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N A Filatova, N A Knyazev, S O Skarlato, O V Anatskaya, A E Vinogradov
Cryptosporidiosis causes persistent diarrhea in infants, immunocompromised patients and elderly persons. Long-term consequences of the disease include increased risk of malignancy, cardiomyopathy and gastrointestinal inflammation. This study aimed to investigate prolonged effects of cryptosporidiosis on innate immunity and growth in neonatal C3HA mice. The disease was challenged by Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inoculation into 7-days old animals. The mice whose intestine smears contained 3-5 or 6 and more oocysts per microscopic field at the day 5 after infection were considered as mildly or severely infected, correspondingly...
March 14, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Marzieh Ezzaty Mirhashemi, Farzad Noubary, Susan Chapman-Bonofiglio, Saul Tzipori, Gordon S Huggins, Giovanni Widmer
BACKGROUND: Human cryptosporidiosis is caused primarily by two species of apicomplexan protozoa, Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis. In cultured cell monolayers, the parasite undergoes two generations of asexual multiplication (merogony). However, the proportion of parasites completing the life-cycle is low and insufficient to sustain continuous propagation. Due to the intracellular location of meronts and later life-cycle stages, oocyst and sporozoites are the only forms of the parasite that can readily be isolated...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Rama Subba Rao Vidadala, Martin Golkowski, Matthew A Hulverson, Ryan Choi, Molly C McCloskey, Grant R Whitman, Wenlin Huang, Samuel L M Arnold, Lynn K Barrett, Erkang Fan, Ethan A Merritt, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Kayode K Ojo, Dustin J Maly
Selective inhibitors of Cryptosporidium Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 1 (CpCDPK1) based on the 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-amine (pyrazolopyrimidine, PP) scaffold are effective in both in vitro and in vivo models of cryptosporidiosis. However, the search for distinct safety and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties has motivated our exploration of alternative scaffolds. Here, we describe a series of 7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-amine (pyrrolopyrimidine, PrP)-based analogs of PP CpCDPK1 inhibitors. Most of the PrP-based inhibitors described potently inhibit the CpCDPK1 enzyme, demonstrate no toxicity against mammalian cells, and block proliferation of the C...
March 9, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Carol A Gilchrist, James A Cotton, Cecelia Burkey, Tuhinur Arju, Allissia Gilmartin, Ye Lin, Emtiaz Ahmed, Kevin Steiner, Masud Alam, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Guy Robinson, Sultan Uz Zaman, Mamun Kabir, Mandy Sanders, Rachel M Chalmers, Tahmeed Ahmed, Jennie Z Ma, Rashidul Haque, A S G Faruque, Matthew Berriman, William A Petri
We studied the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium hominis infections in slum dwelling infants from Dhaka over a two-year period. C. hominis infections were common during the monsoon, and were genetically diverse as measured by gp60 genotyping and whole genome resequencing. Recombination in the parasite was evidenced by the decay of linkage disequilibrium in the genome over less than 300 bp. Regions of the genome with high levels of polymorphism were also identified.  Yet to be determined is if genomic diversity is responsible in part for the high rate of reinfection, seasonality and varied clinical presentations of cryptosporidiosis in this population...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Norhidayu Sahimin, Benacer Douadi, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Jerzy M Behnke, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain
The influx of low skilled workers from socioeconomically deprived neighbouring countries to Malaysia has raised concerns about the transmission of communicable gastrointestinal diseases such as giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis to the local population. Therefore, a cross sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of both diseases and the genetic diversity of these pathogens in the migrant population. Microscopic examination of faecal samples from 388 migrant workers involved in five working sectors were screened and 10...
March 1, 2018: Acta Tropica
Yang Pei-Cai, Zhang Hong-Ying, Zhou Wei, Yin Wei-Gang, Wu Pei, Zhang Ke, Fu Hong-Sheng, You Ben-Rong, Wan Li-Xin, You Jun
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the status of Cryptosporidium infection in the population in Nanjing City so as to provide the evidence for the prevention and control of cryptosporidiosis. METHODS: A total of 100 fecal samples were collected from each of three districts (Liuhe, Qixia and Gaochun) and one hospital (Nanjing Zhongda Hospital) in 2015 and 2016 respectively. The fecal samples were detected for Cryptosporidium with microscopy (by using the gold amine phenol-modified acid-fast staining) and the positive samples were detected again for the molecular biology confirming by using the fluorescence quantitative PCR...
