izurieta, Charles N Haas, Sarina J Ergas
Worldwide, high incidences of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are attributed to livestock waste. Quantitative microbial risk assessment can be used to estimate the risk of livestock related infections from Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia. The objective of this paper was to assess the occupational and public health risks associated with management of raw and anaerobically digested livestock waste in two rural communities in Costa Rica based on fomite, soil and crop contamination and livestock waste management exposure pathways...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
A Castellanos-Gonzalez, H Sparks, S Nava, W Huang, Z Zhang, K Rivas, M Hulverson, L Barrett, K K Ojo, E Fan, W C Van Voorhis, A C White
Cryptosporidium is recognized as one of the main causes of childhood diarrhea worldwide. However, the current treatment for cryptosporidiosis is suboptimal. Calcium flux is essential for entry in apicomplexan parasites. Calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are distinct from protein kinases of mammals, and the CDPK1 of the apicomplexan Cryptosporidium lack side-chains that typically block a hydrophobic pocket in protein kinases. We exploited this to develop bumped kinase inhibitors (BKI) that selectively target CDPK1...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
J Liu, D T Bolick, G L Kolling, Z Fu, R L Guerrant
Malnutrition and cryptosporidiosis form a vicious cycle and lead to acute and long-term growth impairment in children from developing countries. Insights into mechanisms underlying the vicious cycle will help to design rational therapies to mitigate this infection. We test the effect of short term protein malnutrition on C. parvum infection in a murine model by examining stool shedding, tissue burden and histologic change, and explore the mechanism underlying the interaction between malnutrition and Cryptosporidiosis through immunostaining and immunoblotting...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Elitza S Theel, Bobbi S Pritt
Parasites are an important cause of human disease worldwide. The clinical severity and outcome of parasitic disease is often dependent on the immune status of the host. Specific parasitic diseases discussed in this chapter are amebiasis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, cystoisosporiasis, microsporidosis, granulomatous amebic encephalitis, toxoplasmosis, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, malaria, babesiosis, strongyloidiasis, and scabies.
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Shehla Khalil, Bijay Ranjan Mirdha, Jaishree Paul, Ashutosh Panda, Govind Makharia, Rama Chaudhry, Shinjini Bhatnagar
Cryptosporidiosis is predominantly a gastrointestinal disease of humans and other animals, caused by various species of protozoan parasites representing the genus Cryptosporidium. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in human clinical samples is central to the prevention, surveillance and control of cryptosporidiosis, particularly given that there is presently no broadly applicable treatment regimen for this disease. A non-radioactive, genus specific DNA dot blot hybridization assay was developed using Digoxigenin (DIG) labelled probes to detect Cryptosporidium DNA in human clinical samples...
October 4, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Fanny Lanternier, Karima Amazzough, Loic Favennec, Marie-France Mamzer-Bruneel, Hendy Abdoul, Jérome Touret, Stéphane Decramer, Julien Zuber, Anne Scemla, Christophe Legendre, Olivier Lortholary, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a frequent complication of solid organ transplantation. Cryptosporidiosis is classically reported in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and emerged as a cause of persistent diarrhea in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients. METHODS: Through the ANOFEL Cryptosporidium National Network and the French Transplantation Society, we collected all cryptosporidiosis cases identified in solid organ transplanted patients between 2006 and 2010 in France...
September 27, 2016: Transplantation
Ujjini H Manjunatha, Alexander T Chao, F Joel Leong, Thierry T Diagana
The apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium is the second most important diarrheal pathogen causing life-threatening diarrhea in children, which is also associated with long-term growth faltering and cognitive deficiency. Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease of public health concern caused by Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis. Currently, nitazoxanide is the only approved treatment for cryptosporidium infections. Unfortunately, it has limited efficacy in the most vulnerable patients, thus there is an urgent need for a safe and efficacious cryptosporidiosis drug...
