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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938260/cryptosporidium-species-are-frequently-present-but-rarely-detected-in-clinical-samples-from-children-with-diarrhea-in-a-developed-country
#1
Daniel M Skovgaards, Gitte N Hartmeyer, Marianne N Skov, Silje V Hoegh, Michael Kemp
Two studies were done on cryptosporidiosis in children. A retrospective survey showed that from 2005 to 2015 Cryptosporidium species was detected by microscopy of stool from 0.25% of children with diarrhea. In a subsequent prospective study PCR detected Cryptosporidium species in 4 (1,3%) of 304 children. Cryptosporidium species is as frequent as other intestinal pathogens in childhood diarrhea. Testing is relevant.
September 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932217/molecular-epidemiology-of-cryptosporidiosis-in-china
#2
REVIEW
Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis is an active research area in China. The use of genotyping and subtyping tools in prevalence studies has led to the identification of unique characteristics of Cryptosporidium infections in humans and animals. Human cryptosporidiosis in China is exemplified by the high diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. at species and subtype levels, with dominant C. hominis and C. parvum subtypes being rarely detected in other countries. Similarly, preweaned dairy calves, lambs, and goat kids are mostly infected with non-pathogenic Cryptosporidium species (C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930007/economic-assessment-of-waterborne-outbreak-of-cryptosporidiosis
#3
Aksana Chyzheuskaya, Martin Cormican, Raghavendra Srivinas, Diarmuid O'Donovan, Martina Prendergast, Cathal O'Donoghue, Dearbháile Morris
In 2007, a waterborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection occurred in western Ireland, resulting in 242 laboratory-confirmed cases and an uncertain number of unconfirmed cases. A boil water notice was in place for 158 days that affected 120,432 persons residing in the area, businesses, visitors, and commuters. This outbreak represented the largest outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Ireland. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost of this outbreak. We adopted a societal perspective in estimating costs associated with the outbreak...
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929769/design-and-solidification-of-fast-releasing-clofazimine-nanoparticles-for-treatment-of-cryptosporidiosis
#4
Yingyue Zhang, Jie Feng, Simon A McManus, Hoang D Lu, Kurt D Ristroph, Eugene J Cho, Ellen L Dobrijevic, Hak-Kim Chan, Robert K Prud'homme
Clofazimine, a lipophilic (log P = 7.66) riminophenazine antibiotic approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a good safety record, was recently identified as a lead hit for cryptosporidiosis through a high-throughput phenotypic screen. Cryptosporidiosis requires fast-acting treatment as it leads to severe symptoms which, if untreated, result in morbidity for infants and small children. Consequently, a fast-releasing oral formulation of clofazimine in a water-dispersible form for pediatric administration is highly desirable...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919550/improving-the-genotyping-resolution-of-cryptosporidium-hominis-subtype-iba10g2-using-one-step-pcr-based-amplicon-sequencing
#5
Jessica Beser, Björn M Hallström, Abdolreza Advani, Sofia Andersson, Gabriel Östlund, Jadwiga Winiecka-Krusnell, Marianne Lebbad, Erik Alm, Karin Troell, Romanico B G Arrighi
Cryptosporidium hominis gp60 subtype IbA10G2 is a common cause of cryptosporidiosis. This subtype is responsible for many waterborne outbreaks as well as sporadic cases and is considered virulent and highly important in the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis. Due to low heterogeneity within the genome of C. hominis it has been difficult to identify epidemiological markers with higher resolution than gp60. However, new markers are required in order to improve outbreak investigations and studies of the transmission dynamics of this clinically important subtype...