December 25, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Liu Xiao-Jie, Mao Tie-Bo, Wu Peng, Zhou Rui
OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in diarrhea infants under 2 years old in Wuhan City, so as to provide the epidemiological evidence for the prevention and treatment of cryptosporidiosis. METHODS: The fecal samples from infants under 2 years old with diarrhea were collected in Hubei General Hospital and Central South Hospital in Wuhan City, Hubei Province from August 2014 to July 2015. The fecal samples were stored in 2.5% potassium dichromate at 4 ℃ after filtered...
March 14, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Zhenping Ming, Ai-Yu Gong, Yang Wang, Xin-Tian Zhang, Min Li, Yao Li, Jing Pang, Stephanie Dong, Juliane K Strauss-Soukup, Xian-Ming Chen
Intestinal infection by Cryptosporidium parvum causes significant alterations in the gene expression profile in host epithelial cells. Previous studies demonstrate that a panel of parasite RNA transcripts of low protein-coding potential are delivered into infected host cells and may modulate host gene transcription. Using in vitro models of human intestinal cryptosporidiosis, we report here that trans-suppression of the cadherin 3 (CDH3) and lysyl oxidase like 4 (LOXL4) genes in human intestinal epithelial cells following C...
February 10, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Guang-Hui Zhao, Ai-Yu Gong, Yang Wang, Xin-Tian Zhang, Min Li, Nicholas W Mathy, Xian-Ming Chen
Intestinal infection by the zoonotic protozoan, Cryptosporidium parvum, causes significant alterations in the gene expression profile in host epithelial cells. The molecular mechanisms of how C. parvum may modulate host cell gene transcription and the pathological significance of such alterations are largely unclear. Previous studies demonstrate that a panel of parasite RNA transcripts are delivered into infected host cells and may modulate host gene transcription. Using in vitro models of intestinal cryptosporidiosis, in this study, we analyzed the impact of host delivery of C...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Jorge Néstor Velásquez, María Laura Pantano, Natalia Vittar, Mónica Gabriela Nigro, Olga Figueiras, Osvaldo Germán Astudillo, Javier Ricart, Daniela Della Paolera, Silvana Carnevale
Human cryptosporidiosis is an intestinal infection caused by different species belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. The life cycle of Cryptosporidium sp. when affecting the digestive system is well known but the infection of other organs is less studied. Molecular methods are necessary for species and subtypes identification. The goal of this work is to propose a new approach that contributes to the diagnosis of the extra-intestinal dissemination process of Cryptosporidium infection...
February 6, 2018: Parasitology Research
Reza Ghafari, Abdollah Rafiei, Mehdi Tavalla, Parastoo Moradi Choghakabodi, Rohangez Nashibi, Reza Rafiei
This study aimed to determine the prevalence and species of Cryptosporidium among HIV/AIDS patients in southwest of Iran. Two hundred fifty faecal samples from HIV patients were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts using a conventional coproscopic approach. Such oocysts were detected in 18 (7.2%) out of 250 faecal samples. Genomic DNAs from 250 samples were then subjected to a nested-PCR-RFLP technique targeting different loci of 18S rRNA gene for species identification. Out of 250 samples, 27 (10...
February 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Siobhan M Mor, Luke R Ascolillo, Ritah Nakato, Grace Ndeezi, James K Tumwine, Alphonse Okwera, Jerlyn K Sponseller, Saul Tzipori, Jeffrey K Griffiths
Respiratory cryptosporidiosis is thought to be a rare, end-stage complication of HIV. Few studies have systematically examined the frequency of such infection in adults. Sputum specimens submitted for tuberculosis (TB) testing at Mulago Hospital, Uganda, were anonymously retested for Cryptosporidium using immunofluorescence staining or real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Visual confirmation using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy was performed for a subset of PCR-positive samples. Of 824 sputum samples tested, 24 (2...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Shumin Xiao, Yan Zhang, Xiaoyun Zhao, Liping Sun, Sike Hu
Little is known about the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recreational water in China. A total of 52 samples were collected from recreational lakes in Tianjin during a high-occurrence season (June-October) for the waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, and the occurrence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were investigated. The results showed that 82.7% (43) and 98.1% (51) of samples were positive for Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cysts, respectively. The mean concentration of parasites was 3...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elena Dacal, José M Saugar, Aida de Lucio, Marta Hernández-de-Mingo, Elena Robinson, Pamela C Köster, María L Aznar-Ruiz-de-Alegría, Mateu Espasa, Arlette Ninda, Javier Gandasegui, Elena Sulleiro, Milagros Moreno, Fernando Salvador, Israel Molina, Esperanza Rodríguez, David Carmena
BACKGROUND: Human infections by the gastrointestinal helminth Strongyloides stercoralis and the enteric protozoans Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Blastocystis spp. are not formally included in the list of 20 neglected tropical diseases prioritised by the World Health Organization. Although largely underdiagnosed and considered of lower public health relevance, these infections have been increasingly demonstrated to cause significant morbidity and even mortality globally, particularly among children living in resource-poor settings...