August 12, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Waleed M Sweileh, Sa'ed H Zyoud, Samah W Al-Jabi, Ansam F Sawalha, Naser Y Shraim
BACKGROUND: Water - related diseases are worldwide health concern. Microbial contamination and contaminant products in water are a source of disease outbreaks and development of cumulative toxic effects. Ensuring safe water is one of the goals to be achieved at the global level. The aim of this study was to assess publications on drinking and recreational water from a health point of view to understand current problems and future research trends in this field. METHODS: Scopus, the largest scientific electronic database, was used to retrieve related articles and present the results as bibliometric tables and maps...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Nasser Ahmadian, Roghiyeh Pashaei-Asl, Masomeh Ahmadian, Mohammad Rahmati-Yamchi, Saed Shahabi, Hossein Vazini
Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite which causes diarrheal in human and animals worldwide. Infection transmission has reported through oral-fecal by infectious objects through foods and drinks. In this study we explored the immune response pathway in animal model for C. parvum to develop the new treatment way. Oocysts collected from fecal positive for C. parvum and diluted about 1:5 in sucrose solution. New born BALB/c mice (3 days) divided to 2 different groups. Control group hadn't received any oocyst, the test groups received 5 × 10(5) oocysts...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
S Aghamolaie, A Rostami, Sh Fallahi, F Tahvildar Biderouni, A Haghighi, N Salehi
To determine the sensitivity and specificity of routine screening methods for cryptosporidiosis, three methods including conventional modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN), direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) and Nested-PCR assay compared together. To this end, their ability to identify the low concentrations of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in children fecal samples was evaluated. The sample population of this study was children under 12 years old who had diarrhea and referred to pediatric hospitals in Tehran, Iran. 2,510 stool specimens from patients with diarrhea were screened for Cryptosporidium oocysts by concentration method and MZN...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
J R Joute, J P S Gill, B B Singh
Cryptosporidium parvum is an important zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrate animals and man. The current study was contemplated for molecular detection of Cryptosporidium species prevalent in dairy calves in Punjab, India. A total of 302 faecal samples were screened by modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Molecular characterisation was done using PCR followed by sequence analysis of the representative isolates. An overall prevalence of 26...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Shaadi F Elswaifi, James R Palmieri, Nora El-Tantawy, Mona El-Hussiny, Tarek Besheer, Ekbal Abohashem
Protozoal diseases are prevalent globally and especially in developing countries that have relatively lower socioeconomic populations such as Egypt. Direct microscopic examination (DME) is used for the detection and identification of protozoa but lacks sufficient reliability, and thus may be detrimental in obtaining accurate diagnostic or epidemiological data. In this study, we determine the prevalence of infections by Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium sp., and Entamoeba histolytica in humans in Egypt. Furthermore, we determine the reliability of DME in determining infections caused by these protozoa and compare the results to enzyme linked Immunosorbent assays (ELISA)...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Cedric P Yansouni, Jeffrey M Pernica, David Goldfarb
Human enteric parasitoses, particularly from Cryptosporidium, were recently recognized as being highly prevalent in parts of the Arctic. This is important because cryptosporidiosis has been repeatedly associated with impaired growth and development and may synergize with other challenges faced by children in remote Arctic communities, such as overcrowding and food insecurity.
September 1, 2016: Trends in Parasitology
Christian Timm, Stephan Luther, Lars Jurzik, Ibrahim Ahmed Hamza, Thomas Kistemann
To estimate the health impact of bathing in urban river waters a two-step risk assessment was conducted using the example of the Ruhr River in North-Rhine Westphalia (Germany). The risk of acquiring gastrointestinal illness (GI) due to bathing in the Ruhr River was the focus of this analysis. Referring to the WHO guidelines for safe recreational water environments, risk was defined as the probability of occurrence x severity of harm. Thus, the probability of acquiring GI by bathing in the Ruhr River has been calculated by means of the quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) method...
July 26, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Denis Suler, David Mullins, Travis Rudge, John Ashurst
CONTEXT: Scours, or calf diarrhea, is an infectious gastrointestinal disease commonly found in the calves of dairy farms. It primarily presents with diarrhea that can be life threatening to the animal and is also contagious and threatening to the other livestock. Cryptosporidium is one of the major causes of scours and can be transmitted to humans via fecal-oral route, resulting in diarrheal illnesses. Cryptosporidiosis infection usually occurs as a waterborne outbreak with the potential to affect many people at once...
July 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Alessandro Rossi, Marc Roger Couturier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Alessandro Rossi, Marc Roger Couturier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Priscila Ribeiro Dos Santos, Luiz Antonio Daniel
Sewage and sewage sludge have been recognized as potential sources of two important waterborne pathogenic protozoa: Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these pathogens in sewage and sludge in Brazil, an investigation was conducted at various stages of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) aiming to assess the occurrence of Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, their removal by the treatment processes, which are upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and dissolved air flotation process, and also the correlations between protozoa and indicator microorganisms...
August 30, 2016: Environmental Technology
Juan C Garcia-R, David T S Hayman
Protozoan parasites of the genus Cryptosporidium infect all vertebrate groups and display some host specificity in their infections. It is therefore possible to assume that Cryptosporidium parasites evolved intimately aside with vertebrate lineages. Here we propose a scenario of Cryptosporidium-Vertebrata coevolution testing the hypothesis that the origin of Cryptosporidium parasites follows that of the origin of modern vertebrates. We use calibrated molecular clocks and cophylogeny analyses to provide and compare age estimates and patterns of association between these clades...
November 2016: Parasitology
B Wells, S Thomson, H Ensor, E A Innes, F Katzer
Cryptosporidium transmission studies to date have concluded that adult cattle are not a significant source of oocysts contributing to clinical cryptosporidiosis in calves on farm. However current methods of sample processing have been optimised for calf faecal samples and may be less sensitive when used on adult samples due to lower numbers of oocysts and larger size of samples. A modified and novel method of oocyst extraction and concentration was developed and applied in an experiment involving spiking adult cattle faecal samples with known concentrations of Cryptosporidium oocysts...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
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