September 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910275/occupational-animal-exposure-among-persons-with-campylobacteriosis-and-cryptosporidiosis-nebraska-2005-2015
#6
Chia-Ping Su, Derry T Stover, Bryan F Buss, Anna V Carlson, Sara E Luckhaupt
Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium are two common causes of gastroenteritis in the United States. National incidence rates measured for these pathogens in 2015 were 17.7 and 3.0 per 100,000 population, respectively; Nebraska was among the states with the highest incidence for both campylobacteriosis (26.6) and cryptosporidiosis (≥6.01) (1). Although campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis are primarily transmitted via consumption of contaminated food or water, they can also be acquired through contact with live animals or animal products, including through occupational exposure (2)...
September 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900722/molecular-characterization-of-bovine-cryptosporidium-isolated-from-diarrheic-calves-in-the-sudan
#7
Shahinaz Taha, Khitma Elmalik, Berit Bangoura, Matthias Lendner, Ehab Mossaad, Arwid Daugschies
Cryptosporidiosis is a common protozoan infection causing morbidity and mortality in young cattle and may be zoonotically transmitted to humans. So far, there is no data available on the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. in the Sudan. The aim of this study was to isolate, identify, and genotype Cryptosporidium oocysts sampled from diarrheic calves housed at different farms in three different municipalities in Khartoum State (Khartoum, Khartoum North, Omdurman). A total of 149 fecal samples were evaluated microscopically for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method and 87 (58...
September 13, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899690/advances-in-bumped-kinase-inhibitors-for-human-and-animal-therapy-for-cryptosporidiosis
#8
Matthew A Hulverson, Ryan Choi, Samuel L M Arnold, Deborah A Schaefer, Andrew Hemphill, Molly C McCloskey, Dana P Betzer, Joachim Müller, Rama S R Vidadala, Grant R Whitman, Kasey L Rivas, Lynn K Barrett, Robert C Hackman, Melissa S Love, Case W McNamara, Thomas K Shaughnessy, Alison Kondratiuk, Matthew Kurnick, Patricia N Banfor, James J Lynch, Gail M Freiberg, Dale J Kempf, Dustin J Maly, Michael W Riggs, Kayode K Ojo, Wesley C Van Voorhis
Improvements have been made to the safety and efficacy of bumped kinase inhibitors, and they are advancing toward human and animal use for treatment of cryptosporidiosis. As the understanding of bumped kinase inhibitor pharmacodynamics for cryptosporidiosis therapy has increased, it has become clear that better compounds for efficacy do not necessarily require substantial systemic exposure. We now have a bumped kinase inhibitor with reduced systemic exposure, acceptable safety parameters, and efficacy in both the mouse and newborn calf models of cryptosporidiosis...
October 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899309/waterparks-are-high-risk-for-cryptosporidiosis-a-case-control-study-in-victoria-2015
#9
Tanyth E de Gooyer, Joy Gregory, Marion Easton, Nicola Stephens, Emily Fearnley, Martyn Kirk
BACKGROUND: An increase in notifications of cryptosporidiosis was observed in Victoria between March and April 2015. Cases mostly resided in one metropolitan region and hypothesis-generating interviews identified common exposures to aquatic facilities. We conducted a case-control study to determine exposure source(s) and facilitate control measures. METHODS: Laboratory-confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis from the region of interest notified between 1 March and 23 April 2015 were included...
June 30, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893970/has-respiratory-cryptosporidiosis-spread-to-black-grouse-tetrao-tetrix
#10
Nancy Parsons, Philip Warren, James Paul Duff, David Baines
Infection by Cryptosporidium baileyi was first confirmed in red grouse in northern England in 2010 and within three years spread to 48 per cent of moors. These form the last English stronghold for the rarer black grouse, and given the rapid spread of respiratory cryptosporidiosis among red grouse, concern has been expressed about possible infection. In 2010, the authors started screening black grouse for cryptosporidiosis in (1) dead birds taken for postmortem examination, (2) sample birds caught at night and (3) an observational study of birds attending leks...