January 29, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Zhenping Ming, Ai-Yu Gong, Yang Wang, Xin-Tian Zhang, Min Li, Courtney E Dolata, Xian-Ming Chen
To counteract host immunity, Cryptosporidium parvum has evolved multiple strategies to suppress host antimicrobial defense. One such strategy is to reduce the production of the antimicrobial peptide beta-defensin 1 (DEFB1) by host epithelial cells but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies demonstrate that a panel of parasite RNA transcripts of low protein-coding potential are delivered into infected host cells and may modulate host gene transcription. Using in vitro models of intestinal cryptosporidiosis, in this study, we analyzed the expression profile of host beta-defensin genes in host cells following infection...
January 26, 2018: Parasitology Research
Shirzad Fallahi, Seyedeh Fatemeh Moosavi, Azadeh Karimi, Ali Sharafi Chegeni, Mohammad Saki, Parsa Namdari, Mohammad Menati Rashno, Ali Mohamad Varzi, Mohammad Javad Tarrahi, Mohammad Almasian
The rapid and accurate detection of Cryptosporidium spp. is critically important for the prevention and timely treatment of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients (APs). This study was conducted to examine a UDG-LAMP technique for the first time to diagnose cryptosporidiosis in APs. After collecting demographic and clinical data, three stool samples were collected from the participants (120 volunteering APs). The microscopic examination of stained smears using the acid-fast method and the UDG-LAMP assay were performed for each sample...
December 24, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Alexander T Chao, Boon Heng Lee, Kah Fei Wan, Jeremy Selva, Bin Zou, Peter Gedeck, David John Beer, Thierry T Diagana, Ghislain M C Bonamy, Ujjini H Manjunatha
Cryptosporidiosis is a diarrheal disease predominantly caused by Cryptosporidium parvum (Cp) and Cryptosporidium hominis (Ch), apicomplexan parasites which infect the intestinal epithelial cells of their human hosts. The only approved drug for cryptosporidiosis is nitazoxanide, which shows limited efficacy in immunocompromised children, the most vulnerable patient population. Thus, new therapeutics and in vitro infection models are urgently needed to address the current unmet medical need. Toward this aim, we have developed novel cytopathic effect (CPE)-based Cp and Ch assays in human colonic tumor (HCT-8) cells and compared them to traditional imaging formats...
January 25, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
R S Jumani, K Bessoff, M S Love, P Miller, E E Stebbins, J E Teixeira, M A Campbell, M J Meyers, J A Zambriski, V Nunez, A K Woods, C W McNamara, C D Huston
Cryptosporidiosis causes life-threatening diarrhea in children under age five, and prolonged diarrhea in immunodeficient people, especially AIDS patients. The standard of care, nitazoxanide, is modestly effective in children and ineffective in immunocompromised individuals. In addition to a need for new drugs, better knowledge of drug properties that drive in vivo efficacy is needed to facilitate drug development. We report identification of a piperazine-based lead compound for Cryptosporidium drug development, MMV665917, and a new pharmacodynamic method used for its characterization...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Rüdiger Hauck
Except for the important role coccidia have as predisposing factors of necrotic enteritis, the role parasites play in the dynamics of a healthy microbiota of chickens is not well explored. This review describes the interactions of relevant intestinal parasites of chickens with bacteria. Infection with Eimeria spp. favor the growth of Clostridium perfringens and suppress the growth of many other bacteria by increasing viscosity and passage time of the ingesta, and by causing lesions to the intestinal mucosa that improve the availability of nutrients for C...
December 2017: Avian Diseases
Janka Melicherová, Lada Hofmannová, Andrea Valigurová
The need for an effective treatment against cryptosporidiosis has triggered studies in the search for a working in vitro model. The peculiar niche of cryptosporidia at the brush border of host epithelial cells has been the subject of extensive debates. Despite extensive research on the invasion process, it remains enigmatic whether cryptosporidian host-parasite interactions result from an active invasion process or through encapsulation. We used HCT-8 and HT-29 cell lines for in vitro cultivation of the gastric parasite Cryptosporidium proliferans strain TS03...
December 15, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
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