September 11, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893638/innate-immune-responses-play-a-key-role-in-controlling-infection-of-the-intestinal-epithelium-by-cryptosporidium
#11
REVIEW
Fabrice Laurent, Sonia Lacroix-Lamandé
Cryptosporidium infection leads to acute diarrhea worldwide. The development of cryptosporidiosis is closely related to the immune status of its host, affecting primarily young ruminants, infants, and immunocompromised individuals. In recent years, several studies have improved our knowledge on the immune mechanisms responsible for the control of the acute phase of the infection and have highlighted the importance of innate immunity. The parasite develops in the apical side of intestinal epithelial cells, giving these cells a central role, as they are both the exclusive host cell for replication of the parasite and participate in the protective immune response...
September 8, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888829/sensitivity-specificity-and-comparison-of-three-commercially-available-immunological-tests-in-the-diagnosis-of-cryptosporidium-species-in-animals
#12
Olga Danišová, Monika Halánová, Alexandra Valenčáková, Lenka Luptáková
The study was conducted to compare the specificity of immunological diagnostic methods used for the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium species capable of causing life-threatening infection in both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients. For the detection of Cryptosporidium species in 79 animals with diarrhoea, we used three Copro-antigen tests: RIDASCREEN(®)Cryptosporidium test, Cryptosporidium 2nd Generation (ELISA) and RIDA(®)QUICK Cryptosporidium. For immunoassays we used positive and negative samples detected by means of polymerase chain reaction and validated by sequencing and nested polymerase chain reaction to confirm the presence six different species of Cryptosporidium species...
September 6, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883891/the-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-effect-of-auranta-3001-in-preventing-cryptosporidium-hominis-and-cryptosporidium-parvum-infection
#13
Alexandros Ch Stratakos, Filip Sima, Patrick Ward, Mark Linton, Carmel Kelly, Laurette Pinkerton, Lavinia Stef, Ioan Pet, Tiberiu Iancu, Gratiela Pircalabioru, Nicolae Corcionivoschi
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a major cause of diarrhea worldwide in both humans and farm animals with no completely effective treatment available at present. In this study, we assessed the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of Auranta 3001 (0.1, 0.5 and 1%), a novel natural feed supplement, on C. hominis and C. parvum invasion of human ileocecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8), bovine primary cells and C. parvum invasion of HCT-8, bovine primary cells and bovine intestinal biopsies...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867614/targeting-prolyl-trna-synthetase-to-accelerate-drug-discovery-against-malaria-leishmaniasis-toxoplasmosis-cryptosporidiosis-and-coccidiosis
#14
Vitul Jain, Manickam Yogavel, Haruhisa Kikuchi, Yoshiteru Oshima, Norimitsu Hariguchi, Makoto Matsumoto, Preeti Goel, Bastien Touquet, Rajiv S Jumani, Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier, Karl Harlos, Christopher D Huston, Mohamed-Ali Hakimi, Amit Sharma
Developing anti-parasitic lead compounds that act on key vulnerabilities are necessary for new anti-infectives. Malaria, leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis and coccidiosis together kill >500,000 humans annually. Their causative parasites Plasmodium, Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Eimeria display high conservation in many housekeeping genes, suggesting that these parasites can be attacked by targeting invariant essential proteins. Here, we describe selective and potent inhibition of prolyl-tRNA synthetases (PRSs) from the above parasites using a series of quinazolinone-scaffold compounds...
August 24, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867592/prevalence-of-cryptosporidium-species-and-subtypes-in-paediatric-oncology-and-non-oncology-patients-with-diarrhoea-in-jordan
#15
Nawal Hijjawi, Alireza Zahedi, Mahmoud Kazaleh, Una Ryan
Cryptosporidiosis is a protozoan parasitic disease which affects human and animals worldwide. In adult immunocompetent individuals, cryptosporidiosis usually results in acute and self-limited diarrhoea; however, it can cause life threatening diarrhoea in children and immunocompromised individuals. In the present study, we compared the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and gp60 subtypes amongst paediatric oncology patients with diarrhoea (n=160) from King Hussein Medical Centre for Cancer in Jordan, and non-oncology paediatric patients with diarrhoea (n=137) from Al-Mafraq paediatric hospital...
September 1, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858043/clinical-manifestations-of-cryptosporidiosis-and-identification-of-a-new-cryptosporidium-subtype-in-patients-from-sonora-mexico
#16
Alejandro Urrea-Quezada, Mariana González-Díaz, Isaac Villegas-Gómez, María Durazo, Jesús Hernández, Lihua Xiao, Olivia Valenzuela
The aim of this study was to identify the clinical manifestations of cryptosporidiosis, and the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in children in Sonora, Mexico. Two subtypes of C. parvum, including IIaA15G2R1 and IIcA5G3a, and six subtypes of C. hominis, including IaA14R3, IaA15R3, IbA12G3, IdA23, IeA11G3T3, and a new subtype IaA14R11, were identified. Cryptosporidium as an etiologic agent for acute gastroenteritis is discussed.
August 26, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832624/pediatric-cryptosporidiosis-an-evaluation-of-health-care-and-societal-costs-in-peru-bangladesh-and-kenya
#17
Ellen R Rafferty, Janna M Schurer, Michael B Arndt, Robert K M Choy, Eugenio L de Hostos, David Shoultz, Marwa Farag
Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of pediatric diarrhea in resource-limited settings; yet, few studies report the health care costs or societal impacts of this protozoan parasite. Our study examined direct and indirect costs associated with symptomatic cryptosporidiosis in infants younger than 12 months in Kenya, Peru and Bangladesh. Inputs to the economic burden model, such as disease incidence, population size, health care seeking behaviour, hospital costs, travel costs, were extracted from peer-reviewed literature, government documents, and internationally validated statistical tools for each country...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830940/the-toxoplasma-centrocone-houses-cell-cycle-regulatory-factors
#18
Anatoli Naumov, Stella Kratzer, Li-Min Ting, Kami Kim, Elena S Suvorova, Michael W White
Our knowledge of cell cycle regulatory mechanisms in apicomplexan parasites is very limited. In this study, we describe a novel Toxoplasma gondii factor that has a vital role in chromosome replication and the regulation of cytoplasmic and nuclear mitotic structures, and we named this factor ECR1 for essential for chromosome replication 1. ECR1 was discovered by complementation of a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant that suffers lethal, uncontrolled chromosome replication at 40°C similar to a ts mutant carrying a defect in topoisomerase...
August 22, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813761/epidemiologic-study-of-bacteria-zoonotic-diseases-in-south-dakota-2010-2014
#19
Jessica L Ludvik, Susan M Anderson, Mark K Huntington
BACKGROUND: Although the burden of infectious diseases has decreased dramatically due to advances in health care, disease prevention and numerous public health efforts and innovations, zoonotic diseases continue to pose a problem in terms of both existing and emerging diseases. These risks are of particular concern in rural areas, in which there is more contact with animals for occupational and recreational purposes. As a rural and agricultural state, South Dakota has a large percentage of its population at risk of exposure to zoonotic diseases through their substantial contact time with animals...
June 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800747/bovine-cryptosporidiosis-impact-host-parasite-interaction-and-control-strategies
#20
REVIEW
Sarah Thomson, Carly A Hamilton, Jayne C Hope, Frank Katzer, Neil A Mabbott, Liam J Morrison, Elisabeth A Innes
Gastrointestinal disease caused by the apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the most important diseases of young ruminant livestock, particularly neonatal calves. Infected animals may suffer from profuse watery diarrhoea, dehydration and in severe cases death can occur. At present, effective therapeutic and preventative measures are not available and a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions is required. Cryptosporidium parvum is also an important zoonotic pathogen causing severe disease in people, with young children being particularly vulnerable...
August 11, 2017: Veterinary Research
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